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Showing 4 results for Anisotropy

Hassan Moomivand, Mir Ali Moomivand,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (4-2012)

Discontinuities have properties such as orientation, number of set and frequency that can affect the rock strength. Rock specimens having one, two and three cross- sets of discontinuities, various frequencies and orientations of 0, 30, 45, 60 and 90 degrees were prepared. The numbers of rock pieces increased progressively with an increase of frequency and set of discontinuities. As specimens having three sets of discontinuities that one of their sets had four number of parallel discontinuities were consisted 20 rock pieces and they represented jointed rock mass. Joint factor, uniaxial compressive strength and friction angle along the discontinuity surface in direct shear were determined. The uniaxial compressive strength of specimens having one, two and three sets of discontinuities in horizontal and vertical direction was less than the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock. The uniaxial compressive strength of specimens approached approximately to zero value particularly when the orientation of discontinuities was 60 degrees. This considerable decrease of strength was occurred also for specimens having two and three sets of discontinuities at orientation of 30 degrees. The analysis of results showed that the relationship between ratio of uniaxial compressive strength of jointed specimens to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock specimens (anisotropy factor) and joint factor of this research is considerably different with the suggested relationship by Ramamurthy. Properties of discontinuities have altogether essential role on the strength of rock mass.
Mohammad Hosein Ghobadi, Paria Behzadtabar,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (1-2018)

Rock anisotropy plays an important role in engineering behavior of rocks. Slates are anisotropic rocks which have long been used for gable roof, floor tiles, borrow materials, and other purposes. The slates studied in this research are calcareous and have a porphyro-lepidoblastic texture. To determine the role of the anisotropy on the tensile strength and fracture pattern, two variables including ψ (the core axis angle to foliation) and β (the angle between the axis of loading and foliation) in the Brazilian tests were used. The angles were selected at 15° intervals. Thus, for both ψ and β, seven angles of 0˚, 15˚, 30˚, 45˚, 60˚, 75˚, and 90˚ were selected (i.e., there are 43 possible modes). In order to name and examine the failure pattern, 11 models were proposed. The average value of the failure strength for the three stations varies from 3.21 MPa to 20.94 MPa. Based on the obtained results, there is a direct relation between the average tensile strength and density. A comparison between Brazilian test data under dry and saturation conditions shows that the saturated Brazilian tensile strength is 30.8% less than the dry Brazilian tensile strength. Moreover, the changes in fracture length with the changes in ψ and β indicate an inverse relation. Eventually, the average of tensile strength (σt) and strength anisotropy index (Ia) demonstrates that the influence of orientation angle (ψ) is much larger than that of foliation-loading angle (β).
Dr. Ehsan Pegah,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (3-2023)

The ratios of elastic shear stiffness anisotropy and fabric anisotropy in granular soils are of very important characteristics in soil mechanics, which can influence directly lots of geotechnical engineering attributes. The shear stiffness anisotropy in a soil mass is directly related to the soil fabric anisotropy, which in turn has a fundamental contribution in variations model of shear stiffness anisotropy ratio. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the variations ranges of shear stiffness and fabric anisotropy ratios in granular soils by developing a novel approach for estimating fabric anisotropy ratio from soil grading and particles shape properties. By presuming cross-anisotropy, the anisotropic shear stiffness values of 1042 conducted tests on 200 distinct sandy and gravelly soil specimens from 43 various soil types of diverse sites throughout the world were acquired from literature. Those were then integrated with their associated void ratios, stress conditions, grading parameters and particles shape specifications to produce a comprehensive database of anisotropic shear moduli with respect to testing conditions. The collected data were analyzed, from which the shear stiffness and fabric anisotropy ratios could be calculated for examined geomaterials. The resulting values for fabric anisotropy ratio were then depicted versus grading and particles shape information to inspect the level of dependences through deriving the respective correlations. The findings of this study may serve as a suitable technique to obtain first-order approximations for fabric and shear stiffness anisotropies from soil grading and particles shape characteristics.

Ehsan Pegah,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (9-2023)

The ratios of elastic anisotropy in cohesionless soils are always of substantial importance in respective analyses to the geotechnical and geological engineering projects. These ratios are raising from the available discrepancies in anisotropic elastic parameters ascribed to the different directions and planes of soil mass. The major objective of this study is to recognize the variations range of anisotropy ratios resulting from anisotropic shear and Young’s moduli for a variety of cohesionless soils followed by assessing the potential relations among these two anisotropies. To this end, by assuming the transversely isotropy in cohesionless soils, the anisotropic elastic constants from 266 conducted laboratory tests on 37 various soil specimens relating to 10 different sands were derived from conventional triaxial and seismic waves laboratory tests coupled with the numerical testing results in literature. By sorting the collected data and subsequently their analyses, at the first stage, the values of shear and Young’s moduli anisotropy ratios were calculated for the studied soils. Furthermore, by plotting the anisotropy ratios in several joint panels and performing a series of regression analyses on the resulting values, the possible dependencies were inspected between these two anisotropies. At last, the indicative equations among shear and Young’s moduli anisotropies were developed with insistence on use of which instead of the former similar relations in literature. 

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