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Showing 11 results for Gis

S. M. Fatemiaghda, V. Bagheri, M Mahdavifar,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2013)

In this research, one of the new methods for seismic landslides hazard zonation (CAMEL) to predict the behavior of these types of landslides have been discussed.  It is also tried to eveluate this method with the proposed Mahdavifar method.  For achieving this result, the influence of  Sarein earthquake (1997), have been selected as a case study. In order to apply seismic hazard zonation, the methodology of Computing with Words (CW), an approach using fuzzy logic systems in which words are used in place of numbers for computing and reasoning is employed. First, the required information which includes disturbance distance, ground strength class, moisture content, shake intensity, slope angle, slope height, soil depth, terrain roughness, and vegetation have been collected using air photos, Landsat Satellite images, geological and topographic maps, and site investigation of the studied region. The data is digitized and weighted using Geological Information System (GIS). At the next step, the hazard rate and areal concentrations with respect to landslide types are calculated using CAMEL program and then, landslides hazard map produced by the above mentioned method is compared with landslides occurred as a result of Sarein earthquake. Finally, for evaluating on prediction of the earthquake-induced landslides, empirical comparison have been done between CAMEL and Mahdavifar methods.
Majid Dashti Barmaki, Mohsen Rezaei, Amir Saberi Nasr,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (11-2014)

This paper has evaluated the groundwater quality index of Lenjanat aquifer. Water quality index as a unique index is presented to describe overall water quality conditions using multiple water quality variables. Physical and chemical data of 66 water samples were used in this study. The results have been obtained by Comparing the qualitative features with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) standards. In calculating GQI, 7 parameters, including calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), sulfate (SO4), total dissolved solids (TDS) and nitrate (NO3) have been used. Groundwater quality index shows the medium to relatively high groundwater quality in the study area. Minimum and maximum value of the index is calculated as respectively 55 and 93. Land use map shows that along the Zayanderood River and around the location of rice paddies, water quality reaches to the lowest quantity. Optimum index factor technique allows the selection of the best combination of parameters dictating the variability of groundwater quality.
Sm Fatemiaghda, V Bagheri, Mr Mahdavi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2014)

In the present study, landslides occurred during 1997 Sarein, Iran earthquake are discussed and evaluated. In order to meet the objectives, the Computing with Words (CW), an approach using fuzzy logic systems in which words are used in place of numbers for computing and reasoning is applied. Firstly, the necessary information which include disturbance distance, ground class, moisture, shaking intensity, slope angle, slope height, soil depth, terrain roughness, and land-use have been collected using air photos, LANDSAT satellite images, geological and topographic maps, and site investigation of the studied region. The data is digitized and weighted using ARCGIS software. At the next step, the hazard rate and predicted areal concentrations of landslides with respect to their types are calculated using CAMEL software (Miles & Keefer, 2007). CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using geographical information system(GIS). Finally, landslides hazard map is compared to landslides triggered by Sarein earthquake.
, M Fallah,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (11-2016)

This paper presents landslide assessment and landslide hazard zonation of the Polroud Dam area. Polroud Dam is one of the largest dams that are in construction, 29 km south of Roudsar in Gilan Province. Considering to geomorphology and geological conditions of the area, the site is susceptible to landslide hazard. Field survey shows many evidences of the instabilities especially in the slopes overlooking to the dam and the reservoir. The historical record also demonstrates high potential of the region to slope instabilities. A large landslide that occurred in 1996 discern that the frequency of the hazard in the region. Therefore, Identification of the landslide potential hazard is vital before impounding the reservoir. In this study, we investigated landslide hazard in the site and we have prepared landslide hazard zonation map using the main parameters. These parameters include; slope percent, slope aspect, lithology, fault, roads, drainage catchment, elevation, vegetation and precipitation amount. Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) has been used to prepare and to cross the maps. The results show that about 26 percent of the slopes are situated in highly hazard zones. It was determined also that lithology and slope aspects play main role in occurring of the landslides in the study area.

Kobra Jafari, Naser Moghaddas, Alireza Mazloumi Bajestani, Azam Ghazi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (1-2018)

Siamak Baharvand, Salman Soori, Jafar Rahnamarad, Maseoud Joudaki,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (10-2018)

Earth is a dynamic system. Change is one of its features. At its surface, there is almost no region that over the past few thousand years has not affected its neotectonic activities. In fact, it can be said that active neotectonic is changing the surface of the earth. Among geological methods for analyzing active tectonic movements, deciphering the geomorphology and morphotectonic nature play a very important role, because many geomorphic complications are sensitive to active tectonic movements and the geometric analysis of these complications provides evidence of the type, rate, and configuration of active tectonic deformations. Moreover, these geomorphic indices at a regional scale provide basic reconnaissance tool to identify tectonically active regions, their susceptibility to tectonic deformation, and level of tectonic activity.
In the presented study, tectonic activities and geological structural features of the Vark basin in Lorestan province, such as the discontinuities that may be detected on satellite imagery as lineaments, and in many cases control landslide occurrences, have been analyzed using the GIS and remote sensing.
Material and methods
Neotectonic investigation in the area: in order to analyze and to evaluate the tectonic movements in the Vark basin, considering the validity of geomorphic indices, longitudinal gradient (SL), river meanders (S), basin hypsometric curves (HC) and asymmetry factor (AF) have been used.  After calculating the desired indices, the tectonic activity of the area has been evaluated using the index of active tectonic (IAT).
Vark basin lineaments map derived from satellite images with proper resolution: using remote sensing techniques and visual interpretation of the OLI Landsat 8 satellite imagery, all fractures and lineaments of the region were identified and then by preparing the rose diagram, the trend of the lineaments of the area analyzed.
Landslide hazard zonation in the Vark basin: In this study, in addition to plotting landslide occurrence Points, eight other factors were also investigated. In order to provide a map of the factors affecting slip, the digital elevation model (DEM) in ENVI 4.8 and ArcGIS soft wares were used and the maps of slope, slope aspects, altitude classes, area geology, land use, topography and precipitation were prepared. Then, in order to zoning the landslide hazard, fuzzy logic method has been used. Fuzzy logic is based on the fuzzy layers and the fuzzy inference process.
Results and discussion
Analyzing the Neotectonic of the Area: as stated above, the relative active-Neotectonic (IRAT) index is derived from the interpolation of the morphotectonic indexes. In this case, after reviewing the morphotectonic indices of the study area and determining the activity rate of each indicator, the classification or prioritization of these activities were done. The results obtained from calculating the active tectonic index indicate that the study area with IAT is equal to one, has an active neotectonic.
Preparing the Lineation Maps of the Area: in this research, the aim of the data processing including satellite imagery and digital elevation model is identification and extraction of fractures and faults in the Vark basin. To this end, we can use the integration of the information layers derived from the above processes. In this step, all layers of information are logged into the ArcGIS software so that their overlap can provide a map of fractures and faults. On each information layer processed there is a series of lineaments recognizable that can be visually distinguished. After extraction of lineaments by comparing them with bundle compounds and maps derived from digital elevation model and geological map of the region, the lineaments of fractures and faults were separated from other lineaments and their shape file map has been prepared. In order to plot the rose diagram of fractures and faults, the Polar Plots ArcGIS Extension was used. The results obtained from this rose diagram showed that the dominant trend is the northwest southeast followed the trend in the region.
Preparing a map of landslide hazards zoning in the region and investigating its relationship with the lineaments: In order to overlap layers affecting the area's landslide hazard, Gamma fuzzy operator (λ= 0.9) has been used and landslides hazard mapping prepared. Based on the results, 12.40, 8.25, 37, 32.61 and 9.73 percent of the area are located in the very low, moderate, high and very high-risk classes, respectively.
In order to investigate the relationship between the lineaments and the landslide hazard maps as parameters that are affected by the tectonic activities of the area, the lineaments map was integrated with the map of landslide hazard. The results show that the most of lineaments identified in the study area have a northwest-southeast trend that are similar to the main faults of the region and Zagros. It can therefore be said that the lineaments are influenced by the faults and folds mechanism of the region. According to the lineament density in areas in places that are exposed to landslides, one can understand the close relationship between the lineaments and the landslide.
Based on the results obtained from relative active tectonics index, the Vark basin has an active neotectonic, which leads to an uplift in parts of the basin, as well as tilting in the southern part of the area.
In this research, the tectonic of the area, and then the relationship between the lineaments and the map of the landslide risk, as two phenomena affected by active neotectonic were reviewed. Investigating the lineaments of the region shows that the dominant trend is fractures north-west-south-east and following the trend in the region. In addition, analyzing the relationship between the lineaments with the map of the landslide hazard of the area shows that there is a close relationship between the lineaments and the zones with high risk of slipping.
Javad Khalaji Pirbalouti, Naser Hafazi Moghadas, Gholam Reza Lashkaripour,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (12-2018)

Hazardous waste (solid, liquid or contained gases) is a waste with properties that make it potentially dangerous or harmful to human health or the environment. Site selection and suitable conditions for hazardous wastes landfill is considered as the final stage of waste management that they have high sensivity. The purpose of this study is to identify prone areas to hazardous waste landfill for Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province using geographic information systems (GIS) as an important tool for the analysis of potential sites and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to provide solutions to optimize the positioning is executed. Firstly, criteria and limitations of environmental, economic, social and physical were determined, then layers of the criteria in GIS were prepared. In this study, the inappropriate areas were first removed from the model, and the suitability of remaining regions as a categorize criterion considered. Categorize criteria for paired comparison using AHP as an efficient tool for determining the relative weight parameters are used to measure and rank the expert choice application imposed. Then the implement paired comparison of the relative weights of the criteria and sub-criteria and criteria for each category were determined. After calculating the net weight and normal weight, normal weight based on standard maps in the GIS environment has been classifieds. Finally, by combining maps and applying criteria FA map, the final map was extracted.
Material and methods
The purpose of this research is to identify and prioritize appropriate areas of special waste disposal using multi-criteria decision-making methods. In order to locate using the GIS, first, identifying, evaluating and selecting criteria and constraints for the construction of landfill, in order to reduce the economic, environmental, and health costs. In the multi-criteria evaluation method, criteria are the basis of decision making, so that a set of criteria is combined and combined to achieve a single combination. In this paper, a two-stage process was used to locate the landfill site. In the first stage, which is recognized as the identification stage of prohibited areas according to different criteria, the study area is divided into two appropriate and inappropriate classes that will be eliminated as prohibited areas for the construction of landfills. In the second stage, the various factors are ranked and weighted according to the relative importance and, finally, places that receive the appropriate points are introduced as areas susceptible to the dumping of special wastes. In order to obtain the digital data of the criteria in the GIS environment from the digital elevation map (DEM), the specifications of the piezometric wells information are available from the regional water organization of the province. The available data such as geological map of the province at a scale of 1: 250,000, satellite images of Landsat and map of land suitability of the province, rainfall data of the synoptic stations of the province and the data of the Environmental Protection Agency were used. In general, the following steps have been taken in the process of locating:
- Identification of effective locating factors (limitations and factors)
- Digitizing and providing the required layers of information using the GIS package
- Identify and eliminate prohibited and inappropriate areas for landfill construction
- Classification and weighting of the factors and layers of information sought
- Integration of layers and the provision of a mapped rate and talent to determine the appropriate areas.
Results and discussion
1. Set limits
In this study, in order to select suitable sites for landfill particular, the criteria and limitations were determined. The information layers for each of the criteria were provided in the GIS environment.
2. Classification and weighting criteria
In the second stage, which is the stage of weighting and rating, of 14 effective criteria were used in site selection. AHP is one of the most efficient techniques, multi-criteria decision. This method is based on comparing factors and to study various scenarios to give managers and decision makers. This technique is one of the most comprehensive system designed for decision-making with multiple criteria.
3. Editor hierarchy to locate
Hierarchical structure is a graphical representation of a real complex problem, which mainly target the problem and at the next general criteria, sub-criteria and options are the way in AHP is used to calculate points based on comparison test.
4. Shipping Weight Matrix Binary comparison and decision-making
After compiling a hierarchical structure, the next step is to evaluate the elements by comparing the test. In general, if the number of options and criteria respectively m and n are then paired comparison matrix of options for comparison matrix m × m and n × n matrix will be a couple of criteria.
5. After weighing and preparing the normal weight of the options, the normalized weights in the GIS environment were added to the criteria map and the Raster and Weighted layers of each criterion were prepared. Due to the wide area of the studied area, the size of each pixel was 50 * 50 m. Then, using the Raster Module, the Criterion Map was combined and a zoning map was prepared for the special waste disposal site.
In the present study, according to various criteria influencing the Hierarchical Analysis Process for prioritizing the criteria in decision making, based on the results, the talent map of the area was prepared for special waste dumping, in which according to the final score of the layers, the area was classified into four appropriate, relatively suitable, relatively inappropriate and inappropriate classes. Suitable areas were 12.64%, relatively fairly 32.47%, relatively inappropriate 30.43%, and inappropriate zones 9.58% of the area of the talent map were included.
Bakhtiar Fezizadeh, Meysam Soltani ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Landslide is known as one of major natural hazards. Landslide susceptibility mapping is known as efficient approach to mitigate the future hazard and reduce the impact of landslide hazards. The main objective of this research is to apply GIS spatial decision making systems for landslide hazard mapping in the 5th segment of Ardebil-Mianeh railroad. Evaluation of the landslide criteria mapping and their relevancy for landslide hazard can be also considered. To achieve the research objectives, an integrated approach of Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fooler Hierarchical Triangle and Fuzzy logic methods were employed in GIS Environment.
Material and methods
Within this research, we also aimed to apply GIS spatial decision making systems and in particular GIS multi criteria decision analysis which are available in Arc GIS and Idrisi softwares. We have identified 8 casual factors (including: density of vegetation, land use, faults desistance, distance from rivers, distance from roads, slope, aspect, geology) based on literature review. Accordingly, these layers were prepared in GIS dataset by means of applying all GIS ready, editing and topology steps. The criterion weighting was established based F-AHP approach. The criteria weights was derived and rank of each criterion was obtained. Accordingly, the landslide susceptible zones were identified using GIS-MCDA approaches.
Results and discussion
Finally the functionality of each method was validated against known landslide locations. This step was applied to identify most efficient method for landslide mapping. According to the results and based on the values derived from Qs, P, and AUC, the accuracy of fuzzy method was accordingly about 0.33, 0.74 and 0.76, respectively. In context of Fuzz-AHP the accuracy of 1.08, 0.88 and 0.94 were obtained. While, the accuracy of Fooler Hierarchical Triangle were obtained 0.78, 0.84 and 0.91, accordingly.
As results indicated integration of Fuzzy-AHP represented more accurate results. Results of this research are great of important for future research in context of methodological issues for GIScience by means of identifying most efficient methods and techniques for variety of applications such landslide mapping, suitability assessment, site selection and in all for any GIS-MCDA application.

Hojjat Ollah Safari, Hamed Rezaei, Afsaneh Ghojoghi,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (11-2020)

The landslides, as a natural hazard, caused to numerous damages in residential area and financial loss. In many cases, we can forecast the occurrence probability of this natural phenomenon with using of detail geological and Geomorphological studies. This seems that one of the most effective parameters in landsliding phenomenon is structural parameters, especially faulting in rocky outcrops. For verifying this hypothesis, the Nargeschal area, as high potential of hazardous area, is selected as case study for investigation on influences of faulting on landslide occurrence probability. Many large composite landslides were happened in 2016 and hence, this area is enumerated an active zone of landsliding. This area with geographic attitude 55° 09' 06" to 55° 27' 21" Eastern Longitude and 36° 54' 23" to 37° 05' 15" Northern Latitude located in south of Azad shahr (in Golestan Provinces) placed in Northeastern of Iran.
Geological studies indicate that this area located in northern limb of Alborz fold belt (as a young fold-thrust belt with 900 km length) which formed in late Alpine orogenic events by convergence Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. In this zone, the structures have main NE-SW trends with main active faults such as Khazar and North Alborz faults, as reverse faults with north-ward movements. The remnant part of Paleotethyan rocks (which transported from collision zone toward southern part by low angle thrusts) located between these faults and formed the mountain-plain boundary hills.
Material and Methods
In this research, we investigated on effective parameters in landslide occurrence probability of Nargeschal area with using of remote sensing techniques, GIS environment abilities and complementary field investigations. Therefore, we have prepared the seven data layers of geological and morphological effective parameters which are affected on landslide probabilities. These data layers consist of: lithology of outcropped rocks, faulting condition, topographic slopes categorizes cultivation circumstances, seismicity condition, spring population (ground water condition) and surveyed occurred landslides. Then, the content of each data layer is weighted and classified into five classes in GIS environment. Finally, the content of each pixels in all of 7 layers are algebraically summed and recorded as an attributed table. Hence, the landslide hazard zonation map was prepared by drawing the isopotential surface map on the basis of quantities of attributed table by using of GIS functions in Arc view 3.2 software.
Results and Discussion
The results of this research illustrate that a high risk zone is located in central part of area as an oblique broad-stripe zone with NE-SW trend [6]. This zone is correlatable with high density of fractures zone and high population of springs and earthquake focus and also, taken place in Shemshak formation with shale, marl and siltstone rocky outcrops (upper Triassic- Jurassic in age). 
Also, the results of investigations on influences of structural parameters (especially faulting) in landslide hazard demonstrated that faults are indirectly impressed on this hazard probabilities via formed the high slope topography, poor strength faulted rocks, locating of spring presences and creation of seismicity, and hence, defined the spatial pattern of landslides.
Nargeschal area in Northern limb of Eastern Alborz is selected as case study for investigation on temporal relationship between Faulting and Landslides. The following conclusions were drawn from this research.
- It seems that the fault surface plays the role of rupture planes for landsliding.
- The structural factors also increased the ground slope and then, the close relationship is formed between landslides and faults.
- The results demonstrate the genetically relationships between landslides and faults in macroscopic scale in Nargeschal area.

Mahnaz Firuzi , Mohammadhosen Ghobadi , Ali Noorzad, Ali Asghar Sepahi,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Landslides have an effective role in the destruction of freeways and railroads, which have been caused to many human and financial losses. Understanding this phenomenon and its effective factors can be important in planning for development projects and away from landslide prone areas. Based on extensive field in the Qazvin-Rasht freeway that the authors carried out in various researches in 2014-2017, it was found that the freeway was threatened by the type of instabilities due to variety of lithologies  and tectonic structures exploitation phase and needs to be stabilized. The purpose of this study is to determine of the distribution of landslides in different types of lithologicalunits of the Qazvin-Rasht freewaythat shows the role of geology and differences in geotechnical characteristics and tectonic structures in the creation and distribution of landslides on the road.The role of geology on the difference in geotechnical properties and tectonic structures in the creation and distribution in the road. Geological engineering properties and appropriate stabilization methods is the other goals of this study.
Material and Methods
In the study, the locations and the type of landslides are distinguished and the information were plotted on geological map. Then by the ARC GIS 10.2 program, and the use of area density method, the percentage of landslide events in each geological formation was identified. In order to study the role of lithology (type of rock, texture, mineralogy, weathering, alteration and erosion), sampling were carried out from rocks of Karaj formation, Shemshak formation, Cretaceous orbitalolina limestone and Fajan conglomerate. Geotechnical characteristics of the samples were determined by performing laboratory tests such as dry weight, porosity, uni-axial compressive strength according to ISRM standard (1979). For determining the role of tectonic structures (number of joints, dip and dip direction, length (m), spacing (cm), filling percentage, opening (mm), roughness, weathering, water, friction angle) were performed. Then, the results obtained from relative density and frequency were matched with the geological, geotechnical characteristics and tectonic structures of each formation.
In order to separate different types of landslides on various kinds of rocks, area density and frequencyof  landslides were determined by Eqs 1 and 2. Graph of frequency and area density are presented in Fig. 6 and Table 2, respectively. As can be seen in this figure and table, in Karaj formation, the percentage of rock fall, toppling, avalanche, scree slope and combined slip are the highest. In the rocks belonging to the Shemshak formation, the susceptibility of the debris flow and landslides has been increased. In Fajan conglomerates and limestones of the Ziarat and Cretaceous formations, the rockfalls is more formed.
where LI: area density, AL:  area of landslides in each lithological unit, AT: area of landslides in total area.
where LF: frequency of landslide, NL:  number of landslides in each lithological unit, NT: number of landslides in total area.
Result showed that despite significant heterogeneity in lithology, geotechnics, engineering geology and tectonic structures, there are similarities between the types and distribution of landslides. Four of the identified landslides consist of rock fall, toppling, avalanche in the resistant and medium strength rocks such as andesite, trachy-andesite and basalts of Karaj formation, Cretaceous orbitalolina limestone and Fajan conglomerate with regard to the dominant direction of the joints in relation to the slope, the shear strength of the joints and their weathering, falling and scree slope in thesiliceous zone and composite landslide in the argilite-alounite zone due to the high alteration and groundwater level and water retention by the presence of clay minerals, landslide in the sequence of loose and resistant rocks, debris flow and landslides in the soils of Shemshak formation due to the lepidoblastic texture of the slate and their high erosion potential due to the weather climate along the Manjil-Rudbar freeway../files/site1/files/151/4.pdf
Prof. Mohammad Nakhaei, Dr. Amin Mohebbi Tafreshi, Dr. Tofigh Saadi,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (12-2023)

A sharp drop in groundwater level as a result of indiscriminate extraction over a long period of time leads to the drying up of groundwater flows, which is called the phenomenon of groundwater drought. In this regard, this research aims to investigate the process of change and reduction of groundwater level, which is characterised by the phenomenon of groundwater drought. Based on this, the Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) was used to evaluate the drought condition of groundwater and analyse its spatial and temporal patterns based on groundwater level data of 21 observation wells between 1993 and 2019. ArcGIS software was used to create zone maps. The results of the research show that certain areas of the study area have experienced moderate to severe drought since 2001. In addition, the GRI zonation maps show that the southern and south-eastern regions of the aquifer have been more sensitive to drought than other parts of the aquifer during the defined period. The spatio-temporal pattern of groundwater drought in the aquifer shows that after a period of moderate drought from 2001 to 2003, the condition of the aquifer improved slightly, and generally stable conditions were established from 2001 to 2010, but since 2011, the occurrence of drought has intensified and the aquifer has been in severe to very severe drought conditions. These conditions highlight the need for careful attention and implementation of management measures. One of the study's recommendations is to use satellite data on groundwater levels to assess the progress of the drought, and compare it with the findings of this study.

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