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Showing 3 results for Nailed Wall

P Naghshin, H Shahir ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (11-2016)

Soil nailing is a prevalent method for temporary or permanent stabilization of excavations which, if it is used for permanent purposes, the seismic study of these structures is important. There are a few physical models, with limited information available, for the study of behavior of soil nailed walls under earthquake loading. Numerical methods may be used for the study of effects of various parameters on the performance of soil nailed walls, and this technique has been used in the current paper. In this research, the effects of various parameters such as the spacing, configuration, and lengths of nails, and the height of wall on seismic displacement of soil nailed walls under the various earthquake excitations were studied. To investigate the effects of the configuration and the lengths of nails on the performance of these structures, two configurations of uniform and variable lengths of nails have been used. To study the effects of the spacing between nails and the height of the wall the spacings of 2 and 1.5 meters and the heights of 14, 20, and 26 meters have been considered. The seismic analysis has been carried out using the finite element software Plaxis 2D. To analyze the lengths' of nails, it was assumed that the safety factors of stability of different models are constant, and the limit equilibrium software GeoSlope was used. After specification of the lengths of nails based on constant safety factor of stability, the deformations of the models under several earthquakes records were analyzed, and recommendations were made on minimizing the deformations of soil nailed walls under seismic loading.

Ibrahim Naeimifar, Shahaboddin Yasrobi, Ali Uromeie, Hatef Hashemi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (5-2017)

Evaluation of the excavation-induced ground movements is an important design aspect of supporting system in urban areas. This evaluation process is more critical to the old buildings or sensitive structures which exist in the excavation-affected zone. Frame distortion and crack generation are predictor, of building damage resulted from excavation-induced ground movements, which pose challenges to projects involving deep excavations. Geological and geotechnical conditions of excavation area have significant effects on excavation-induced ground movements and the related damages. In some cases, excavation area may be located in the jointed or weathered rocks. Under such conditions, the geological properties of supported ground become more noticeable due to the discontinuities and anisotropic effects. This paper is aimed to study the performance of excavation walls supported by nails in jointed rocks medium. The performance of nailed wall is investigated based on evaluating the excavation-induced ground movements and damage levels of structures in the excavation-affected zone. For this purpose, a set of calibrated 2D finite element models are developed by taking into account the nail-rock-structure interactions, the anisotropic properties of jointed rock, and the staged construction process using ABAQUS software. The results highlight the effects of different parameters such as joint inclinations, anisotropy of rocks and nail inclinations on deformation parameters of excavation wall supported by nails, and induced damage in the structures adjacent to the excavation area. The results also show the relationship between excavation-induced deformation and the level of damage in the adjacent structure.

Maryam Mokhtari, Kazem Barkhordari, Saeid Abbasi Karafshani,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (2-2020)

In recent years, with the growing use of the nailing method for stabilizing excavation walls, there has been a need for a comprehensive investigation of the behavior of this method. In the  previous studies, the behavior of nailed walls has been investigated in static and dynamic states and under different conditions. However, due to the different feature of near-field ground motions, it is  necessary to study the effect of these motions on the behavior of the nailed walls. Near-fault ground motion is significantly affected by the earthquake record direction and the rupture mechanism. So, in this study, to compare the effects of near-field and far-field ground motions, a two-dimensional (2D) soil- nailed wall was considered. PLAXIS 2D was used for the modeling of the soil-nailed wall system. An excavation with a dimension of 10 meters in height was taken into the account. In this study, 10 records (Five fault-normal near-field ground motion records and five far-field ground motion records), were recorded  on the rock and  applied to the model. These ground motion records were derived from the near-fault ground motion record set used by Baker. These records were scaled to the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35g and then applied to the bottom of the finite element models. Mohr-Coulomb model was then used to describe the soil behavior, and Elasto-plastic model was employed for the nails. A damping ratio of 0.05 was considered at the fundamental periods of the soil layer. The results showed that the  generated values of bending moment, shear force and axial force in nails under the effect of the near-fault ground motions were  more than those in the far-ault ground motions. These values were  almost equal to 23% for the maximum bending moment, 30% for the  shear force,  and 22% for the axial force. The created displacement under the effect of near-fault ground motions was  more than that in the far-fault since a higher energy was  applied to the model in the near-field ground motions during a short time (pulse-like ground motions). In contrast, in the far-fault ground motions, due to the more uniform distribution of energy during the record, such pulse-like displacements were not observed in the system response. Increasing in nail length and soil densification, decreases the displacement of the soil-nailed wall but does not change the general behavior of the soil under the effect of near-field ground motions. Based on the obtained results, for a constant PGA, there were  positive correlations between the values of the  maximum displacement on the top of the wall and  the PGV values of near-fault ground motion records. However, the mentioned correlations were  not observed in the case of far-fault ground motions.

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