Volume 12, Issue 2 (Vol. 12, No. 2, Summer 2018 2018)                   2018, 12(2): 237-258 | Back to browse issues page


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Baharvand S, Soori S, RahnamaRad J, Joudaki M. Tectonic Activity Analysis and Relation with Lineaments and the Risk of Landslide (A Case Study: Vark Basin, Lorestan). Journal of Engineering Geology 2018; 12 (2) :237-258
URL: http://jeg.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2617-en.html
1- , sbbaharvand53@gmail.com
Abstract:   (4745 Views)
Introduction
Earth is a dynamic system. Change is one of its features. At its surface, there is almost no region that over the past few thousand years has not affected its neotectonic activities. In fact, it can be said that active neotectonic is changing the surface of the earth. Among geological methods for analyzing active tectonic movements, deciphering the geomorphology and morphotectonic nature play a very important role, because many geomorphic complications are sensitive to active tectonic movements and the geometric analysis of these complications provides evidence of the type, rate, and configuration of active tectonic deformations. Moreover, these geomorphic indices at a regional scale provide basic reconnaissance tool to identify tectonically active regions, their susceptibility to tectonic deformation, and level of tectonic activity.
In the presented study, tectonic activities and geological structural features of the Vark basin in Lorestan province, such as the discontinuities that may be detected on satellite imagery as lineaments, and in many cases control landslide occurrences, have been analyzed using the GIS and remote sensing.
Material and methods
Neotectonic investigation in the area: in order to analyze and to evaluate the tectonic movements in the Vark basin, considering the validity of geomorphic indices, longitudinal gradient (SL), river meanders (S), basin hypsometric curves (HC) and asymmetry factor (AF) have been used.  After calculating the desired indices, the tectonic activity of the area has been evaluated using the index of active tectonic (IAT).
Vark basin lineaments map derived from satellite images with proper resolution: using remote sensing techniques and visual interpretation of the OLI Landsat 8 satellite imagery, all fractures and lineaments of the region were identified and then by preparing the rose diagram, the trend of the lineaments of the area analyzed.
Landslide hazard zonation in the Vark basin: In this study, in addition to plotting landslide occurrence Points, eight other factors were also investigated. In order to provide a map of the factors affecting slip, the digital elevation model (DEM) in ENVI 4.8 and ArcGIS soft wares were used and the maps of slope, slope aspects, altitude classes, area geology, land use, topography and precipitation were prepared. Then, in order to zoning the landslide hazard, fuzzy logic method has been used. Fuzzy logic is based on the fuzzy layers and the fuzzy inference process.
Results and discussion
Analyzing the Neotectonic of the Area: as stated above, the relative active-Neotectonic (IRAT) index is derived from the interpolation of the morphotectonic indexes. In this case, after reviewing the morphotectonic indices of the study area and determining the activity rate of each indicator, the classification or prioritization of these activities were done. The results obtained from calculating the active tectonic index indicate that the study area with IAT is equal to one, has an active neotectonic.
Preparing the Lineation Maps of the Area: in this research, the aim of the data processing including satellite imagery and digital elevation model is identification and extraction of fractures and faults in the Vark basin. To this end, we can use the integration of the information layers derived from the above processes. In this step, all layers of information are logged into the ArcGIS software so that their overlap can provide a map of fractures and faults. On each information layer processed there is a series of lineaments recognizable that can be visually distinguished. After extraction of lineaments by comparing them with bundle compounds and maps derived from digital elevation model and geological map of the region, the lineaments of fractures and faults were separated from other lineaments and their shape file map has been prepared. In order to plot the rose diagram of fractures and faults, the Polar Plots ArcGIS Extension was used. The results obtained from this rose diagram showed that the dominant trend is the northwest southeast followed the trend in the region.
Preparing a map of landslide hazards zoning in the region and investigating its relationship with the lineaments: In order to overlap layers affecting the area's landslide hazard, Gamma fuzzy operator (λ= 0.9) has been used and landslides hazard mapping prepared. Based on the results, 12.40, 8.25, 37, 32.61 and 9.73 percent of the area are located in the very low, moderate, high and very high-risk classes, respectively.
In order to investigate the relationship between the lineaments and the landslide hazard maps as parameters that are affected by the tectonic activities of the area, the lineaments map was integrated with the map of landslide hazard. The results show that the most of lineaments identified in the study area have a northwest-southeast trend that are similar to the main faults of the region and Zagros. It can therefore be said that the lineaments are influenced by the faults and folds mechanism of the region. According to the lineament density in areas in places that are exposed to landslides, one can understand the close relationship between the lineaments and the landslide.
Conclusion
Based on the results obtained from relative active tectonics index, the Vark basin has an active neotectonic, which leads to an uplift in parts of the basin, as well as tilting in the southern part of the area.
In this research, the tectonic of the area, and then the relationship between the lineaments and the map of the landslide risk, as two phenomena affected by active neotectonic were reviewed. Investigating the lineaments of the region shows that the dominant trend is fractures north-west-south-east and following the trend in the region. In addition, analyzing the relationship between the lineaments with the map of the landslide hazard of the area shows that there is a close relationship between the lineaments and the zones with high risk of slipping.
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Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: En. Geology
Received: 2017/02/21 | Accepted: 2017/07/17 | Published: 2018/07/4

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