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Showing 7 results for Uniaxial Compressive Strength

Volume 1, Issue 3 (3-2004)

The paper discusses the application of the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer for determination of the uniaxial compressive strength of discontinuity surfaces of rock masses. The result revealed that there is no correlation between L-type rebound hammer values and uniaxial compressive strength, if it is applied on natural rough joint surfaces under saturated conditions.

Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2011)

(Paper pages 1159-1178)
Young’s modulus measured as the slope of the stress-strain curve under static loading conditions (Es) in the lab is one of the most essential parameters for reservoir geomechanical modeling. However, information on the value of Es along the well length is often discontinuous and limited to cross well with the core. On the other hand, well log data for wave velocities Vp and Vs are often available for most hydrocarbon reservoirs. Hence, well-known equations are needed to calculate static Young’s modulus based on the compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp and Vs) that is dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed). Unfortunately, because of porosity and micro cracks in rock texture, Es and Ed are not equal. Therefore, correlation between static and dynamic parameters could result in a continuous and more reliable knowledge on the elastic parameters along the well length. In this research, laboratory experiments were carried out on limestone rock core specimens of Sarvak formation obtained from an oil well in the South West of Iran. Empirical relations were suggested to estimate UCS and static Young’s modulus from compressional wave velocity (Vp) and dynamic Young’s modulus. These empirical relations are prerequisite for continuous wellbore stability analysis in oil and gas well drilling
E Ahmadi Sheshdeh, Akbar Cheshomi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Measuring of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of intact rocks is required in many engineering projects. In deep well drilling for petroleum production or exploration drilling in deep tunnels, because of depth of wells, obtaining suitable core samples for UCS test is too expensive and sometimes impossible. Therefore, indirect methods for determine UCS (for example using rock particles) are common. One of these methods is known as indentation test. In this test an indenter that is hard penetrates into rock particle which is surrounded by resin used. In this paper, 11 microcrystalline limestone block samples from carbonate Zagros formation outcrops were prepared and UCS test in laboratory was performed. Then cores are crushed and 720 rock particle samples with 2, 3 and 4 millimeter size was prepared. Indentation test with indenter 0.6, 0.8 and 1 millimeter diameter was done and critical transitional force (CTF) for each particles was determined. Empirical equation between UCS and CTF for different samples and has been provided. Based on the obtained results it is suggestedto utilize indenter with a R2&ge0.78. Using multiple regression general equation between UCS, CFT, particle size (D) indenter diameter (I), R2=0.85 is proposed. 135 indentation tests were performed on 3 microcrystalline limestone samples with the aim of verification of obtained empirical equations. Comparing measured UCS in laboratory and estimated UCS values showed 88% similarity
Dr Ali M. Rajabi, Alireza Hossini, Alireza Heidari,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (1-2018)

In many rock engineering projects, accurate identification of rock strength properties is very important. Uniaxial compressive strength is one of the most important features to describe the resistive behavior of rocks which is used as an important parameter in the design of structures especially underground openings. Determination of this parameter using direct methods, including uniaxial compressive strength tests is costly and time-consuming, and also sometimes preparation of standard samples in many rocks is difficult. In such cases, the implementation of some simple and non-destructive tests and using empirical relations can increase the evaluation speed and reduce costs. These relations even regional or local (For example within a geological formation or a single lithology) can help in the estimation of these parameters in order to be used in geotechnical projects. In this study, samples of existing limestones in south west of Tehran (Capital of Iran) were prepared and uniaxial compressive strength, point load, Schmidt hammer and Shear wave velocity tests on which have been performed. Then by the statistical evaluations of the results, the empirical relations between uniaxial compressive strength and the results of other tests are obtained. The comparison between the predicted and observed values of uniaxial compressive strength represents the validity of obtained empirical relations. The application of the proposed relations for limestones in the study area and those with similar geological conditions will provide acceptable results.
Mehrdad Emami Tabrizi, Bahareh Mohammad Seyyedi,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (8-2019)

Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is one of the environment-friendly soil improvement methods that uses urease activity of the microorganisms to bound soil grains.
This method is based on three following steps:
1. Urea hydrolysis by urease activity of microorganisms and formation of ammonium and carbonate ions:
2. The reaction between carbonate and calcium ions and formation of calcium carbonate:
3. Bonding the soil particles by calcium carbonate.
One of the main challenges in use of MICP for soil improvement is the selection of proper injection method. An efficient injection method should lead to the construction of a homogeneous specimen beside of less used materials. In this study, a new method based on the theory of convection of liquids, for injection of bacteria and cementation solution is introduced.
Specimens are made according to the new injection method and their strength and homogeneities are tested. The obtained results are compared with the specimens which are made based on common injection method. Eventually, the success of the proposed injection method is investigated.
Material and methods
Gram-positive microorganism Sporosarcina Pasteurii No. 1645 (DSM 33) is provided from Persian type culture collection (PTCC). To make sand columns, Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) tubes were used with an internal diameter of 5cm and length of 12cm. Molds were placed vertically and a scouring pad and approximately 1 cm gravel as a filter are placed at the bottom of the column. Then the column packed with pure silica (Table 1). Finally, a scouring pad and approximately 1 cm gravel as a filter are placed at top of the column and mold were closed with a threaded Polypropylene layer on top and bottom with a hole for injection of bacteria and cementation solutions.
Table 1. Sand properties used in this study
Soil Type Gs γd e D10 D30 D60
Sw 2.6 1.84 41% 0.11 mm 0.43mm 0.85mm
In this study, a new multi-step method of injecting bacterial and cementation solutions is introduced. Injection of solutions is done after washing the sand column with distilled water. At the first step, 0.25 times of the void volume of soil, the bacterial solution is injected into the sand column. The bacteria allowed resting in the sand for 2 hours before the cementation solution was injected. After 2 hours, cementation solution is injected into the sand column by the amount of 0.25 times of pore volume of soil. The cementation solution consisted of 1.5 M urea and 3 M Calcium chloride. Again after 2 hours delay, bacterial solution and cementation solution are injected into sand column both by the amount of 0.25 times of pore volume of soil, same as aforementioned steps. In order to provide a comparison between the proposed injection methods of this study with conventional injection method, specimens are also made by the conventional method. In these specimens, bacterial solution and cementation solution are injected into the soil both by the amount of 1.5 times of pore volume of soil.
Results and discussion
To evaluate the homogeneity of the biologically improved sand specimens, the specimen is divided into 6 equal parts and the amount of calcium carbonate in each part is measured. It is found that calcium carbonate crystals are formed more homogenous in parts of specimens which are improved by new injection method (Figure 1). While specimens improved with conventional injection method are not homogeneous. The new injection method used in this study is based on the theory of convection in cementation and bacterial solution. Since the specific gravity of used cementation solution (3M urea and 1.5M calcium chloride solution) is 1.120 gr/cm3 and the specific gravity of ammonium chloride (which is the result of reaction between ammonium and chloride ions) is 1.031 gr/cm3, therefore a convection flow occurs in cementation solution after urease reaction (reaction 1) because of difference in specific gravity of two mentioned solutions. This convection flow causes a sustainable contact between cementation and bacterial solution in entire height of specimen.

Figure 1. Amount of calcium carbonate deposition along improved specimens by new and conventional injection method
To examine the efficiency of newly suggested injection method in this study, uniaxial compressive strength test (UCS) is performed on biologically improved sand specimens. Figure 2 shows stress-strain curves of specimens. The peak strength of specimens with conventional injection method is about 0.6 MPa. While the peak strength of biologically improved specimens prepared by new injection method is about 1.6 MPa. The reason for this difference in the obtained results is that when the volume of bacterial solution is more than the pore volume of soil, a part of bacteria solution in the first step of injection is removed. Then with an injection of cementation solution, more amounts of bacteria removes from the specimen before efficient placement of bacteria between soil particles. However, in new injection method the total volume of injection solutions (bacterial and cementation solutions) are equal to the pore volume of soil and this prevents the removal of bacteria from a porous medium.

Figure 2. Uniaxial stress-uniaxial strain curves of biologically improved specimens
In this study, the feasibility of using a new injection method for biological soil improvement is investigated based on the theory of convection with the aim to decrease the volume of bacteria and cementation solution. In this method, the final volume of bacterial and cementation solutions are reached the soil void volume in 4 consecutive injection steps. Specimens are made to investigate the efficiency of the proposed injection method. Also, specimens are made base on conventional injection method to provide the comparing possibility. Studying the precipitated calcium carbonate along the specimens show more homogeneity in ones prepared by proposed injection method in comparison to the specimens made by the conventional method. The obtained results of UCS tests are also showed that specimens made by new injection method have the more uniaxial strength (1.6 MPa) while the conventional method specimens are presented the strength of 0.6 MPa. Eventually, the proposed injection method of this paper implies less amount of bacterial and cementation solutions in a proper and efficient manner to bond the soil particles which leads to specimens with more strength, stiffness and homogeneity../files/site1/files/131/2Extended_Abstract.pdf
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Volume 15, Issue 3 (12-2021)

In this study, due to the landslide in schist rocks, in the wall of Mouteh gold mines, including of the eastern wall of ChahKhatoon mine, it is important to identify the effective factors. Therefore, due to the diversity of schists in Chah Khatoon and Sanjadeh gold mines (two active mines in Mouteh Complex), to survey the mineralogy of schist rocks in Moteh gold mine has been done by identifying important factors in changes in rock strength. Cosequently, 10 schist samples from walls of these mines were considered for mineralogical, XRD studies. In the next step, these schists were subjected to uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Brazilian tests to estimate the mechanical properties and quality of rock mass in different zones of mineral walls. The results showed that the UCS and Brazilian index in these schists are directly and inversely related to the SiO2 and Al2O3 contents of the rocks, respectively, as well as the secondary structures.Some factors such as the presence of secondary structures, continuous surface area, particle size, and mineralogical composition play an important role in the failure modes of these rocks. UCS and Brazilian strength of schists vary from 10 MPa to 72 MPa and 1.9 to 10.2 MPa, respectively. The lowest UCS occurs in strongly weathered rocks with low silica content. However, the type of clay minerals is effective in the stability of the mineral wall. Considering the presence of montmorillonite clay mineral in the eastern wall of Chahkhatoun mine, the rock resistance is moderate despite the high percentage of silica. UCS values of wet and dry rock samples containing muscovite and montmorillonite clay minerals were more different from those of other rocks. In this regard, the rocks with Illite clay minerals are more resistant than Smectite and montmorillonite minerals. In general, the resistance of schists depends on various factors such as mineralogy, which is of great importance because of its involvement in the formation of secondary structures.


Maryam Mokhtari,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (5-2022)

In geotechnical engineering, rock mechanics and engineering geology, depending on the project design, uniaxial strength and static Youngchr('39')s modulus of rocks are of vital importance. The direct determination of the aforementioned parameters in the laboratory, however, requires intact and high-quality cores and preparation of their specimens have some limitations. Moreover, performing these tests is time-consuming and costly. Therefore, in this study, it was tried to precisely predict the desirable parameters using physical characteristics and ultrasonic tests. To do so, two methods, i.e. principal components regression and support vector regression, were employed. The parameters used in modelling included density, P- wave velocity, dynamic Poisson’s ratio and porosity. Accordingly, the experimental results conducted on 115 limestone rock samples, including uniaxial compressive and ultrasonic tests, were used and the desired parameters in the modelling were extracted using the laboratory results. By means of correlation coefficient (R2), normalized mean square error (NMSE) and Mean absolute error (MAE), the developed models were validated and their accuracy were evaluated. The obtained results showed that both methods could estimate the target parameters with high accuracy. In support vector regression, Particle Swarm Optimization method was used for determining optimal values of box constraint mode and epsilon mode, and the modelling was conducted using four kernel functions, including linear, quadratic, cubic and Gaussian. Here, the quadratic kernel function yielded the best result for UCS and cubic kernel function yielded the best result for Es. In addition, comparing the results of the principal components regression and the support vector regression indicated that the latter outperformed the former.

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