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Journal concessionaire
 Kharazmi University
Managing director
Seyed Mahmoud Fatemi Aghda, Professor
Ali Ghanbari, Professor
Ali Noorzad, Associate Professor
Fatemeh Torabi
ISSN: 2228-6837
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Showing 6 results for Alizadeh

A Soltanalizadeh, A Ramezanzadeh, Me Jalali,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2014)

The world financial crisis has drastically raised the costs of hydrocarbon materials. This simply manifests the strategic significance of crude oil storage. Regarding the special rank of the oil in Iran’s economy, storage industry development can be one of the solutions to control such a crisis. Underground storage of crude oil in synthetic structures (rock caverns, salt caverns, and obsolete mines) and natural structures (depleted fields of oil and gas, underground water resources, and natural caves) is possible. Among these possibilities more adaptable to the environment is the most appropriate. Due to the existence of many caves in Iran, crude oils storage in natural caves is a proper option. It is clear that if natural caves are used instead of caverns, much can be saved. The present article intends to choose a proper cave for crude oil storage through studying the natural caves based on a combination of fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and technique for order performance by similarity to idea solution (TOPSIS). The likely option is chosen. Roudafshan Cave is considered appropriate for crude oil underground storage based on several qualitative and quantitative criteria including tourism and environment protection regulations, capacity, distance from both main pipes of crude oil transfer and country's major petroleum factories. It should be noted that these criteria are ranked by an experienced team. This cave is located in the north east of Tehran in Firoozkooh and has three passageways which are among the largest ones in the country. Generally, its capacity is estimated to be about 250,000 square meters
Hadi Bahadori, Roohollah Farzalizadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 2019)

When saturated sandy soils are subjected to seismic loadings, the pore water pressure gradually increases until liquefaction happens and settlement occurs during and after an earthquake. The mentioned problem is attributed to rearrangement of grains and redistribution of voids within the soils. Over the years many methods have been presented to increase liquefaction resistance. However, the main methods utilized in liquefaction mitigation are classified as densification, solidification, drainage and reinforcement techniques. Utilizing scrap tires in soils is a kind of soil reinforcement which has a wide range of application.
Waste material expulsion is one of the environmental problems each country faces. Accumulation of non-degradable polymeric materials in landfills has serious environmental consequences. Efforts to find new ways of soil reinforcement have drawn the attention of researchers towards the use of new recycled materials like scrap tires derivatives. Derivatives of scrap tires have different applications in civil engineering such as reinforcing soft soil, as a drainage layer in landfills and as filler materials.
Material and methods
In this paper a series of 1g shaking table tests were performed to investigate on the effect of tire powders-sand mixture in reducing liquefaction potential, settlements after earthquake and pore water generation. Shaking table is made of Plexiglas with inner dimensions of 200×50×70 cm. At bottom of the container a void chamber is made by using a number 200 sieve so that the saturation process could be done gradually and uniformly. A plastic plate was rigidly fixed at the center of container to separate reinforced and unreinforced samples from each other and waterproofing carefully. Therefore two models (reinforced and unreinforced) can be tested at once with the same input acceleration. An absorbing layer of foam with 2 cm thickness was employed to decrease the effect of boundary conditions in order to avoid a direct confrontation model with a rigid container. Firoozkuh No. 161 sand and tire powders were used for the mixture in reinforced side, and pure sand in unreinforced side. In this study 4 mixture ratio (TC=5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) were done. Both of unreinforced (pure sand) and reinforced (tire powders-sand mixture) models were prepared by wet tamping method, in which soil is mixed with 5% water. Each model was prepared in six layers. The required weight for each layer was considered based on the desired density (relative density is zero) and exact volume of the layer. Each portion was placed into the model container and then tamped to reach desired level. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was allowed to pass through the specimen at a low pressure in order to replace the air that trapped in the pores of the specimen. Then water was allowed to flow upward through the bottom of the container at low pressures in order to flush out the CO2 that cause increasing the final degree of saturation. Vibration with approximate uniform amplitude and 2 Hz frequency was applied to the container.
Results and discussion
Results indicate that acceleration within the soil tends to be increased towards the soil surface. On the other hand, after initial liquefaction (that occurred at un-reinforced models), acceleration is decreased due to the increase in excess pore water pressure. Also, it can be seen that the increase in tire powders ratio remarkably reduces the maximum excess pore-water pressure ratio. The settlement of the tire powders-reinforced models is significantly less than the unreinforced models, and with the increase of the tire powder percentage shows a very small increase of volume. The outcomes show that the value of the mean damping ratio versus the shear strain range of 0.01 is increased with the increase in tire powder content. Shear modulus is obtained from the ratio of the difference in maximum and minimum stress and strain developed in desired loop. The maximum of the shear modulus in reinforced models is more than the unreinforced models.
The main aim of the present paper was to investigate the influence of reinforcing a saturated sandy soil with tire powders on the soil dynamic properties and the mitigation of liquefaction potential. The following conclusions were drawn from this research.
- The increase of pore-water pressure leads to a reduction in soil shear stiffness and acceleration amplitude.
- Reinforcing sand with tire powders reduces the excess pore-water pressure ratio because of liquefaction and increases liquefaction resistance. 
- Reinforcing sand with tire powders decreases settlement caused by liquefaction.
- The damping ratio decreases at large shear strain as liquefaction occurs.
- Maximum shear modulus and mean damping ratio of reinforced soil has been increased with increasing tire powder content in the mixture../files/site1/files/123/3BahadoriFarzali.pdf
Sadegh Rezaei, Asskar Janalizadeh Choobbasti,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (Vol. 12, No. 4 2019)

Every year, numerous casualties and a large deal of financial losses are experienced due to earthquake events. The losses incurred by an earthquake vary depending on local site effect. Some well-known examples include the earthquake in Caracas 1967, Mexico city 1985, Kalamata 1986, Loma Prieta 1989, Roodbar 1990, Bam 2003, Jammu and Kashmir 2005, Sichuan 2008 and Haiti 2010. Therefore, in order to conquer drastic effects of an earthquake, one should evaluate urban districts in terms of the local site effect. Various methods are available for the evaluation of site effect. One of the most common methods includes ambient noise survey. Today, this approach is being used as fast, applicable, cost-effective method. Ambient seismic noise are feeble ground motions with displacement amplitudes of about 0.1–1 μm and that can be detected by seismograph with high magnification. Many investigations have been conducted to determine the nature of ambient noise. One of the possible sources of ambient noise can be human activity, such as traffic, industrial noises and nature activity, such as wind, ocean waves. The Babol city is one of the largest cities in the north of Iran (Mazandaran province). It lies on alluvium beds in the region presenting a high seismic potential. Therefore, comprehensive studies are necessary to introduce suitable solutions for minimizing earthquake damage and loss of life. For this reason, in Babol city, ambient noise survey has been performed at 60 stations and the obtained data were analyzed with Nakamura or H/V method (1989). The results were compared with local geological, geotechnical and seismic data to confirm their reliability for a seismo-stratigraphic.
Methodology and data collection
The analysis of ambient noise was initially proposed by Kanai and Takana (1961). Since then, many researchers have used ambient noise for site effect evaluation. As it is said before, one of the most popular techniques for estimation of site effects in the regions with low seismicity is ambient noise survey by Nakamura or H/V method (1989). Based on the literature review, the Nakamura method (1989) has been used in many places. Many theoretical and experimental studies show that, this method has the capability of estimation of fundamental frequency. Ambient noise survey was carried out at 60 stations in Babol city. Ambient noise was recorded using a velocity meter SARA. Two horizontal and a vertical components of ambient noise at each location are recorded for duration of 15 min with 100 samples per second. Because the environmental noise has an effect on ambient noise they are recoded between 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. The locations were determined by using GPS at the sites. The ambient noise survey in this study was made in compliance with the guidelines of SESAME (2004).
Results and discussion
The maximum and minimum values of fundamental frequency of the present research are 11.4 and 0.65 Hz, respectively. Also, the maximum and minimum values of amplitude of H/V peaks have been calculated as 3.71 and 1.19, respectively. The most significant point is that the fundamental frequency of the major part of Babol city is smaller than 1 Hz in agreement with the previous knowledge of the city geological setting. Another relevant point is the presence of some stations with very high (> 5 Hz) fundamental frequencies. In these cases, ambient noise recording and data analysis were repeated, but similar results were obtained. Considering the lack of sufficient geotechnical data (in some stations), the above phenomena need to be integrated with other methods. For this purpose, the data of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were used. The ERT showed that small regions of the north-west, west, and south areas have high resistance values probably related with the presence of hard deposits in the shallow subsoil. Babolrood river diversion in the west part and its return to the previous direction in the northern section is possibly due to the existence of these relatively hard deposits. By comparing these two tests, we observed that the ERT results correlate with the ambient data analysis. Therefore, we can conclude that the high-frequency peaks measured are reliable, but we need direct investigation to associate them to a specific shallow geological layer. To validate the results, fundamental frequencies obtained from ambient noise survey were compared with geotechnical data, numerical analysis and seismic data in the study area. A general review shows that the geotechnical data, equivalent-linear analysis results and seismic data have an acceptable conformity with the results of ambient noise survey.
The results show minimum and maximum fundamental frequencies 0.65 and 11.4 Hz, respectively. Assessment also reveals that the major parts of Babol city have the fundamental frequencies less than 1 Hz, which are in conformity with that of previous research. According to the results of seven cross sections, it can be concluded that fundamental frequency variations are in line with the geotechnical and geological data in the study area. It means that this method is the appropriate way to assess the local site effect in the Babol city. It is also observed that besides the soil layers, the soil stiffness and its shear wave velocity are effective factors in changing the fundamental frequency. Site frequencies were also estimated by preliminary 1-D site modeling using the equivalent-linear method. In general, a reasonable correspondence between the methods was obtained. Using seismic data, the HVSR of two strong ground motions have been calculated and the results have been compared with the nearest ambient noise recording station. Analyzing the spectral ratios demonstrates that the value of the fundamental frequency obtained by the H/V method (1.06 Hz) is very close to that of frequencies obtained by the seismic data (0.95 and 0.90 Hz)../files/site1/files/124/6rezaee%DA%86%DA%A9%DB%8C%D8%AF%D9%87.pdf
Alireza Alizadeh Majdi, Rouzbeh Dabiri,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (Vol. 13, No. 3 2019)

The standard penetration test (SPT) is one of the most common tests in geotechnical investigations. The results of this test are known as a simple, inexpensive, and tangible criterion in geological and geotechnical engineering. Many computational methods and engineering judgments depend on the results of this test. In this research, estimation of physical and engineering properties of clay soils was carried out using statistical methods based on standard penetration test results. The scope of this case study is related to a variety of clayey soils in Tabriz (the northwest of Iran). The existing relationships were confirmed based on database of this study. After statistical analysis of the database, eight relationships including single and two-variable associations have been proposed to estimate the physical and engineering properties with better performance using nonlinear regression.
Material and Methods
Different types of clayey silt and marl layers spread in Tabriz were included for the purpose of this study. The geological age of these layers dates back to the Miocene and Pliocene era. This research was conducted in two sections of the field and analysis. Two machine boreholes were drilled, and, based on ASTM, a standard penetration test with other laboratory tests were performed on the soil specimens in order to determine the physical and plasticity properties. According to the results of this study and the existing data, a total of 107 series were prepared. Based on the soil properties, 11 variables were selected including the fine grain percentage (FGP), liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), percentage of clay particles (C), plastic index (PI), consistency index (CI), activity (A), dry unit weight (γd), natural moisture content (wn), initial void ratio (eo), and effective vertical stress (σ'v). The standard penetration tests were run for each meter in drilled boreholes. The results of this test were corrected according to NCEER method. The correlation between the variables and corrected standardized penetration test results (N60) were studied by Spearman ranking coefficient. Verifications of the existing eight experimental relationships between  standard penetration and other soil properties, proposed by Kayabasi (2015) and Hoshmand et al., (2012), were checked out using the findings and data of the present study. The linear, exponential, logarithmic, and exponential regressions between each variable and N60 were investigated using SPSS software, version 16. The best regression with the highest R2 for each variable was selected. Eight new relationships were proposed. Performance of the suggested relationships was compared with the existing relationships.
Results and Discussion
The findings of the current study could be summarized as:
1. The clay soils of the studied area in Tabriz were classified into four categories including CH, MH, CL, and ML according to USCS classification. The range of changes in plastic index and liquid limits of the samples were 9.19 ~ 45% and 29 ~ 77%, respectively. The corrected standard penetration test results (N60) changed from 9 to 28 showing that soil compression was low to high.
2. The highest positive and negative Spearman correlation coefficients were related to the consistency index (+0.772) and moisture content (-0.759), respectively.
3. The existing empirical relationships, based on the database of this study, were found to have better statistical coefficients in terms of consistency index, activity, moisture percentage, and fine grained percentage. In term of sample depth, the experimental relationship, showed the lowest statistical coefficient.
4. Four single-variable and two-variable relationships were proposed by nonlinear regression analysis. Using these relationships, clay soil properties including activity, moisture content, fine grain percentage, and consistency index were estimated based on N60. In addition, two relations were proposed between sample depth (D) and vertical effective stress (σ'v) with N60. The statistical coefficients of the suggested relationships were better than the existing empirical relationships. The proposed relationship of estimating the consistency index with coefficient (R2) of 0.673 and regression line slope of about 1 had the best performance.
In general, the main objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between physical and plasticity properties of clay soils and N60 on Tabriz clayey soils. Clay soils of the present study included various silty and marl layers. Sufficient correlation was observed between the physical and engineering properties of clay soils and N60. The validation of the existing experimental relationships based on A, wn, FGP, and D resulted in weak statistical coefficients (R2 <5) employing the database of the current study. Six new experimental relationships were proposed to estimate A, FGP, wn, and CI as well as two correlations of N60 with effective stress and sample depth. Generally, the results have been revealed that the statistical coefficients of the proposed relationships were improved compared with the existing relationships. The most suitable relationship was the estimation of soil consistency index (R2~70) and root mean square error (RMSE=129). Finally, due to the novelty of this research topic, verification and development of the proposed relationships for the soils has been recommended in other areas.
Mr. Mohammad Alizadeh Mansouri, Dr. Rouzbeh Dabiri,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (10-2022)

In this study, it is attempted to analyze sensitivity and reliability in order to evaluate the liquefaction potential in soil layers in Tabriz. 62 boreholes that had possible conditions for liquefaction were selected. Seismic mapping was simulated using finite fault method and then the effect of soil layers on PGA was estimated. In continue, the liquefaction potential index was estimated and the zoning map of liquefaction risk was presented. In final, through sensitivity and reliability analysis of the Monte Carlo method, the rate of density function against safety factor of the soil layers versus to liquefaction was determined.
Dr. Seyed Hossein Hosseini Lavassani, Mr. Hamed Alizadeh, Pro. Ali Massumi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (10-2022)

Many researches have been currently conducted on the effects of fault distance on structures revealing that their seismic response can differ according to their distance from the fault. Suspension bridges due to their long period and high flexibility can be more sensitive to this phenomenon, especially in vertical vibration. Since the engineers tend to use longer spans, the length factor should be studied more accurately. In this paper, the effects of length factor on the seismic response of the suspension bridge under near and far-fault ground motions were addressed. The Vincent Thomas and Golden Gate suspension bridges as short and long ones, respectively, are selected as the case studies. The seismic responses of two bridges under five main worldwide ground motions contained both near and far-fault ones, with the same peak ground’s acceleration, are evaluated. The results indicated that the response of both bridges to the near and far-fault ground motions are perfectly different. Short span suspension bridges are vulnerable to near-fault ground motions, whereas long span ones are completely susceptible to both near and far-fault ground motions, and by increasing the length of span, the sensitivity of bridge was increased against far-fault low frequency excitations. Also, maximum displacement responses of spans in both bridges did not increase by maximizing peak ground’s acceleration.

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نشریه زمین شناسی مهندسی Journal of Engineering Geology
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