Search published articles

Showing 5 results for Dispersive

Volume 3, Issue 1 (11-2009)

In this study, seepage phenomena through the left abutment of Marun dam are investigated. The Marun dam is a 170 m high rock fill dam, which regulates the waters of the Marun River, serves power generation, and flood control and provides irrigation needs. The dam site lies in the Zagros Mountains of southwest Iran. This region presents continuous series of mainly karstic limestone, marl, shale and gypsum ranging in age from Cretaceous to Pliocene. The region has subsequently been folded and faulted. All underground excavations are sited in the left abutment. The spacing of the diversion tunnels and pressure tunnel is considered to be acceptable, meaning relatively short, thus requiring 2 row grouting curtain into both embankments. Prior the reservoir impoundment, the concrete plug was constructed into the middle section of second diversion tunnel. Upstream section of tunnel was not concreted. During the first reservoir impounding, the old karst channels along ‘Vuggy Zone’ cut by the second diversion tunnel were reactivated and leakage occurred. The total amount of water leakage through the left bank of Marun dam was about. The unlined second diversion tunnel had a key role in connecting reservoir with karst conduit system. On the basis of detailed engineering geological analysis, the concept of remedial works was carried out. The main points of this concept are one of row grout curtain extension up to the section with shaly interbeds declared as watertight Asmari sequence (close to the watertight Pabdeh formation) and plugging of accessible section of main karst channel by concrete. In order to determine the seepage direction and karstification pattern, solubility studies were done. Also pinhole, XRD and XRF tests were carried out. The major joint system and interbedding cracks have predominant role in karst evolution process. Hydrogeological role of joints, perpendicu-lar to geological structure, is not negligible. As a result of these studies, seepage paths have been identified in the karstic limestone in the left abutment of the dam.

Volume 4, Issue 2 (5-2011)

One of the main methods of determining dispersive potential of clay is chemical tests. These tests are found on the basis of sodium ion as a main chemical element in dispersive clay. The examinations show that there is no correlations between results of physical tests and chemical criterions. In present research after preparing the results of tests on 18 borrow pit sources of clay materials of earth dams, we investigate the Dr. Rahimi's criterion with results of Pinhole Test and then bases on pinhole test results, we suggested the modified criterion of Dr. Rahimi's proposed general criterion. The results of investigations on the range of laboratory data shows that the correlations of Dr. Rahimi's proposed criterion with pinhole test is 63%, while this rate is 74% for our suggested modified criterion. Also it should be considered that Dr. Rahimi's criterion compiled according the results of 24 laboratory samples while suggested criterion in present research compiled according the results of 234 laboratory samples.
Abdolhosein Haddad, Hamed Javdanian, Faezeh Ebrhimpour,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (8-2017)

./files/site1/files/2Extended_Abstract.pdfExtended Abstract
(Paper pages 29-50)
In some soils, special phenomena happen with increases in their moisture content that sometimes inflict major damages on development projects. Dispersive soils are one type of such soils. The physico-chemical properties of the particles in dispersive soils cause them to disperse and separate from each other upon contact with water. If dispersive clays are not accurately identified, they will cause damages and failures. In the Simin Dasht region of Semnan Province, some hydraulic structures have incurred serious damages because they are located on dispersive soils.
The present research studied the soils around the canal transferring water from the Simin Dasht to Garmsar. This 37-kilometer long canal is situated in Semnan Province between the Simin Dasht and the Garmsar diversion Dams. Scouring and soil erosion under the concrete lining of the canal has led to the destruction of the structure. After visiting the site and taking soil samples, double hydrometer and pinhole tests were performed. The effects of adding various amounts of cement, lime and aluminum nitrate on amending dispersive clays were studied and compared in the Simin Dasht region of Semnan Province.
The effects of the quantities of cement, lime and aluminum amendment materials on stabilization of dispersive soils in the Simin Dasht region of Semnan Province were investigated. Two types of dispersive clayey soils were amended. Table 1 presents the characteristics of the soils. The effects of various amounts of lime, cement, and aluminum nitrate on reduction in the degree of dispersion in the tested soils were studied. The cement, lime, and soil samples were dried at 40˚C for 24 hours. It must be mentioned that the amount of added lime, cement, and aluminum nitrate were zero, 3, 5, and 7 percent.
Table1. Characteristics of dispersive soils used in this reserch
Gs Optimum Moisture (%) Plasticity Index, PI (%) Plastic limit, PL (%) Liquid limit, LL (%) Natural water content (%) Soil
2.72 15 2.54 15.09 17.63 13.84 A
2.66 11 6.33 16.11 22.44 3.02 B

Average changes in discharge passing through the dispersive soil samples A and B, and through samples of these soils amended with lime, cement, and aluminum nitrate in pinhole tests are presented in Figures 1(a-f), respectively. Figure 1a indicates that the behavior of the A soil samples amended with lime did not follow any specific trend, but we can cautiously say that soil A will become non-dispersive when lime is added at 4.5 percent at all moisture contents. Increases in the quantities of the cement added to the dispersive soils A and B to stabilize them independent of the moisture content of the soils were also investigated (Figure 1c, d). Behavior of the A soil samples stabilized with aluminum nitrate followed a specific trend (Figure 1 e, f) contrary to those amended with the other stabilizers.
Results of the tests show that dispersion in soil A was amended (without completely preventing the occurrence of the scouring phenomenon) by the addition of cement or lime at 5 percent or aluminum nitrate at 3 percent. Moreover, dispersion in soil B was amended by the addition of cement at 3 percent, lime at 5 percent, or aluminum nitrate at 3 percent. Aluminum nitrate was a better and more effective amendment material for the dispersive soils compared to lime. Therefore, aluminum ions replaced the other ions in the structure of dispersive clays more suitably compared to calcium ions. Comparison of the results obtained from the pinhole tests performed on soil samples amended with aluminum nitrate, lime, and cement suggests that it took a shorter time for the samples to be stabilized with aluminum nitrate compared to the other two amendment materials.

Figure1 Variation of discharge due to soil stabilization, Lime (a and b), Cement (d and c), Aluminum nitrate (e and f)
Hamed Rezaei,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (11-2019)

The dispersivity phenomenon occurs due to the dissolution of some of the ions in clay soils or against the shear stress of normal water flow in cohesion-less soils. Water surface flows in low slopes cause surface erosion of dispersive soils. Dispersivity in the soil starts from a point and gradually expands; the starting point can be the holes from the activity of the animals, the existing cracks or the growth path of the roots of the plants. There is a lot of field evidence to recognize the dispersivity of the loess soils. In field investigations, soil dispersivity can be detected according to the following parameters: geological origin of the loess soil, mineralogical composition, gradation, drainage pattern, slaking of agglomerates, specific morphology, high permeability, geographical area (length and width relative to origin), soil color, relationship between slope and soil erosion, precipitation, erosion of column cracks, heeling, mud flowing runoff and the presence of salt crystals in loess soils. In terms of sedimentological characteristics and engineering geological properties, Golestan loesses have been dispersed in three areas 1, 2 and 3, which are consistent with the loesses of clay, silt, and sand types, respectively.
Material and methods
Loess soils in three regions of east and northeast of Golestan province were sampled. Sampling was conducted in two forms of wax-coated agglomerates and metallic cylindrical tubes. Depth of sampling follows the foundation of the buildings located on the Mehr Housing site and the Cheshme Lee village, varying from 0.5 to 2 meters. On the path of the Beqqeje Bala village, sampling was carried out from the path trench. After transferring to the laboratory, samples were subjected to gradation testing, Atterberg limits test to determine the unit weight of the volume and density.
The pinhole test was done on samples with the unit weight of normal volume (gn) and maximum volume (gdmax) and its rate of dispersion was determined. The research background, field evidence and the results of laboratory experiments indicate the dispersion of soil sampling areas. The results show that soil compaction reduces the severity of dispersion and decreases the flow rate, so that the flow rate has decreased in the Maravehtapeh sample by 38%, in the Cheshmeli sample by 13% and in the Beqqeje Bala sample by 43%. Compaction cannot eliminate the dispersion of soil. Adding nanoclay decreases the severity of soil dispersion and eliminates its dispersion properties in most cases.
In order to evaluate the effect of nanoclay on severity and to decrease the dispersion property of soil with ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%, of Montmorillonite Nanoclay was added.
The nanoclay used in the present research was selected from the Sigma-Aldrich America Company called montmorillonite nanoclay and was purchased from its domestic representative, i.e. Iranian Nanomaterials Pioneers Company. The product has a density of 300 to 370 kilograms per cubic meter and a particle size of between 1 and 2 nm. The specific surface area of the nanoparticle is about 250 square meters per gram. Its color in normal light and in 1 to 2% moisture is yellow to yellowish buff.
Results and discussion
The rate of dispersion of samples with nanoclay was measured in Pinhole Test Apparatus. Also, the method of mixing nanoclay with dispersive soil shows different behaviors in severity of dispersion and its reduction. Given that the specific surface of nanoclay is high and this property can include the whole surface of soil grains as a sticky coating and increase soil cohesion, the mixing method is practically one of the most important steps in examining the effect of nanoclay on soil stabilization. At ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% of nanoclay, nanoclay was mixed with soils of sampling regions by four methods:
In the method A, they were completely mixed with the preparation of a homogeneous mud from soil and nanoclay via an electric mixer.
In the method B, mixing of loess soil with nanoclay was performed in optimum water content.
In the method C, mixing of loess soil with nanoclay was conducted in the form of dough by hand mixer. In the method D, mixing of loess soil with nanoclay was carried out in the form of vibration dry by grading sieve shaker.
After mixing with nanoclay in the desired method (four methods A, B, C, D), the samples were first stored in sealed plastic containers for 24 hours. Then, the samples containing nanoclay were reconstructed in cylindrical mold of the pinhole device with the unit weight of maximum dry volume and moisture of two percent higher than the optimum moisture content and a hole was created in the middle of it. The samples remained in this position for 24 hours, and then the test was performed. Testing was carried out on each sample according to the standard D4647-93, and flow rate reading was done over a period of two minutes to 18 minutes.
The conclusion of this study shows that the three loess samples taken have a dispersivity potential and the flow rate is low in the unit weight of maximum volume, but the dispersivity potential does not eliminate. Adding nanoclay with any weight ratio reduces the flow rate and eliminates the soil dispersivity potential.
The results of this survey showed that 1% nanoclay weight ratio is technically and economically the most appropriate mixing ratio. With this weight ratio, the method of preparing homogeneous mud with an electric mixer (method A) produces the lowest flow rate, so that the flow rate from 1.3 ml per second in pure soil to 0.3 ml per second in the soil containing nanoclay is reduced by 50 mm. Therefore, it can be said that this method is more suitable, but it is not operationally efficient and the method B is more appropriate. In the method B, the flow rate reaches from 1.3 to 0.55 ml per second.
Mehdi Jalili, Hosein Saeedirad, Mohammad Javad Shabani,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Dispersive soils are problematic and they cause a great many of local damages and destructions in hydraulic structures such as dikes and irrigation channels. The correct identification and recognition of divergence are fundamental measures taken in line with preventing the early destruction of the hydraulic structures. The soil improvement using lime, especially in clayey soils (CL), brings about an increase in the optimum moisture percentage, reduction of the maximum dry unit weight, reduction of swelling potential, increase in the strength and elasticity module. The effect of lime on soil can be classified into two groups, namely short and long-term stabilization. Raise of the soil’s workability is counted amongst the short-term modification measures and it is the most important factor in the early improvement stages. The increase in the strength and stability can be considered as the lime utilization on long-term results occurring during curing and afterwards. Also, according to the reports, swelling and damages occur in the lime-stabilized soil containing sulfate. The effective role of the iron furnace slag has been well recognized in increasing the strength against sulfates and corrosive environment conditions of the mortar containing lime and sulfates.
Material and methods
Adding the slag products of the melting furnaces and lime is a method used to stabilize dispersive soils. The present study makes use of a mixture of clay featuring low plasticity with 1% and 2% lime and slag, for 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% of the weight, to improve dispersivity, shear strength and plasticity. The samples were kept in constant temperature and humidity for a day and then were subjected to direct shear, uniaxial strength and pinhole tests.
Results and discussion
It was observed based on pinhole experiment of the initial dispersive soil sample, denoted as D1, that the sample, shown by ND2, containing lime, for 2% of the weight, and slag, for 5% of the weight, turned out to have become non-divergent. The results of the direct shear test showed that the adhesion coefficient of the slag-free samples stabilized using 1% lime has been increased from 0.238 kg/cm2 to, respectively, 0.251 kg/cm2, 0.373 kg/cm2, 0.41 kg/cm2 and 0.48 kg/cm2  per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added. The adhesion of the samples stabilized using 2% lime as determined in the direct shear experiment were 0.615 kg/cm2, 0.671 kg/cm2, 0.724kg/cm2 and 0.757kg/cm2 per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added. Also, the internal friction angle of the samples stabilized using 1% lime was found an increase from 14.3° for slag-free samples to 18.11°, 21.3°, 21.86° and 21.92° per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% added slag. As for the samples stabilized using 2% lime, the internal friction angles were found in direct shear test equal to 23.15°, 23.53°, 23.76° and 24.12° per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added. The uniaxial strength of the slag-free samples stabilized using 1% lime was found an increase  from 1.0014 kg/cm2 to, respectively, 1.0616 kg/cm2, 1.0782 kg/cm2, 1.2127 kg/cm2 and 1.2246 kg/cm2 per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added. The uniaxial strength rates has been determined in the direct shear test of the samples stabilized using 2% lime were 1.1367 kg/cm2, 1.1885 kg/cm2, 1.2322 kg/cm2 and 1.2872 kg/cm2 per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added. The amount of axial strain of the slag free samples stabilized using 1% lime was found decreased from 9.6842% to, respectively, 9.3333%, 9.2683%, 9.6364% and 8.4444% per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added. Moreover, the axial strain amounts obtained for the samples stabilized using 2% lime were 7.7333 kg/cm2, 7.6316 kg/cm2, 7.1517 kg/cm2 and 4.7619 kg/cm2 per every 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% slag added.
The study results indicate that slag and lime have the capacity of improving the studied soil’s dispersivity. Furthermore, it was figured out that adding slag to the soil causes an increase in the soil strength and improves the shear strength parameters. It can be stated according to the observed results that the use of slag, a byproduct of iron smelting industry, as a substitute for a given percentage of lime is effective on the reduction of the clay soil’s divergence potential. The results of the experiments carried out to determine Atterberg limits are suggestive of the idea that the increase in the slag and lime fractions brings about a decrease in the liquid limit and plasticity and improves the plasticity properties of the soil. The reason why the soil plasticity has been reduced after being mixed with lime and slag is the cationic exchange and coarsening of the soil texture. Addition of lime to the soil causes an increase in the plasticity limit and a reduction in the liquid limit. Therefore, the plasticity index is decreased and the plasticity characteristics of the soil are improved. Adding 1% lime to the dispersive soil leads to small reduction of the liquid limit from 32.43% to 31.73%, a small increase in the plasticity limit from 13.42% to 14.66% and a insignificant decrease in the plasticity index from 19.01% to 17.07%.

Page 1 from 1     

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Engineering Geology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb