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Showing 5 results for Tensile Strength

Abbas Zeighmi, ,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (11-2016)

The Sharbyan river is located in the Sharbyan village, Sarab, East Azarbaijan province. This river alluvials are supplied from rock units belonging to Oligo-miocene and Miocene, including conglomerate, sandy lime, limestone, marl and shale. These deposits are used as raw materials of producing hot asphalt in two asphalt plants that have been built in the vicinity of this river, and the produced asphalt is used mainly in the neighbor provinces that have rather cold climate. Combined analysis of the sediments indicate high level of silica, around 60 percent, for which  the prepared asphalt  is prone to stripping phenomenon in the cold seasons. During this process, the moisture penetration in aggregates and asphalt mixtures, causes weakening bitumen-asphalt materials bounding and finally asphalt demolition.  The role of sediments and its impact on the quality of asphalt has not been studied in this area, therefore, the solutions for dealing with this phenomenon is also examined and presented. This study is based on the conventional sedimentology methods, different standards of ASTM, AASHTO and Ministry of Roads and Urban Development guidelines. In this study, the combined effects of hydrated lime (lime filler) and natural filter materials with different proportions was used to deal with the stripping phenomenon, and  the parameters of strength, softness, indirect tensile strength, asphalt quality and durability criteria, have been appraised. The results show that these parameters are improved using additives in various proportions and the produced asphalt quality and durability is better. The results illustrate, when the lime is used in its maximum ratio of 3%, stripping score is 1 and is disappeared by other parameters improvement

Mehdi Hosseini, Koroush Abdolghanizadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2017)

./files/site1/files/1.pdfExtended Abstract
(Paper pages157-174)
Considering the fact that the estimation of mode  fracture toughness by testing is time-consuming and expensive. It might be associated with certain practical difficulties. Therefore, many researchers have attempted to propose experimental relationships in order to capture these problems. Gunsallus et al. (1984) and Bhagat (1985) experimentally found that mode  fracture toughness is related to tensile strength. Whittaker et al. (1992) have also proposed a number of relationships between mode I fracture toughness, tensile strength, point load index, uniaxial compressive strength and the velocity of sound waves. Bearman (1999) obtained an experimental relationship between mode I fracture toughness and point load index, while Brown et al. (1997) presented an experimental relationship between this parameter and density. Up to now no significant research effort has been made in this field in Iran, only Ayatollahi and Fatehi addressed rock fracture toughness. Although, Ayatollahi has not presented any experimental relationships. In the present research the three-point bending test was used on a cylindrical specimen containing a straight crack in order to determine the mode  fracture toughness, and the Brazilian test was employed to determine tensile strength.
Materials and Methods
The tests were carried out on six types of rocks, namely gray sandstone,
tuff, lithic tuff, travertine, andesite, and limestone. Sandstone, travertine, and limestone are sedimentary rocks, while andesite is an extrusive igneous rock, and tuff and lithic tuff are pyroclastic rocks (pyroclastic rocks resulting from volcanic eruptions that harden by sedimentation). Therefore, the studied rocks have different origins. In order to carry out the Brazilian and the three-point bending test, cores were prepared from these blocks. In order to perform the three-point bending test, specimens with diameter of 73 mm with a thickness of 30 mm were used. The samples were cut in two semicircular by a cutting machine, and a notch with length of 15 mm is created by a diamond saw.  Notch is vertical in the center of the semicircular samples.
The Brazilian test was performed on disc shaped specimens. In order to perform the Brazilian test, specimens with diameter of 51 mm and thick of 25 mm were used. The specimens are carefully placed under the curved jaws of the machine and then loaded until fracture.
Results and Discussion
A summary of the Brazilian and the three-point bending test results are presented in Table 1. The average value of test result pertaining to each rock is reported in Table 1.
Table 1. Summary of the Brazilian and the three-point bending test results
Specimen Tensile Strength (MPa) Fracture Toughness (MPa√m)
Limestone 3.74 1.23
Sandstone 7.14 1.63
Tuff 16.36 2.17
Lithic Tuff 4.34 1.01
Andesite 13.25 1.86
Travertine 8.27 1.14
In this study, it was attempted to propose an experimental relationship between mode I fracture toughness and the tensile strength of the rock.
In order to determine the relationship between the tensile strength and the fracture toughness, the tensile strength vs. fracture toughness diagram was plotted in Excel to obtain Eq. 1 and the coefficient of determination (R2) (Figure 1).

The coefficient of determination (R2) in Eq. 1 shows that almost 80 percent of the mode I fracture toughness variations can be estimated using the linear relationship (Eq. 1). The relationship is applicable for determining the mode I fracture toughness resulting from the three-point bending test on semicircular specimens containing a straight crack.

In the following, the results of this study are compared to those reported by Whittacker (1992) and Zhang (2002).
In order to examine the accuracy of the presented relationships, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) measure was used which is computed from Eq. 2. In the best case, RMSE is zero. 

In the relationships,   represents the fracture toughness obtained from testing while  is the fracture toughness estimated using the relationships.
Comparison of the obtained results indicate that the proposed relationship has the capability of precise estimation of the mode I fracture toughness of rocks.
Given the many difficulties associated with the direct estimation of fracture toughness, indirect estimation methods have been proposed. One of such methods is the estimation of mode I fracture toughness using tensile strength. A linear relationship with a coefficient of determination of 0.7977 was proposed. The accuracy of this relationship has been verified by comparing its results to those from previous studies.

Mohammad Hosein Ghobadi, Paria Behzadtabar,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (1-2018)

Rock anisotropy plays an important role in engineering behavior of rocks. Slates are anisotropic rocks which have long been used for gable roof, floor tiles, borrow materials, and other purposes. The slates studied in this research are calcareous and have a porphyro-lepidoblastic texture. To determine the role of the anisotropy on the tensile strength and fracture pattern, two variables including ψ (the core axis angle to foliation) and β (the angle between the axis of loading and foliation) in the Brazilian tests were used. The angles were selected at 15° intervals. Thus, for both ψ and β, seven angles of 0˚, 15˚, 30˚, 45˚, 60˚, 75˚, and 90˚ were selected (i.e., there are 43 possible modes). In order to name and examine the failure pattern, 11 models were proposed. The average value of the failure strength for the three stations varies from 3.21 MPa to 20.94 MPa. Based on the obtained results, there is a direct relation between the average tensile strength and density. A comparison between Brazilian test data under dry and saturation conditions shows that the saturated Brazilian tensile strength is 30.8% less than the dry Brazilian tensile strength. Moreover, the changes in fracture length with the changes in ψ and β indicate an inverse relation. Eventually, the average of tensile strength (σt) and strength anisotropy index (Ia) demonstrates that the influence of orientation angle (ψ) is much larger than that of foliation-loading angle (β).
Mojtaba Bahaaddini,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (5-2018)

Determination of the mechanical properties of rock materials has been remained as a challenge for engineering geologists. In-situ tests are rarely used to determine the mechanical properties of rocks due to difficulties in sample preparation, performing and interpretation of the results, high costs as well as the required long time for doing the experiments. The common approach to determine the mechanical properties of rock materials is through conducting laboratory experiments and estimation the in-situ properties based on these laboratory results. This approximation, which is called scale effect, has been remained as a challenge for engineering geologists and practical rock engineers for decades. ...../files/site1/files/0Extended_Abstract1.pdf
Ehsan Amjadi Sardehaei, Gholamhosein Tavakoli Mehrjardi,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (12-2019)

This paper presents a feed-forward back-propagation neural network model to predict the retained tensile strength and design chart to estimate the strength reduction factors of nonwoven geotextiles due to the installation process. A database of 34 full-scale field tests was utilized to train, validate and test the developed neural network and regression model. The results show that the predicted retained tensile strength using the trained neural network is in good agreement with the results of the test. The predictions obtained from the neural network are much better than the regression model as the maximum percentage of error for training data is less than 0.87% and 18.92%, for neural network and regression model, respectively. Based on the developed neural network, a design chart has been established. As a whole, installation damage reduction factors of the geotextile increases in the aftermath of the compaction process under lower as-received grab tensile strength, higher imposed stress over the geotextiles, larger particle size of the backfill, higher relative density of the backfill and weaker subgrades.


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