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Showing 5 results for Dehghan

Amir Hamidi, Ali Dehghan,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2015)

This paper describes triaxial compression tests conducted to determine the effect of fiber inclusion on stiffness and deformation characteristics of sand-gravel mixtures. Tested soil was a mixture of Babolsar sand from the shores of the Caspian Sea and Karaj River gravel. Portland cement was used as the cementing agent and fibers 12mm in length and 0.023mm in diameter at 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% were added to the mixtures. Triaxial tests were performed on saturated samples in consolidated drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures of 100, 200 and 300 kPa. Deviatoric stress-axial strain, volumetric strain-axial strain, pore pressure-axial strain curves with deformation and stiffness characteristics were investigated. Tests results show that fiber addition increased peak and residual shear strength of the soil. Fiber addition resulted in an increase of the maximum positive and negative volumetric strains. In undrained condition, fiber inclusion caused increase in initial positive pore pressure and final suction. It has also been observed that fibers decreased initial tangent stiffness of the cemented sand-gravel mixture.
Fariborz Dehghani, Hadi Shahir, Ali Ghanbari,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (Vol. 11 No. 3 Autumn 2017 2018)

In the narrow geosynthetic-reinforced retaining walls a stable rear wall exists in a short distance and so there is no enough space to extend appropriate length of reinforcements. In this case, the probability of overturning of retaining wall increases especially when subjected to earthquake loading. To increase the stability of the wall, reinforcements may be connected to the stable rear surface. Alternative solution is the utilization of full-height cast in-place concrete facing in order to resist the earth pressure by combined actions of reinforcements pullout capacity and facing flexural rigidity. One of the main questions about this type of walls is the portion of earth pressure resisted by the facing. In this study, the seismic earth pressure of narrow geosynthetic-reinforced backfill on rigid facing was evaluated using limit equilibrium approach and horizontal slices method. The critical failure surface was assumed to extend linearly from the wall toe to the rear surface and then moves along the interface of the backfill and rear surface up to the backfill surface. The effects of various parameters such as wall aspect ratio have been investigated. The obtained results show that the applied soil pressure on wall facing will be increased with depth in the upper part of the wall according to the Mononobe-Okabe equation, but its pattern is inversed in the lower part of the wall and it decreases until it reaches to zero at the wall toe. The results of analyses indicate that the attracted soil thrust by the facing increases with lessening of backfill width.
Erfan Naderi, Adel Asakereh, Masoud Dehghani,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (Vol. 13, No. 2 2019)

Bearing capacity is very important in geotechnical engineering, which depends on factors such as footing shape, stress distribution under footing and failure mechanism of soil. Construction of the footing near a slope affects the behavior of footing and reduces the bearing capacity. Also, construction of structures on soft soil usually involves problems such as excessive settlement, deformation and stability problems. In order to increase the bearing capacity, especially in soft soils, one method is adding stone columns to soils. In this method 15 to 35 percent of unsuitable soil volume is replaced with appropriate material. In this research, the bearing capacity and settlement of a strip footing on a clayey slope reinforced with stone columns is investigated. For this purpose, a series of small-scale model tests was performed on the slope reinforced with both types of ordinary and vertical encased stone columns. The effects of length of stone column and location of stone column on the behavior of footing was studied and the optimum length of column and best location for column were determined. Also, some tests were performed on the effect of group stone columns on the footing and the efficiency of columns was investigated.
Material and methods
In order to determine properties of clay soil, stone column and encasement material, some preliminary standard tests were performed. The stone column material was selected with aggregate size ranging from 2-10 mm considering the scale effect. The performance of stone column depends on the lateral confinement provided from the surrounding soil and this lateral confinement represents undrained shear strength of the soil. In very soft soils (cu<15 kPa), the lateral confinement is not adequate and the stone column cannot perform well in carrying the required bearing capacity. For this reason, a series of undrained shear strength standard tests were carried out on clay samples with different water contents. According to these tests, the amount of water content of clay related to cu-15kPa was equal to 25%; while the natural water content of the clay was 4%. Therefore, the additional amount of water was weighted and added to clay. The apparatus of this research was consisted of two main parts including a test box and a hydraulic loading system. The test box dimensions should be such that for all states of the tests, the stress in the soil applied from the loading would be almost zero at all boundaries of the box. Thus, a box was built to accommodate the clay slope with 150 cm×120 cm×30 cm dimensions. The test box was built using steel material and steel belts were welded around it to prevent the deformation at high loads. The front side of the box was made from two pieces of tempered glass and a 10 cm×10 cm grid was drawn on them, for making the slope during construction and observation of deformations during the loading easier. The model strip footing dimensions were 29 cm length, 10cm width and 4cm height and it was made from steel to have no deformation during the loading. The displacement of the footing was measured using two dial gauges with accuracy of 0.01 mm.
The clay was filled in the test box in 5 cm thick layers and compacted with a special 6.8 kg weight tamper. All model stone columns were constructed using the replacement method. In this method, a 10 cm diameter open ended steel pipe was inserted into the soil and the clay within the pipe was excavated. Then the stone column material charged into the hole in 5 cm layers and each layer was compacted using a 2.7 kg special circular steel tamper with 10 blows. The 5cm compactions were repeated until the construction of ordinary stone column was completed. For construction of vertical encased stone columns, the cylindrical encasement mesh should be constructed first. Then, after excavating the hole, the prepared encasement mesh was placed inside the hole and the aggregates were charged into the hole in 5 cm layers and compacted.
Results and discussion
The loading method used in all tests was a stress control method. Bearing capacity values were determined from pressure-displacement diagrams using tangent method. All test results show that when any type of stone columns was added to slope, the bearing capacity of adjacent footing was increased. Vertical encasing of stone columns leads to a further improvement in the behavior of the footing. Influence of length of ordinary stone columns on the behavior of strip footing near clayey slope, was studied for four different lengths. Results show that, the optimum length of stone columns giving the maximum performance is about 4 times their diameter. Also, the location of column for both ordinary and vertical encased stone columns was studied using a series of laboratory tests and results show that the best location for the stone column is right beneath the footing. Also, group stone column tests resulted that for both ordinary and vertical encased types of stone columns, the group of two columns had a better efficiency than the group of three columns.
In this investigation, some model tests with 1/10 model scale on a strip footing near a clayey slope reinforced with stone columns were performed and the effects of different parameters such as stone column length and location were studied. Based on results from experiments on different states of stone columns, the following concluding remarks may be mentioned:
- The maximum encasement influence was observed when the encased stone column is placed under the footing.
- The optimum length of ordinary stone columns which are placed beneath the strip footing gives the maximum performance more than 4 times to their diameter.
-Bulging failure mode governs when the stone column is placed under the footing. When stone column is not beneath the footing, the failure mode was lateral deformation.
- Comparing the different locations of stone columns in the slope shows that for both ordinary and vertical encased stone columns, the best location having the most influence on the strip footing is under the footing and with increasing the spacing between column and footing, the bearing capacity is reduced.
Fahimeh Salehi Moteahd, Naser Hafezi Moghaddas, Golamreza Lashkaripour3, Maryam Dehghani4,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (Vol. 13, No. 3 2019)

Mashhad city, the second largest metropolis of Iran, is located in an arid and semi-arid region. Overexploitation of groundwater in Mashhad plain has caused up to 22.5-meter drop in the groundwater level from 1984 to 2013. The groundwater depletion in the unconsolidated aquifer has resulted in subsidence and cracks on the land surface. To determine the land subsidence rate map and the reasons for hot spot subsidence, the latest Envisat images of the ESA Space Agency's Archive for Mashhad plain were used. leveling and GPS data were combined with the radar interferometry results and the annual subsidence rate maps with high precision were obtained. Finally, the geology and soil texture maps of study area are compared to the land subsidence map.
Methods and results
To assess the land subsidence in Mashhad plain three methods of leveling, GPS and Insar are used. Leveling data are available in three profile of of Mashhad-Quchan (BCBD), Mashhad-Kalat (BDBE) and Mashhad-Sarakhs (BEBN) in two time interval of 1994-2003. The highest rates of subsidence in the BCBD, BDBE and BEBN lines are 7, 3.5 and 8.1 cm/year, respectively. Six permanent GPS stations have been installed in Mashhad plain, among them, NFRD, GOLM and TOUS have recorded the land subsidence, with the highest annual rate of 21.2 cm/year at TOUS Station. The third method applied to assess the history of land subsidence was InSAR radar interferometry which provided the extent and pattern of subsidence in all of the study area. For this, 23 images of the Envisat ASAR are processed during the 05/24/2010 to 06/30/2003 time period. The highest subsidence rate estimated by this method was 32 cm/year in the northwest of Mashhad. In general, two subsidence bowls, in the northwest and south east of Mashhad city are identified. Fig. 1 shows the annual subsidence rate map in Mashhad plain. Using the root-mean-square error (RMSE), the accuracy of the InSAR method was verified with GPS and leveling data.
The rate and distribution of land subsidence in Mashhad plain are affected by geological factors such as soil texture, deposit thickness, geological structures and groundwater drawdown. The geological and geophysical studies and exploratory drilling results in the Mashhad Plain indicate that the bedrock morphology is very rough. The bedrock outcrops in some places while in some other places covered by more than 300 meters alluvial deposits. Generally, by distance from the mountain, alluvium thickness and as a result the likelihood of subsidence would be increased. Mashhad plain is surrounded by the active and quaternary faults in the north and south edges. In the north of Mashhad plain Marly bedrock is uplifted by Tous fault and outcropped in the north of fault. In the south of Mashhad two normal faults have resulted to the increase of alluvium thickness in south and central of Mashhad plain. The change of river pathway also let to deposition of a sequence of the fine-grained and coarse-grained soils in central of plain between Toos and southern branch of South Mashhad fault (F2).
used to draw the cross section
In order to evaluate the subsurface conditions and its effect on the land subsidence, the soil texture are studied using the deep water wells and piezometers log (Figure 2). Fig. 3 shows the longitudinal section (northwest to southeast) of the area. As it can be observed, the soil texture includes of alternation of fine and coarse grains layers (Figs. 4). In this condition, sandy soils help to shortening the drain path of clayey layers and leads to acceleration of the consolidation. The average rate of annual subsidence in the area is 14 cm for one meter of drop in the groundwater level.
Nowadays, in the urban area, due to the urban sewage waters, there is a rising of groundwater level.  Therefore, no land subsidence has occurred in the central parts of the city. It is expected by completion of urban sewage network about 62 million cubic meters of sewage water will be eliminated from the aquifer recharge, which will cause a notable drop in the groundwater level and prominent land subsidence in specific area of the city. Considering the geological conditions and the operation of the existing faults, it is expected that in the case of groundwater drop, no significant subsidence will occur in south of the F2 fault, due to the decrease in the alluvium thickness and to the coarse texture of the soil. But in the northern and northeastern parts of the city, which are located between F2 and the Tous faults, high rate of land subsidence is expected.
Figure 4: The cross section of soil texture and the annual average rate of land subsidence and groundwater level drop
Using the radar interferometry processing, the highest annual rate of subsidence in Mashhad plain is about 32 cm/year. Land subsidence in Mashhad plain has an increasing trend and the geological conditions have a critical role in the subsidence rate and its pattern. Generally, soil texture near the mountain area in South is coarse and grain size decreases toward the center of the plain. But because the outcrop of Marly formation in the north slopes, soil texture is mainly fine grains. In the center of Mashhad plain soil texture constituted of fine and coarse grains which are converted together as inter fingering facieses, which have a critical role in decreasing of the consolidation time and increasing the land subsidence rate. It is predicted by complimenting of the urban wastewater network, the groundwater level will be dropped in the city area and the northwest and southeast subsidence ellipsoids which already can be seen will be connected together. Therefore, the area between F2 and Toos faults, will be shown the highest rate of subsidence, due to high thickness and fine-grained soil texture../files/site1/files/133/5Extended_Abstracts.pdf
Mohammad Hossein Keyghobadi, Adel Asakereh, Behzad Kalantari, Masoud Dehghani,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (Spring 2021 2021)

The ring footings are very important and sensitive due to widespread use in various industries such as oil and gas; so finding some ways for improving the behavior of these types of footings can be very valuable. One of these ways, which is very affordable and also can be help in environmental protection, is the use of granulated rubber that made from disposable materials like scrape tires, as the soil reinforcement. In the present study, the behavior of ring footings with outer constant diameter of 300 mm and variable inner diameters (90, 120 and 150 mm with inner to outer diameter ratio of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) placed on unreinforced sand bed and also granulated rubber reinforced bed, has been investigated by field test. The effects of important parameters like inner to outer diameter ratio of ring footing and thickness of rubber-soil mixture on the behavior of ring footing in terms of bearing capacity, settlement and inside vertical stresses of footing bed have been studied and the optimum values mentioned parameters have been determined.
Material and methods
In all tests, a sandy soil was used to fill the test trench which was excavated in the natural bed of the earth with a length and width of 2000 mm and a height of 990 mm. It should be noted that the type of this soil is well-graded sand (SW) according to the Unified Classification System (ASTM D 2487-11). This sand had medium grain size, D50, of 2.35 mm, moisture content of 5.4% and friction angle of 41.7. The granulated rubber particles with dimensions between 2-20 mm, a mean particle size, D50, of 14 mm and a specific gravity, Gs, of 1.15, have been used in all tests for using in rubber-soil mixture layer.
The loading system consists of several parts such as loading frame for providing reaction force, hydraulic jack, load cell, load transfer system (including loading shaft which was located below Load cell and footing cap which was located under the loading shaft) and rigid steel loading plates with different inner to outer diameter ratios (d/D=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 and constant outer diameter of 300 mm). Some devices like load cell, LVDT, pressure cell, data logger and unit control were applied to collect the data and control the system. Both soil and rubber-soil mixture layers were compacted by vibrating plate compactor to gain their maximum densities. After preparing the tests, the static load was applied on the system at a rate of 1 kPa per second until 1000 kPa or until backfill failure.
Results and discussion
The results of tests on both unreinforced and rubber reinforced beds indicated that the ring footing with inner to outer diameter ratio (d/D) of 0.4 had the maximum bearing capacity in all settlement levels. This behavior can be related to the arching phenomenon within the internal spaces of ring footing with optimum inner to outer diameter ratio. In fact, when the ring footing with optimum inner to outer diameter ratio is subjected to a certain level of loading, the soil inside the ring seems to be compacted due to interface effect of the two sides of the ring. However, by increasing the inner to outer diameter ratio more than its optimum value, the ring behaves like two independent strip footings without any interface effect and therefore the bearing capacity decreases.
The results of tests showed that the vertical inside stresses in different depths of footing bed (both unreinforced and rubber reinforced beds) decrease with increasing d/D ratio. This stress reduction process can be due to the transfer of stress concentration from the points close to the center of the ring to the outer point because of turning from the ring mode with interface effect to the two independent strip footings that mentioned earlier.
The results of rubber reinforced cases illustrated that, regardless of the footing settlement level and also irrespective of d/D ratio, the bearing capacity of ring footing increases with increasing the thickness of rubber-soil mixture layer (hrs) up to the value equals 0.5 times the outer diameter of ring footing and further increase in this thickness more than mentioned optimum value (hrs/D=0.5) can decrease the bearing capacity. Even in some cases of reinforced base (hrs/D=1), the bearing capacity can be reduced to the value less than that of unreinforced cases. It can be due to high compressibility of rubber reinforced layers with higher thicknesses than optimum value.
It should be mentioned that the rubber reinforced layer can reduce the vertical inside stresses compared to unreinforced cases. It can be due to this fact that the rubber reinforced layer acts as a wide slab. Such that it can spread the applied loading over a wider area. Also rubber reinforced layer has high capacity of absorbing energy and therefore can decrease the vertical inside stresses.
In the present study the behavior of ring footing placed on rubber reinforced bed have been investigated by field test. The effect of different parameters such as inner to outer diameter ratio of ring footing and the thickness of rubber-soil mixture layer on the bearing capacity, settlement and vertical inside stresses of the footing bed were studied. The result indicates that:
- In both unreinforced and rubber reinforced bed, the ring footing with inner to outer diameter ratio (d/D) of 0.4 had the maximum bearing capacity, regardless of settlement level.
-The vertical inside stresses in different depths of footing bed decrease with increasing d/D ratio.
-The bearing capacity of ring footing increases with increasing the thickness of rubber-soil mixture layer (hrs) up to the optimum value equals 0.5 times the outer diameter of ring footing.
-The vertical stresses can be reduced by using rubber reinforced layer../files/site1/files/151/5.pdf

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