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Dr Susan Alizadeh Fard, Mis Azita Kharaman, Dr Hossein Zare,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Human has always been interested in thinking about nature of self, and knowing its dimensions. In fact, different information is forming psychological and embodied representations through cognitive processes. The result of these representations is two types of mental sense of self: body self-awareness, and psychological self-awareness. Sometimes, the real representation makes mistake and, under certain circumstances, experiences an artificial hand as a real one. This study was designed and conducted to predicting rubber hand illusion based on embodied and psychological self-awareness. The statistical population consisted of all male and female students living in Tehran. A sample of 167 people (96 females and 71 males) were selected by convenience sampling method. Research instruments included the self-consciousness scale (Fenigstein et al., 1975), and embodied sense of self scale (Asai et al., 2016) as well as performing Rubber hand illusion testing. Data were analyzed by using SPSS and AMOS software. The results of path analysis showed that the dimensions of psychological and embodied self-awareness have a negative and significant direct relationship with rubber hand illusion. Also private self-awareness mediated by embodied ownership and agency awareness; and public self-awareness mediated by embodied ownership awareness are negatively and indirectly related to rubber hand illusion. These results indicate the role of different dimensions of consciousness in body representations and have created new insights into the boundaries of knowledge related to these concepts.

Mrs Azita Kharaman, Dr Hossein Zare, Dr Soosan Alizadeh Fard, Dr Majid Saffarinia,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (Volume11, Issue 1 2023)

Mental representations are one of the most advanced aspects of human cognition and can affect the mental experience of ownership of each person's body. Based on this, the present study, which is a two-stage mixed research, after inducing three levels of social-cognitive factors (equivalent to the individual, higher level, lower level), explained and predicted the mental ownership of the body. Is. The statistical population of the research included the students of Payam Noor University in Tehran, from which 61 women and 47 men were selected by convenience sampling. The research tools included the artificial hand error test of Cohen and Botvinik (1998), the subjective report questionnaire of the experience of owning an artificial hand by Longo et al. (2008) and the 12-block computer program of Tamir and Thornton's three-dimensional mental model for implicit and explicit association of social cognition representations. Data analysis with Pearson's correlation test showed that only the correlation of hand error scores and social cognition components at the third (lower) level was significant. Also, the standard multiple regression analysis showed that in explaining hand error at the third (lower) level, based on obvious association; Disgust only (Beta = -1.52), and based on implicit association; Friendship (Beta = 0.63), disgust (Beta = -0.55), and satisfaction (Beta = 0.26) were able to predict artificial hand error, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the identification of people with those who get a lower social status in the subjective evaluations of the person can occur less often.

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