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Seyed Esmail Torabi, Hadi Keramati, Javad Kavosian, Hasan Rastegarpoor, Goodarz Alibakhshi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (volume9, Issue 4 2022)

The present study was conducted with the aim of the effects of segmentation and redundancy methods on cognitive load and vocabulary learning and comprehension of English lessons in a multimedia learning environment.The purpose of this study is an applied research and a real experimental study. The statistical population of the present study includes all people aged 14 to 16 who are enrolled in language schools in Damghan. The subject of the educational content was to explain the activity of volcanoes in the form of PowerPoint software in a maximum of 10 slides (based on the type of group) to 90 subjects who were randomly divided into six groups (15 people in each group). High segmentation / Audio presentation, High segmentation / Visual presentation, High segmentation / Redundant, Low segmentation / Audio presentation, Low segmentation / Visual presentation, Low segmentation / Redundant were assigned. The research was completely experimental (a completely random 2×3 factor design). Researcher-made test of vocabulary and comprehension learning, prior knowledge assessment and Pass Cognitive Load Scale (1992) were used to collect data. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data.The results of analysis of variance showed that the interaction between segmentation method and redundancy method on cognitive load and learning was significant. The results of post hoc test also showed that the High segmentation / Visual presentation group reported significantly lower cognitive load and higher vocabulary and comprehension compared to other groups. According to the obtained results, it can be said that segmentation and redundancy methods are effective in reducing cognitive load and promoting English language learning in a multimedia learning environment.

Dr Ahmad Rastegar, Dr Mohammadhasan Seyf, Dr Somayeh Negahdari, Mis Zahra Dehghan Khalili,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (Volume11, Issue 3 2023)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the presentation of the causal model of perception of the electronic (virtual) learning environment and reflective thinking with regard to the mediating role of cognitive flexibility among the students of Payam Noor University in Shiraz. This research is descriptive and correlational. For this purpose, using simple random sampling, 400 students were selected as a statistical sample from all the students of Payam Noor University, Shiraz center, and questionnaires of perceptions from the educational environment of Sweeney et al. (1994), reflective thinking by Kamber et al. Cognitive flexibility questionnaire (CFI) was completed by Dennis and Vanderwaal (2010). All questionnaires are standard and have validity and reliability (alpha higher than 0.70). The collected data were analyzed with the help of Lisrel software. The results of the research showed that the direct and positive effect of engagement in academic assignments, learning authenticity and feeling of membership on the components of cognitive flexibility (perception of controllability, perception of behavior justification and perception of different options) is significant. Also, the direct and positive effect of the feeling of support on the components of the perception of controllability and the perception of different options is significant. In addition, the direct and positive effect of the sense of ownership on the component of the perception of the justification of behavior is significant. The direct and positive effect of flexibility components on reflective thinking is also significant. Also, the results showed that, in general, the mediating role of cognitive flexibility components is significant in the relationship between the perception of the educational environment and students' reflective thinking.

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