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Showing 6 results for Soltani

Hossein Soltani-Jigheh, Naser Shirdel,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2014)

A slope overlooking conveyor-belt system in Sungun copper mine complex has been downfall in 2006 and the buildings located on the upper part of the slope has been moved and destructed. Since the conveyor-belt system is an important part of the production process that transports excavated material from original stock to the rock-crusher equipment and to have continuous and firm production in the mining process, this slope must be stable during exploitation period safely. For this purpose, in this paper, first the structural and engineering geology of the area was studied and then the stability risk analysis is performed on the slope. According to the results of the stability analyses, the slope may be unstable against slip and probable instability may lead to damage or destroy conveyor-belt and its tunnel. Therefore, considering technical and cost conditions, slope geometry modification method with incorporation of the other methods are suggested to stabilization of the part of slope above conveyer belt. In addition, in the part of slope under conveyor-belt it is suggested to use other slope stabilization methods
Mohammad Moghadas, Ali Raeesi Estabragh, Amin Soltani,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (Vol. 13, No. 1 2019)

Improving the mechanical behavior of clay soil by stabilization agents is a mean of fulfilling geotechnical design criteria. The method of stabilization can be divided into chemical, mechanical, or a combination of both methods. Chemical stabilization is performed by adding chemical agents such as cement, lime or fly ash to the soil (Bahar et al., 2004). Soil reinforcement is one of the mechanical methods that is used for improving the behavior of soils (Tang et al., 2007). Reinforcement of soil achieved by either inclusion of strips, bars, grids and etc. within a soil mass in a preferred direction or mixing discrete fibers randomly with a soil mass.
Mixing of cement with soil is made a production that is called soil-cement and results in chemical reaction between soil, cement, and water. The compressive strength of soil-cement is increased by increasing the cement content and this leads to brittle behavior or sudden failure. On the other hand, by increasing the cement to soil ratio for cohesive soils, shrinkage micro-cracks may develop in the soil as a result of the loss of water content during drying or hydration of cement. Therefore, if the tensile strength of these materials is not sufficient cracks will develop under loading and damage will be resulted (Khattak and Alrashidi, 2006). Consoli et al. (2003) and Tang et al. (2007) indicated that adding the fiber to soil can prevent from occurrence of these cracks and increases the tensile strength of the soil.
The focus of this paper is on the statistical analysis of the results and development of regression models. Regression relationships are developed based on the experimental results that were presented by Estabragh et al. (2017). These relationships relate the compressive and tensile strengths of the soil to percent of used fiber, cement and curing time.
Material and methods of testing
Unconfined compression and tensile strength tests were carried on unreinforced and reinforced soil, soil cement according to ASTM standards. Samples of soil-cement were made by mixing a clay soil and two different weight percent of cement (8 and 10%). Reinforced soil samples were also prepared by mixing 0.5 and 1 weight percent of Polypropylene fibers with 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm lengths. The dry unit weight and water content of prepared samples were the same as optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight that were resulted from standard compaction test. The compressive and tensile strength tests were conducted on the samples by considering the curing time according to ASTM standards until the failure of the sample is achieved.
Results and discussion
The experimental tests showed that reinforcement of the soil and soil cement increase the peak compressive and tensile strength. The peak compressive strength of reinforced soil is increased by increasing the fiber content at a constant length of the fiber. It can be said that by increasing the percent of fiber, the number of fibers in the sample is increased and contact between soil particle and fibers is increased which result in increase in the strength (Maher 1994). However, by increasing the length of the constant fiber inclusion there will be no significant increase in strength because the number of shorter fiber is more than longer fiber in a specific sample (Ahmad et al., 2010). Inclusion of fibers can greatly increase the tensile strength of clay soil. In addition to reinforcement of soil cement showed the same trend. When fiber is added to soil cement, the surface of fiber adheres to the hydration products of cement and some clay particle. Therefore, this combination increases the efficiency of load transfer from the composition to the fibers which increase the peak strength (Tang et al., 2007). In addition, the tensile strength shows the same trend.
Based on the experimental data on the behavior of a randomly reinforced clay soil and soil cement multiple regression models (linear and non-linear) were developed for calculating the peak compressive and tensile strength (dependent variables) based on the value of the coefficient of determination (R2). The proposed regression models were functions of independent variables including weight percent of fiber, length of fiber (length/diameter of fiber), weight percent of cement, and curing time. Finally, the comparison is made between the predicted results from proposed models and experimental results. In order to investigate the model accuracy, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) are used.
 The Multiple Linear Regression models (MLR) was very suitable for the study of the effect of independent variables on the quantitative analytic dependent variable. The NRSME for peak compressive and tensile strength is was 3.59% and 5.11% respectively for these models. Also, the Multiple Nonlinear Regression models (MNLR) had a much lower error than the linear model because of the quadratic equation, the equation will be able to predict the increase and decrease of the output variable in terms of the increase of the independent input variable. Therefore, The NRMSE for peak compressive and tensile strength was 1.02% and 4.04% for MNLR models respectively.
The following conclusions can be drawn from this study:
- The strength of reinforced soil and soil cement is increased by increasing the fiber content.
- Increasing the length of the fibers in the soil and soil cement has no significant effect on increasing the peak compressive strength, but it will be effective in increasing the tensile strength.
- The Multiple Nonlinear Regression models (MNLR) have more accuracy for prediction of output variable (peak strength) because of lower normalized root mean square error../files/site1/files/131/7Extended_Abstract.pdf

Farzaneh Douzali Joushin, Kazem Badv, Mohsen Barin, Hossein Soltani Jigheh,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (Vol. 13, No. 4 2019)

The geotechnical engineering problems involving unsaturated soils are included water flow, shear strength and volume change. Soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) describes the constitutive relationship between soil suction and soil water content. SWCC may be determined directly or indirectly in the laboratory. Because of the various difficulties involved in the direct measurements, a simple and economical laboratory method namely filter paper method is of considerable value. The filter paper method is a laboratory technique that has recently been accepted as a standard method of measuring soil potential, reaching far higher ranges of water potential in comparison to other techniques, and is based on the principle of moisture absorption by filter paper until there is a balance in potential between filter paper and soil.
This paper presents an experimental investigation performed to evaluate the soil water characteristic curves of dune sand stabilized with SBR polymer and MICP processes (Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria with CaCl2 and urea) with contact filter paper method in the Jabal Kandi area.
Material and methods
The dune sand used in this study was obtained from the surface (0–10 cm depth) of Jabal kandi area, located on the south-west of Urmia Lake. SBR polymer is prepared from Paya Resin Company in Esfahan. In the MICP processes, S. pasteurii from Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC 1645) was used as the urease positive bacterium. Cultivation of the microorganism was conducted in a medium containing 20 g l-1 yeast extract, 10 g l-1 NH4Cl at a pH value of 8. Sporsarcina pasteurii was grown to late exponential phase to final concentration of 1.5 g dry weight l-1 and urease activity of 2.2 mM urea min-1 under aerobic batch conditions. Broth cultures were incubated in a shaker incubator operated at 120 rpm. Cementation solution of MICP consisted of CaCl2 and urea. All experiments were performed at an ambient temperature of 25oC ± 2.
For the tests with Whatman No. 42 filter paper, three different soil samples were prepared (dune sand, dune sand stabilized with (5-10-15) % SBR polymer and dune sand stabilized with (5-10-15) % MICP process). Residual water content is 2.5% and the residual dry density is 15 kN/m3. The soil is mixed with the right quantity of water and placed in a sealed plastic bag for 24 hours to allow the hydric equilibrium to establish. The contact filter paper tests were carried out on soil specimens stabilized with SBR polymer and MICP process to the residual water content (2.5%) and nearly residual dry density (15 kN/m3). The soil specimen sizes were 50 mm in diameter and 20 mm height. The test procedure involves placing a piece of initially air dry filter paper against the soil specimen whose matric suction is required and sealing the whole to prevent evaporation. The filter paper was wetted to water content in equilibrium with the magnitude of the soil matric suction, and careful measurement of the water content of the filter paper enables the soil matric suction to be obtained from a previously established correlation. This provides a measure of the matric suction. ASTM D-5298-93 standard is used for the filter paper method.
Results and discussion
The SWCCs for dune sand stabilized with SBR polymer and MICP process under different SBR polymer and MICP process contents are illustrated in this study. Gradual transition from a unimodel SWCC to a bimodal SWCC was observed as SBR polymer and MICP process content increases. The unimodel SWCC is characterized by having two bends defining the air entry value and residual water content. The air entry value is defined as the matric suction above which air commence to enter the soil pores. The residual water content is defined as the water content beyond which no significant decrease in water content occurs. The bimodal SWCC is characterized by having four distinct bindings: two air entry values and two residual water contents. For SBR polymer and MICP process content equal to or less than 5 percent, the SWCC shows a unimodal form of SWCC. With the increase of SBR polymer and MICP process content greater than 5%, the SWCC indicate a bimodal form. It is further observed that the residual water content and the air entry value increases with the increase of SBR polymer and MICP process content. These observations are attributed to the presence of smaller pore size developed as a result of SBR polymer and MICP process particles filling the voids between sand particles. Bimodal SWCC are generally observed for gap-graded soils as well as soils that include two levels of pore sizes defined as macro pores and micro pores. Therefore, it can be inferred that the increase of SBR polymer and MICP process content, resulted in the formation of micro pores within the dune sand stabilized with SBR polymer and MICP process. The portion of the soil water characteristic curves representing macro pore sizes range between matric suction of 0.1 to 100 kPa. Whereas, the portion of the SWCC representing micro pore sizes lies between matric suction of 200 and 1500 kPa.
Summary and Conclusions
In this study, the effect of SBR polymer and MICP process content on the soil water characteristic curves of dune sand was evaluated. SBR polymer and MICP process contents considered include 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Results from this study indicated that, as the SBR polymer and MICP process content increased, the shape of the SWCC transforms from a unimodal form to a bimodal form. Furthermore, the air entry value and residual water content were observed to increase with increase in SBR polymer and MICP process content signifying increase in water retention capacity. The bimodal form of the SWCC indicates the presence of two levels of pore sizes; namely macro pores and micro pores. For 10% and 15% SBR polymer and MICP process content, the macro pores are considered the dominant pore size covering a broad range of the SWCC from 0.1 to 100 kPa. Therefore, it is inferred that the SWCC of dune sand stabilized with SBR polymer and MICP process are strongly related to the texture and pore size distribution of the dune sand stabilized with SBR polymer and MICP process which in turn, has a significant impact on its hydraulic characteristics.
Bakhtiar Fezizadeh, Meysam Soltani ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Landslide is known as one of major natural hazards. Landslide susceptibility mapping is known as efficient approach to mitigate the future hazard and reduce the impact of landslide hazards. The main objective of this research is to apply GIS spatial decision making systems for landslide hazard mapping in the 5th segment of Ardebil-Mianeh railroad. Evaluation of the landslide criteria mapping and their relevancy for landslide hazard can be also considered. To achieve the research objectives, an integrated approach of Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fooler Hierarchical Triangle and Fuzzy logic methods were employed in GIS Environment.
Material and methods
Within this research, we also aimed to apply GIS spatial decision making systems and in particular GIS multi criteria decision analysis which are available in Arc GIS and Idrisi softwares. We have identified 8 casual factors (including: density of vegetation, land use, faults desistance, distance from rivers, distance from roads, slope, aspect, geology) based on literature review. Accordingly, these layers were prepared in GIS dataset by means of applying all GIS ready, editing and topology steps. The criterion weighting was established based F-AHP approach. The criteria weights was derived and rank of each criterion was obtained. Accordingly, the landslide susceptible zones were identified using GIS-MCDA approaches.
Results and discussion
Finally the functionality of each method was validated against known landslide locations. This step was applied to identify most efficient method for landslide mapping. According to the results and based on the values derived from Qs, P, and AUC, the accuracy of fuzzy method was accordingly about 0.33, 0.74 and 0.76, respectively. In context of Fuzz-AHP the accuracy of 1.08, 0.88 and 0.94 were obtained. While, the accuracy of Fooler Hierarchical Triangle were obtained 0.78, 0.84 and 0.91, accordingly.
As results indicated integration of Fuzzy-AHP represented more accurate results. Results of this research are great of important for future research in context of methodological issues for GIScience by means of identifying most efficient methods and techniques for variety of applications such landslide mapping, suitability assessment, site selection and in all for any GIS-MCDA application.

Maziar Hosseini, Majid Taromi, Mahdi Saeidi, Vahid Soleimani, Mehdi Soltani Negar,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2020)

Series A of coarse-grained alluvial deposits of Tehran are extended in eastern and north-eastern areas of Tehran. Analyzing and studying of these alluvial deposits from a geological point of view as well as their creation time and general characteristics such as the deposits’ mineral types, their source, and formation conditions, gives a better point of view to geotechnical engineers about exploring their characteristics as well as geotechnical aspects in underground structure design, excavations, and foundation design processes. On the other hand, in order to analyze stability, estimating the factor of safety and the seismic design of these structures, considering their location, which is in Tehran with a high seismic hazard area, the necessity of knowing the exact mechanical and dynamic properties of Tehran's alluvium is felt more than ever.
Material and methods
Due to the grain size of Tehran’s coarse-grained alluviums (series A) as well as high level of cementation of them, it is impossible (or maybe so difficult) to make undisturbed samples in order to do experiments. Such that it is excavated 23 boreholes with 30 to 140 meters depth as well as 17 test wells with 20 meters depth in an area which was extended in 10 kilometers in long which were located in Tehran’s No. 13 and No. 14 districts (as it can be seen in Figure 1). During the excavation of the entrance ramp and tunnel of eastern highway of Tehran, in-situ tests have been done in different sequences. Since it was important to investigate real behavior of these alluviums, different in-situ tests such as plate load test, in-situ shear test, pressuremeter test, and downhole test have been done as well as many laboratory and field tests. Furthermore, (1) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and (2) X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) as well as (3) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods, have been used to explore the type of minerals and those used in cementation.

Figure 1. a) Geological plan and the location of boreholes and test wells in the alignment of East Tehran Freeway
Results and discussion
Based on the results of XRD tests, it is quite clear that the largest weight percentages of tested samples are lime and silica.
Calcium and magnesium levels-as the high-power cations in flocculation process-in soil sample No. 1 (soil with high cementation level) are much more than soil sample No. 2 (soil with moderate cementation level).
This is the cause of high cementation level of soil sample No. 1 comparing with soils sample No. 2. A rapid increase in stress level can be seen in in-situ shear test results, in low shear displacements, up to reaching a maximum of τp (peak point) and afterwards reduction in shear stress with softening behavior.  
Cohesion and shear strength levels also increase by increasing the depth. According to the plate load tests results, an increase in soil modules changes can be seen in different depths by depth increasing.
Large tendencies to increase in volume and dilation can be seen in under shear load cemented soils, after applying a primary compression on them. A brittle behavior with the occurrence of a certain peak can be seen in cemented samples. The significant increase in strength is directly related to the severe dilation rate, which can be seen in cemented samples results.  The shear strength would be decreased, if this cement is broken during the particles’ displacements.
The results of downhole tests are shown in Figure 2. According to this figure, it has been explored that Vs,30 is about 600 m/s in moderate cemented soils while it is about 850 m/s in highly cemented soils.  Because of the homogeneity and uniformity of sedimentary deposits, shear wave velocity is increasing due to the higher density of the layers and high level of cementation in both of the soil types. However, this increase is not significant at depths above 25 meters.
Based on the results, cementation level of the eastern coarse-grain-alluvium of Tehran is moderate to high and minerals used in cementation of this type of soil are generally carbonated and especially calcite.
Investigating the level of cementation of soil as well as the results of chemical analysis and in-situ tests, it can be found that the strength and deformation parameters of the soil are directly related to the degree of its cementation.
Based on the obtained results, the deformation modulus increases by about 25%, the cohesion by about 55% and the shear wave velocity by about 30% with increasing the degree of cementation (Table 1).
Increases of these parameters are directly related to depth. However, the cementation level does not significantly affect the internal friction angle of the soil.
Table 1. Average results of in-situ shear tests
Deformation Modulus (MPa) Peak Friction Angle (deg.) Cohesion
USCS Depth
50-60 39 30-35 GW-GM 5 Moderately Cemented Soil
(M.C. Soil)
75-85 41 50-60 SP-SC 10
85-90 41 50-60 GW-GC 15
95-105 41 50-60 GW-GC 20
60-70 39 35-40 GW-GM 5 Highly Cemented Soil (H.C. Soil)
75-85 39 50-60 GW-GC 10
110-120 42 65-75 GW-GC 15
125-140 41 110-120 GC 20
Naser Hafezi Moghaddas, Abolfazl Soltani,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (9-2021)

Safety design of structures concerning surface faulting effects such as shear and differential subsidence are very costly and in some cases are impossible. Then the appropriate approach for encountering surface faulting is to determine a suitable fault-avoidance zone. In this study, firstly the theorem of avoidance fault zone is presented, and then the setback area from the fault zone of South Mashhad fault is proposed. Recent studies show that South Mashhad fault is a right-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component that cut the Quaternary sediments. In this work, the average slip rate and estimated return period for South Mashhad fault are 0.59 mm/yr and 2930 years, respectively.  Accordingly, the proposed avoidance zones in the south (hanging-wall) and north (foot-wall) of the fault are 80 and 70 meters, respectively. Considering the avoidance zones, many residential and other important structures are located in the avoidance zone of the South Mashhad fault../files/site1/files/152/%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8%DB%8C.pdf


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