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Showing 64 results for Memory

, , ,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (12-2016)
Abstract

The current study aims reduction cognitive vulnerability and dissociative experiences in Patients with PTSD by MEmory Specificity Training. in the Semi- pilot with pre test-post test and follow up after one month, Combined control group,24 patiens (12 men & 12 women) Suffering of PTSD, selected via available sampling and were Randomly in experimental and control groups. Subjects in experimental group received MEmory Specificity Training in 4 sequential weekly sessions and control group Were placed in Waiting list. In both groups, Scores Were collected before and after the intervention and with month follow-up period by Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The data were analyzed by Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures. findings Confirmed Effectiveness of MEmory Specificity Training That  reduction cognitive vulnerability Related to avoidance, intrusive thoughts, Hyperarousal and reduction dissociative experiences in Dissociative Amnesia, Depersonalization/Derealization and Absorption/Imginative Involvement  dimension in patients with PTSD.


Zobair Samimi, Somayeh Ramesh, Javad Afzoon, Sayed Ali Kazemi Rezaei,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2017)
Abstract

The failures of memory function in post-traumatic stress disorder and its relationship with severity of symptoms need to take new approaches to improve the memory performance in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the Effectiveness of emotional working memory Training on improvement memory in adolescents with Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). For this purpose, 4 adolescents (M: 2 F: 2) were selected available sampling by using 2 instruments (SCID-I) & (IES-R) The selected people– one by one were under emotional working memory training during 20 sessions. All people were assessed during three stages (pre-training, post- training and 2 month follow up) by children' Wechsler Digit Span Test (direct and reverse). Data were analyzed using the indices for trend changes, slope and the visual inspection of the charts; recovery percent index and effect size were used to determine the clinical significance. The results showed that emotional working memory training lead to increase in ability of participants in memory from pretest to follow up who suffering from Post- Traumatic Stress Disorders. Regarding the current study, it can be said that emotional working memory training is an appropriate choice for increase in memory in adolescents suffering from Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder


Dr. Mohammad Khodayarifard, Dr. Elaheh Hejazi, Dr. Masoud Lavasani, Miss Zeinab Azimi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2017)
Abstract

Low self-esteem is one of the key factors underlying psychopathology, such as test anxiety. It seems that the activation of positive self-representations in memory plays an important role in self-perception. The aim of this article was to determine the effect of strengthening memory representations on self-esteem in people with test anxiety. This study was based on a quasi-experimental design with pretest and post-test. According to retrieval competition approach, a training package was designed to promote self-esteem and after verifying its content validity by 5 expert psychologist, the intervention was administered in 10 sessions (a one-hour session per week). Participants were 10 high school students with test anxiety diagnosis which were selected by purposive and available sampling; and completed Spielberger Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) before and after the intervention and also one month follow up. Data analysis was performed using one-way trend analysis (one-way ANOVA with repeated measures). The results indicated that this intervention could lead to improve self-esteem and decrease test anxiety in participants (p˂0.01) and this trend continued until one month follow-up. As a result, it seems that interventions on the factors underlying psychopathology, such as low self-esteem, can have beneficial as well as proactive effects in this area and We may be able to make changes in self-concept even with no deliberate challenge to the thoughts.


Dr Hossein Zare, Dr Aliakbar Sharifi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2017)
Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the CNS that due to cognitive impairment, can reduce the quality of life in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation on prospective & working memory function in Multiple Sclerosis patients. 46 MS patients aged 20–40 who have the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to experimental and waiting-list control groups. Experimental group trained for 12 session with a Memory rehabilitation software and waiting-list control group did not receive any intervention and training of this group was postponed after conducting research. Daneman and Carpenter's capacity working memory and Retrospective-Prospective Memory Scale was applied at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The results of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between the means of working memory in experimental and waiting-list control groups. Also, the results of the present study indicate that a significant difference between the means of prospective memory in experimental and waiting-list control groups. Moreover, the post-test and follow-up scores in the experimental group was not statistically different. So Computerized cognitive rehabilitation have significant effect on prospective and working memory performance in patients with Multiple sclerosis and it can be used as an effective and helpful method to improve memory performance of these patients.


, , , ,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2017)
Abstract

working memory is the comprehensive cognitive system that embedded attentional and memorical mechanisms and therefore can be used in systematic research of cognitive problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of working memory capacity and executive functions (shifting, inhibition and updating) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.  We selected 164 student   (90 male and 74 female)    from university of Tehran with random sampling method  and they completed Maudsley Obsessional – Compulsive Inventory (Hodgson & Rachman, 1977), the Digit Backward Span Task (workingmemory capacity), Forward Span task (Short Term Memory), Stroop (inhibition, Spreen & Strauss, 1998), Set- Switching Task (shifting, Rogers & Monsell, 1995) and Keep Track Task (updating, Martinez, et al., 2011). Data analyzing used regression showed working memory and executive function totally predict considerable amount (67 percent) of obsessive compulsive predisposition. Therefore it can be concluding, obsessive people have crucial weakness in storage, monitoring and executive cognitive function (in general attention control) and we can use training in these functions as treatment strategies.


Mr Masoud Moghaddaszadeh Bazzaz, Dr Javad S. Fadardi, Dr Hosein Kareshki, Prof John Parkinson,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2017)
Abstract

Obesity is one of the most important problems which threatens the global health. Healthcare organizations spend a
large amount of money to predict and treat obesity every year. The most common treatment for obesity is
concentrated on shaping a new lifestyle with more exercise and healthy diet. But a multitude of dieters fail. In this study, the role of cognitive processing in dieters` success or fail was investigated. Participants were
successful (N= 42) and unsuccessful (N= 45) dieters between 18 and 40 years old. Attentional bias, positive
implicit association, and working memory capacity were measured by dot-probe task, a modified
version of implicit association test (IAT), and N-Back task. Results indicated that unsuccessful dieters showed
greater attentional bias to (d= 0.69) and more food preferences for (d= 1.06) high-calorie food pictures.
Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in implicit associations for high calorie food and in working memory capacity between the groups. These results were congruent with some previous studies and they were discussed based on dual-processing model.
 


Doctor Hossein Zare, Masomeh Esmaeili,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2017)
Abstract

The present study attemps to investigate overgeneral autobiographical memory and relationship with problem- solving deficits in depressive and anxious individuals. For this reason, 15 depressive, 15 anxious and 15 normal individuals were chosen from the students of estahban  payam noor university, that were the clients of the counceling clinic. In this study, after completing the Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), Autobiographical Memory Test And Means- ends Problem- solving task was used. To compare the overgeneral and problem- solving in 3 group of depressive, anxious and normal individual, data were analyzed with Analysis of Varience(ANOVA) And the Tukeys test was used to compare the pair groups. The results revealed that overgeneral in autobiographical memory depressive individuals is more than anxious and normal ones. Depressive individual are more inefficient problem solving solution to distressed and healthy people.So, according to Williams models depressed people because negative mood and bias in processing information not only in retrieving autobiographical memories are exclusively trouble but this was a problem retrieving, problem solving and also affect their problems and makes solutions less effective to produse.


Seyed Ali Kazemi Rezae, Saber Saeedpoor, Zobair Samimi, Mahdi Parooi, Javad Afzoon,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2017)
Abstract

Abstract

the present study aimed to the comparison of the intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and short-term memory capacity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and normal individuals. a total of 30 patients (16 female, 14 male) with obsessive-compulsive were selected using convenience sampling from the psychiatric clinics and centers of Tabriz were matched with 30 patients (16 females and 14 males) of normal individuals by demographic information, and all of them were assessed through Baher & Dougas’s intolerance of uncertainty scale and the Wechsler Digit span test subscales .Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and as well as SPSS version 19. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IU (P<0/01) and the difference in patients with OCD is more than normal individuals. Also, there is a significant difference in terms of the short-term memory capacity (P<0/01) and the difference in normal individuals is more than patients with OCD . So it can be concluded that patients with OCD have less ability to tolerate uncertainty than normal people and short-term memory capacity in these patients is lower than normal people. Therefore, intolerance of uncertainty and low working memory capacity are two factors that may affect OCD symptoms and therefore exacerbate and perpetuate the disorder.


Saeede Khosravi, Dr Imanollah Bigdeli, Dr Mehrdad Mazaheri,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2017)
Abstract

In working memory (WM) tasks, performance can be boosted by directing attention to one memory object: When a retro-cue in the retention interval indicates which object will be tested, responding is faster and more accurate (theretro-cue benefit). This study tests explanations of the retro-cue benefits in 2 experiment desined by superlab software: Experiment 1, the effect of valid and invalid retro-cues compared with no-cues were tested before the  memory test. Experiment 2, We tested whether the retro-cue benefit in WM depends on sustained attention to the cued object by inserting an attention-demanding interruption task between the retro-cue and the memory test. In this quasi-experimental study, with a series of repeated measurements, 30 individual (15 for each test) from graduate students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were selected by convenience sampling and were tested. Data analysis of variance with repeated measurements and t-test for paired samples were also analyzed. The result showed that valid retro-cue compared to the no-cue was better. Also, it was shown when visual interference was held constant, retro-cue benefits were still obtained whenever the retro-cue enabled retrieval of an object from VWM but delayed response selection. The results showed that retro-cue improved visual working memory performance.
 


Mrs Simin Zeqeibi Ghannad1, Mr Sirous Alipour, Mrs Manijeh Shehni Yailagh, Alireza Hajiyakhchali,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (12-2017)
Abstract

mind wandering is a pervasive and common phenomenon of human cognition that its role in performance of any field related to mind is undeniable. This study plans to investigate The causal relationship of mindfulness and mind wandering with mediating strategical engagement regulation, anxiety, depression and working memory. To this, 434 female students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz were selected by multistage random sampling method and They got Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Strategic Engagement Regulation Scale, Stress Anxiety Depression Scale, Stress Anxiety Depression Scale, The Working Memory Questionnaire and The Mind Wandering: Deliberate and Mind Wandering: Spontaneous Scale. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS and AMOS (version 21) and using structural equations modelling method. In order to earn the suitable model fitness indices, the item parceling method was used about mindfulness variable. Finally, on the base of values of some indices (for example, RMSEA = 0/06 and GFI = 0/98), model had a good fit. Also, all paths of the model except two paths: anxiety to working memory and anxiety to mind wandering were significant. In sum, this research results showed that mindfulness plays important role in mind wandering anticipation that transfers this effect through mechanisms as self-regulation, mood and working memory. 


Parvaneh Shamsipoor, Phd Parvaneh Shamsipour, Miss Mahyaa Mohamadtaghi, Miss Matin Mot Abadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (1-2018)
Abstract


The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic and strength exercises and interactive time circadian rhythms of everyday memory performance, retrospective and prospective youth. Methods quasi-experimental, pretest - posttest randomized groups. 48 participants were randomly divided into four groups: aerobic training STR X in the morning (n =12), strength training fitness in the morning (n =12), exercise STR X age (n =12), and strength training fitness in age (n =12), the exercise period of 2 months (8 weeks, 3 times a week, and every 45 minutes) respectively. Participants Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a questionnaire circadian cycles Steve Horn questionnaire prospective and retrospective memory and RAM questionnaires were completed daily.Inferential statistics such as ANOVA test of the indicators in the pre-test and post-test in two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test was used to analyze the data. Results showed that participants in training t-RX power in the morning and in the evening a higher average daily memory. And participants in training t-RX and power in both the morning and evening with retrospective memory were weaker. Average memory function prospective and retrospective exercises T oryx and fitness in the morning and evening statistically significant difference, and people in the morning activities with prospective memory and retrospective better than those in the era of work , have. The average daily memory exercises and fitness in the morning and evening t oryx statistically significant, and people who are active in the afternoon with daily memory better. Physical activity and aerobic training and strength is increasing everyday memory. (P < 0.05)In the meantime, do cardio in the morning and in the evening can improve the power performance is better.
Sohrab Amiri,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (1-2018)
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate prospective and retrospective memory and cognitive ability in three groups of personality based on reinforcement sensitivity theory. For this purpose, first, 358 students Bu Ali Sina university were selected through a multistage cluster sampling. Then Brain / behavioral Systems questionnaire were distributed among them to be answered. After initial data analysis, 51 of them, based on cluster analysis in Brain / behavioral Systems questionnaire were selected, in order to test the hypothesis of this study, participants were studied in dimensions of prospective and retrospective memory and cognitive ability. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results showed significant difference between three personality groups in memory and cognitive ability. So that, group with high behavioral inhibition system sensitivity have better performance in components of retrospective memory, prospective memory, general memory and ability of naming; group with high sensitivity of fight-flight-freeze system have higher scores in prospective memory and general memory. The results showed that more active and less active of brain/ behavioral systems may be in close relation with memory and other cognitive abilities. It seems that cognitive abilities can to be influenced by the brain systems associated with reinforcement sensitivity and thereby cognitive functions changed.
 
Mr Mohammad Sadegh Montazeri, Dr Shahrokh Makvand Hosseini, Dr Imanollah Bigdeli, Dr Parviz Sabahi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (1-2018)
Abstract

Aim: The being of impairments in executive functions could lead to weakness individual control on health behaviors and cigarette consumption. The aim of present research was to investigate effectiveness of comprehensive intervention in order to retraining executive functions in smokers. Method: A randomized controlled trial design with pre-posttest and two monthly follow up was applied. The study population included all smoker men in the summer 2016 in Gorgan city. A number of 60 eligible adult smokers were chosen according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria of the research and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The Fagerstrom questionnaire for assessment of cigarette dependence was administered to two groups people. The experiment group then received 10 sessions (twice weekly) retraining of executive functions (Working Memory and Inhibitory Control), whereas in the control (placebo) group a placebo intervention like the original tasks were performed. The Fagerstrom questionnaire was again performed at post-test and in one month and two month follow up stages in both groups. Results: A repeated measure GLM: Multivariate Analysis of Variance showed significant differences between two groups in Fagerstrom in posttest and two follow up stages. Conclusion: Overall, the retraining executive functions intervention was effective on cigarette dependency and could use from this intervention in cigarette treatment programs. 
Somayeh Ramesh, Zobair Samimi, Ali Mashhadi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2018)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the Improvement cognitive inhibition of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity in the context of emotional working memory training. The 20 children with attention deficit / hyperactivity were selected available sampling and using diagnostic tools (SCID-I and SNAF-IV) and randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. The experimental group were trained in emotional working memory for 15 sessions of 40-30 minutes during 15 days, while the control group did not receive such training. Both groups were tested in pre-test and post-test by classic Stroop test. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that emotional working memory training has leads to Improvement cognitive inhibition in the experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Thus, it can be concluded that that emotional working memory training can as a viable option for improvement cognitive inhibition in children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder be regard to specialists and researchers
Rohollah Shahabi, Javad Kavusian, Saeid Akbari Zardkhaneh, Nastaran Rezae,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2018)
Abstract

 
Abstract
Working memory is the comprehensive cognitive system that embedded attentional and memorial mechanisms and therefore can be used in systematic research of cognitive problems. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the developmental changes of working memory capacity, and its components, including phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive (inhibition and updating). A total of 356 children (8 and 12 years) recruited from primary school in Tehran were selected and tested. Digit Span, and the Kim Karad Visual Memory Test were used for measuring phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad. Working memory capacity was measured by Backward Digit Span, and finally, the Stroop Task, and the Keep Track task measured central executive. Data analyzing showed as child growth, working memory and its components become more effective. More skills in arithmetic abilities, more flexibility in storage and processing, more experience in academic achievement and more use of metacognitive strategies can be possible reasons for the results of this study.
Ph.d Sivash Talepasand, Ph.d. Student Sedighe Nasiripoor,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (6-2018)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric characteristics of memory scale: measure of everbody functions of memory in students. The research design is a correlation type. The population of this study is all students of elementary schools in Semnan city. 220 students were selected by cluster random sampling method and their parents responded to the memory scale (Geurtin et al., 2018). SPSS-22 and Lisrel 8.54 were used for data analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, multivariate analysis of variance and rock curves. In the context of construct validity there was a significant difference between the two groups; normal students and students with learning disabilities in all components of memory; effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, working memory and prospective memory/organization. In the context of the discriminant validity, the levels below the rock curve for each component showed the ability to differentiate between normal students and students with learning disabilities. The memory scale has an internal consistency and a good stability coefficient. The results of the factor analysis showed that this scale was made up of four factors of effortful/intentional learning, automatic/procedural learning, working memory and prospective memory/organization. Cronbach's alpha for effortful/intentional learning was 0.86, prospective memory/organization of 0.77, working memory 0.70, and , automatic/procedural learning 0.82 and for the whole scale 0.93. Findings of the research indicate that the Persian version of the memory questionnaire in the students’ community has acceptable psychometric properties.
 
Saeed Nazari, Alireza Saberi, Hamidreza Taheri, Hasan Rohbanfard,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of working memory capacity and errorless and errorful practice on the learning the relative timing was a motor task. 50 Participants based on were selected aged 22±4 years as accessible samples randomly assigned to one of four groups (errorless low working memory capacity, errorful low working memory capacity, errorless high working memory, errorful high working memory capacity). This study was carried out in four phases. First phase (pre-test), subjects participated in 10 trials without knowledge of results (KR) on four-segment timing task. In the acquisition(ACQ) phase, a timing task with three different difficulty levels (simple, moderate, and difficult) was practiced in three sessions of 45 trials with feedback by experimental groups, except for control. In the 10-minute and 24 hour retention and 10- minute transfer tests, errorless group with low working memory capacity and errorful group with high working memory capacity had better performance than other groups. In the dual task tests (24-hour transfer) errorless group with low working memory capacity in the relative timing (intermediate times, RMSE) had better performance than other groups. These results indicate that the efficiency and efficacy of errorless and errorful practice interact with psychological indicators such as working memory capacity. These results suggest that implicit motor learning (errorless) may be beneficial for children with working memory capacity. Individual with high working memory capacity might benefit from learning explicitly (errorful). Results in dual task conditions support the implicit learning and reinvestment theories.


Miss Neda Esnaashari, Dr Masoud Hoseinchari, Dr Bahram Jowkar, Dr Mahbobe Fooladchang, Dr Farhad Khormaei,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (12-2018)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was developing and validating the metamemory scale for adolescents in the academic context. The study was a mixed method research and benefitted from sequential exploratory type which in qualitative stage using triangulation method (aligning multiple data approach) holding four dimensions of a) collecting literature reviews related to metamemoey based on the theoretical framework of Nelson & Narens, b) researches done in the field of metamemory and learning, c) presentation of memory-based assignments and metamemory based interviews on students (n=33) and analysis them (criteria and markers), & d) utilizing the views of experts in the field of primary theoretical framework and at last based on them, metamemory scale was developed and validated. Then in quantitative stage, using a sample of 289 students (170=girl & 116=boy in the range of 12-18 years old) validity and reliability of the scale were verified by using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha. The results of exploratory factor analysis showed 19 items in the form of 4 factors that create the metamemory scale: Judgments of Learning, Self-Confidence Judgments, Feeling of Knowing Judgments, and Ease of Learning Judgments. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated for each factor and the reliability coefficient of the whole scale was 0/71. Research findings provide a tool for measuring matamemory in adolescent’s age group in academic context that is a useful instrument for measuring metamemory and applying in cognitive and learning researches.
 
Ms Farzaneh Asiaee, Dr Mohamad Yamini, Dr Hossein Mahdian,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (12-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The purposeof this study was to compare the effect of  Perceptual skills reconstruction program  and executive function training on perceptual reasoning, working memory and math performance of third grade students with special math disorder.  Methods  this empirical study includes pretest-posttest and control group.The statistical population of the study includes all students with special learning disorder in third grade mathematics in 2017 academic year. The sample consisted of 45 students who were selected by simple random sampling and placed in two intervention groups and one control group. To collect the data, the Key Math Test, the Raven Test, Wechsler–IV Perceptual Reasoning Scale, Math Disorders Diagnostic test, and Stanford-Bine's Working Memory Scale were used to be completed by intervention and control group participants before intervention and one to eight weeks after intervention. The experimental group A underwent 17 sessions of executive function training (45 minutes each) and the experimental group B underwent 16 sessions of rehabilitation training. Data analysis was performed using variance analysis with repeated measures. Findings showed that both interventions methods were effective on perceptual reasoning, non-verbal working memory and were not effective on verbal working memory. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of these two methods. based on the results, it seems that these two methods can be used as an effective approach for the treatment of students with  special learning  disorder.                                                                                                                                                       
 
Mohadeseh Mozafari, Seyyed Abolghasem Mehri Nejad, Mehrangiz Peyvstegar, Massoud Saghafinia,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (12-2018)
Abstract

This research was designed and conducted to compare the cognitive condition of two groups of healthy people and MTBI patients one year after their injury in terms of both executive functions and working memory.In this causal-comparative study, which was conducted from February 2017 to October 2018, two groups of individuals, 48(MTBI), male Patients from 30 to 55 years old who were admitted to the ICU in Shohadaye Haftome Tir and Baqiyatallah Hospitals and 64 healthy men from personnel and Patients' Visitors that had all the criteria for entering the research were chosen. Both groups were tested with two scales Wisconsin and Wechsler Number Memory. The two groups had significantly difference (p<0/01), in the executive functions at the levels of Categories, Perseverative, correct and error responses, number of trials to complete first category and conceptual level responses.Also, the results show that the two groups had significantly difference(p<0/01), in the forward and reverse auditory memory, forward and reverse visual memory, total score of auditory memory, total score of visual memory and span auditory memory and the two groups had significantly difference(p<0/05), in the span visual memory. In other words, patients with MTBI has overall poorer results for all the tests than healthy people.according to the findings of this research, mild traumatic brain injury can disturb executive functions of the brain's prefrontal lobes after one year. Hence, it is suggested that in clinical and legal evaluations of the patients, this issue to be considered and both psychological and medical interventions done simultaneously to facilitate the treatment process and cognitive rehabilitation of the patients and to prevent individual, social and financial consequences and costs associated with MTBI.
 

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