Journal title
http://jeg.khu.ac.ir
Journal of Engineering Geology - Journal articles for year 2020, Volume 13, Number 5Yektaweb Collection - https://yektaweb.comen2020/2/12Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Installation Damage of Nonwoven Geotextiles
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2655&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents a feed-forward back-propagation neural network model to predict the retained tensile strength and design chart to estimate the strength reduction factors of nonwoven geotextiles due to the installation process. A database of 34 full-scale field tests was utilized to train, validate and test the developed neural network and regression model. The results show that the predicted retained tensile strength using the trained neural network is in good agreement with the results of the test. The predictions obtained from the neural network are much better than the regression model as the maximum percentage of error for training data is less than 0.87% and 18.92%, for neural network and regression model, respectively. Based on the developed neural network, a design chart has been established. As a whole, installation damage reduction factors of the geotextile increases in the aftermath of the compaction process under lower as-received grab tensile strength, higher imposed stress over the geotextiles, larger particle size of the backfill, higher relative density of the backfill and weaker subgrades.<br>
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</p>Gholamhosein Tavakoli MehrjardiAn Analytical Ssolution for Estimating the Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction on 3D Vibration Natural Frequency of Reinforced Retaining Walls
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2570&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>One of the effective parameters in the dynamic behavior of reinforced soil walls is the fundamental vibration frequency. In this paper, analytical expressions for the first three natural frequencies of a geosynthetic reinforced soil wall are obtained in the 3D domain, using plate vibration theory and the energy method. The interaction between reinforced soil and the wall is also considered by modeling the soil and the reinforcement as axial springs. The in-depth transverse vibration mode-shapes, which were impossible to analyze via 2D modeling, are also analyzed by employing plate vibration theory. Different behaviors of soil and reinforcements in tension and compression are also considered for the first time in a 3D analytical investigation to achieve a more realistic result. The effect of different parameters on the natural frequencies of geosynthetic reinforced soil walls are investigated, including the soil to reinforcement stiffness ratio, reinforcement to wall stiffness ratio, reinforcement length, backfill width and length to height ratio of the wall, using the proposed analytical expressions. Finally, the results obtained from the analytical expressions proposed are compared with results from the finite element software Abaqus and other researchers’ results, showing that the proposed method has high accuracy. The proposed method will be a beginning of the 3D analytical modeling of reinforced soil walls.<br>
</p>Ali GhanbariAnalysis of a Large-Scale Landslide Using Shear Strength Reduction Factor Method, Case Study: Manjil Landslide
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2745&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Slope stability could be a major concern during the construction of infrastructures. This study is focused to analyze the slope stability of Manjil landslide that was located 41+400 to 42+200 km along Qazvin-Rasht freeway, Iran. The Manjil landslide, which had 168 m long and approximately 214 m wide, was occurred due to inappropriate cutting in June 2013 and led to destructive and closure of freeway. Slope stability analysis was carried out using a finite element shear strength reduction method (FE-SRM). The PHASE<sup>2D</sup> program was utilized in order to model the slope cutting and stability of landslide. Slope angle was flatted with 3H:2V geometry and stabilized with piling. The results indicated safety factors of 1.95 and 1.17 in the static and pseudo-static states, respectively, while the maximum bending moment with single pile (SP) in the pseudo-static state was 5.69 MN. Maximum bending moment of the pile around the slip surface was significantly large and more than the bending moment capacity of the pile. Due to the large bending moment on the pile, pile-to-pile cap connections (two pile group: 2PG) should be designed at the toe of the slope. The obtained results showed reduction of this parameter to 2.48 MN. Thus, it can be concluded that 2PG is a suitable stabilization method for the Manjil landslide.Mahnaz FiruziThe Effect of Heating-Cooling Process on Mode I Fracture Toughness of Rocks
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2824&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; unicode-bidi: embed; direction: ltr; -ms-text-justify: inter-ideograph;">In cases such as explosion, fire, deep drilling and geothermal energy extraction, rocks are exposed to high temperatures influencing the rock toughness. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of temperature on the fracture toughness of the rocks. In this study, the effect of temperature on the mode I fracture toughness is investigated. To this end, three-point bending tests were performed on semicircular specimens of four types of natural rocks including sandstone, limestone, tuff, andesite, and a series of concrete specimens to determine the fracture toughness. The specimens were first heated to 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 °C. After reaching the desired temperatures, the specimens were cooled. A series of tests was performed on the specimens at ambient temperature (25 °C). The heating rate in the electric furnace was 15 °C/min in accordance with the temperature rise in fires. Petrographic studies and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) were performed to identify the composition of the rocks. Furthermore, the effective porosity and the weight loss of heated specimens were determined to study the behavior of rocks. Comparison of the test results indicated the higher impact of temperature on the fracture toughness of fine-grained rocks. In addition, the fracture toughness decreased by increasing the effective porosity and decreasing the weight loss. According to the results, the mode I fracture toughness of sandstone, tuff, limestone, andesite and concrete specimens underwent a heating-cooling cycle up to 700<sup> °</sup>C respectively decreased 45, 17, 44 and 9.5 and 37 percent compared with that of unheated specimens.<br>
</p>Mehdi HosseiniA Comparative Study of the Seismic Response of Soil-Nailed Walls under the Effect of Near-fault and Far-fault Ground Motions
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2791&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In recent years, with the growing use of the nailing method for stabilizing excavation walls, there has been a need for a comprehensive investigation of the behavior of this method. In the previous studies, the behavior of nailed walls has been investigated in static and dynamic states and under different conditions. However, due to the different feature of near-field ground motions, it is necessary to study the effect of these motions on the behavior of the nailed walls. Near-fault ground motion is significantly affected by the earthquake record direction and the rupture mechanism. So, in this study, to compare the effects of near-field and far-field ground motions, a two-dimensional (2D) soil- nailed wall was considered. PLAXIS 2D was used for the modeling of the soil-nailed wall system. An excavation with a dimension of 10 meters in height was taken into the account. In this study, 10 records (Five fault-normal near-field ground motion records and five far-field ground motion records), were recorded on the rock and applied to the model. These ground motion records were derived from the near-fault ground motion record set used by Baker. These records were scaled to the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35g and then applied to the bottom of the finite element models. Mohr-Coulomb model was then used to describe the soil behavior, and Elasto-plastic model was employed for the nails. A damping ratio of 0.05 was considered at the fundamental periods of the soil layer. The results showed that the generated values of bending moment, shear force and axial force in nails under the effect of the near-fault ground motions were more than those in the far-ault ground motions. These values were almost equal to 23% for the maximum bending moment, 30% for the shear force, and 22% for the axial force. The created displacement under the effect of near-fault ground motions was more than that in the far-fault since a higher energy was applied to the model in the near-field ground motions during a short time (pulse-like ground motions). In contrast, in the far-fault ground motions, due to the more uniform distribution of energy during the record, such pulse-like displacements were not observed in the system response. Increasing in nail length and soil densification, decreases the displacement of the soil-nailed wall but does not change the general behavior of the soil under the effect of near-field ground motions. Based on the obtained results, for a constant PGA, there were positive correlations between the values of the maximum displacement on the top of the wall and the PGV values of near-fault ground motion records. However, the mentioned correlations were not observed in the case of far-fault ground motions.<span dir="RTL"></span><br>
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<span dir="RTL"></span>Maryam MokhtariImpact of Micropiles Installation on Liquefaction Potential of Saturated Silty Sand Using Numerical Method
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2616&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<div style="text-align: justify;">This paper investigates the effect of micropile installation into saturated sandy soil by means of finite element method. The obtained results from numerical modeling are compared with the received data from the site. The validation of software has been done by simulating standard penetration test. The effect of some changes in spacing (3m, 1.6m and 0.8m) and injection pressure (1cm, 2.5cm, 5cm and 10cm boundary displacement) micropiles on liquefaction behavior was discussed. The results show that numerical modeling presented a conservative conclusion about the potential of liquefaction. The modification of soil increased by increasing injection pressure of grout. Also, it was observed that the effect of micropile spacing has less impact than the injection pressures up to 1m free distance of micropiles. Then for closer micropiles, the effect of spacing and the effect of pressure became bold and intensive, respectively. Because of direct relationship between number of SPT and liquefaction potential, it would be necessary to simulate SPT and to validate with the real data, before and next of micropile installation. This approach can be a proper way of forecasting the efficiency degree of modification by micropiles and could save costs and time.</div>Ehsan Taherabadi EliyasShear Strength-Dilation Characteristics of Silty and Clayey Sands
http://c4i2016.khu.ac.ir/jeg/browse.php?a_id=2865&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Sandy soils usually contain different amounts of fines like silt and clay, causing some changes to their shear strength and dilation characteristics. Bolton [1] conducted some experiments on <s>the </s>different sands and suggested a relation between the parameters of the soil shear strength. In this paper, some experiments were performed on fine contained sand and the extended Bolton's relation <s>was</s> has been proposed. In this paper, shear strength and dilation behavior of a pure sand mixed with different amounts of silt or clay fines were studied using direct shear test device (100*100*30 mm), and a total of 96 tests were carried out. The samples were prepared separately using clay and silt contents of 0, 10, 20 and 30% in different relative densities of 70, 80, 90 and 100%. They were tested under three surcharge pressures of 90, 120 and 150 kPa, under particle crushing threshold. Variations in shear strength, maximum friction angle, critical state friction angle and cohesion, as well as dilation angle were investigated by increasing in the mentioned amounts. The results demonstrate that shear strength, dilation angle, maximum friction angle decreased by clay content increase, however, they increase with increase in silt content. In addition, a new form of the Bolton's relation for fine contained sandy soils was presented.Vahid Yousefpour