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Showing 6 results for Groundwater

Volume 1, Issue 3 (3-2004)

(paper pages 227-240) The Famenin,Kaboudar-Ahang,Ghahavand plains are located in the north of Hamedan province.The sediment thickness of thier aquifers is about 70-100 meters .In recent years, some big and dangerous sinkholes have been developed in this area.By the result of excavations that done in these plains and investigation of the sourrounded outcropped area,it was found that the bed rock of this area has been made of Oligo-miocen limestones. According to the field observation,the measuring of joints and fractures systems, stud of thin sections, characteristics of excavations, yield of wells, the results obtained by chemical experiments of water and the estimation of parameters such as saturation and stability indexes,the amount of free carbon dioxide and the primary pressure of carbon dioxide gas,it was concluded that the Karstification phenomenon was happened in the bed rock and the Endokarst structures exist in it. Thus,The exist of Endokarst in bed rock cased to wells have been had high yield and Sinkhole were made in these area.In order to avoid or reducing the occurrence rate of Sinkholes in this area, we should avoid digging new wells in the bed rock and should stop the pumping of wells which have been drilled in the bed rock and have high yield.

Volume 1, Issue 3 (3-2004)

(Paper pages 255-270) The groundwater protection is important in order to have a good management of water resources. The Ghazvin plain situated in west of Tehran, Iran has a critical situation in which the groundwater level declines and aquifer pollution has been observed in recent years. In this research, for evaluating the groundwater vulnerability, DRASTIC index has been used for this plain. Then, a Geographic Information System (GIS), ILWIS has been used to create a groundwater vulnerability map. The results of this study estimated DRASTIC value to be in the range of 35-108 using general DRASTIC value, almost 11% of the study area was recognized to have low feasibility, 43% moderate and 37% high and 10% very high feasibility for pollution. The DRASTIC results show a good adaptation between increasing the nitrate rate and the DRASTIC index

Volume 3, Issue 1 (11-2009)

(Paper pages 591-614)
The Zydoun plain experiences semi-arid climatic conditionو and though groundwater quality is not commonly acceptable with respect to drinking, it is used for irrigation. The water withdrawal of water and its increasing trend would probably put the study area into critical condition to meet demand. The main sources of water supply in the region are Zydoun aquifer and Zoreh River. The better quality of groundwater in the extreme southern part of the plain and lower exploitation expenses are the reasons why farmers prefer to use groundwater rather than river water. As a result of over- exploitation from the Zydoun aquifer in the last years water table has been declined. In order to impede critical situation in the area, a detailed study regarding management of groundwater including physiography, meteoro-logy, hydrology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and geomor-phology were undertaken. Based on these investigations, a number of ephemeral streams in the southern part of the plain were recognized to be suitable in term of water quantity and quality to secure a part of water demand of the area. One of the optimum methods for long-term use of these water resources is injection of water into ground and withdrawal in required time. to this end, the collected data, were put together and it was found that the most suitable method of artificial recharge was channel modification. At the end, considering consideration, morphological, permeability condition and water demands in the southern part of the Zydoun plain, eleven sites for execution of water resources management were suggested which would annually augment aquifer storage by over one MCM.
Majid Dashti Barmaki, Mohsen Rezaei, Amir Saberi Nasr,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (11-2014)

This paper has evaluated the groundwater quality index of Lenjanat aquifer. Water quality index as a unique index is presented to describe overall water quality conditions using multiple water quality variables. Physical and chemical data of 66 water samples were used in this study. The results have been obtained by Comparing the qualitative features with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) standards. In calculating GQI, 7 parameters, including calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), sulfate (SO4), total dissolved solids (TDS) and nitrate (NO3) have been used. Groundwater quality index shows the medium to relatively high groundwater quality in the study area. Minimum and maximum value of the index is calculated as respectively 55 and 93. Land use map shows that along the Zayanderood River and around the location of rice paddies, water quality reaches to the lowest quantity. Optimum index factor technique allows the selection of the best combination of parameters dictating the variability of groundwater quality.
Fahimeh Salehi Moteahd, Naser Hafezi Moghaddas, Golamreza Lashkaripour3, Maryam Dehghani4,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (11-2019)

Mashhad city, the second largest metropolis of Iran, is located in an arid and semi-arid region. Overexploitation of groundwater in Mashhad plain has caused up to 22.5-meter drop in the groundwater level from 1984 to 2013. The groundwater depletion in the unconsolidated aquifer has resulted in subsidence and cracks on the land surface. To determine the land subsidence rate map and the reasons for hot spot subsidence, the latest Envisat images of the ESA Space Agency's Archive for Mashhad plain were used. leveling and GPS data were combined with the radar interferometry results and the annual subsidence rate maps with high precision were obtained. Finally, the geology and soil texture maps of study area are compared to the land subsidence map.
Methods and results
To assess the land subsidence in Mashhad plain three methods of leveling, GPS and Insar are used. Leveling data are available in three profile of of Mashhad-Quchan (BCBD), Mashhad-Kalat (BDBE) and Mashhad-Sarakhs (BEBN) in two time interval of 1994-2003. The highest rates of subsidence in the BCBD, BDBE and BEBN lines are 7, 3.5 and 8.1 cm/year, respectively. Six permanent GPS stations have been installed in Mashhad plain, among them, NFRD, GOLM and TOUS have recorded the land subsidence, with the highest annual rate of 21.2 cm/year at TOUS Station. The third method applied to assess the history of land subsidence was InSAR radar interferometry which provided the extent and pattern of subsidence in all of the study area. For this, 23 images of the Envisat ASAR are processed during the 05/24/2010 to 06/30/2003 time period. The highest subsidence rate estimated by this method was 32 cm/year in the northwest of Mashhad. In general, two subsidence bowls, in the northwest and south east of Mashhad city are identified. Fig. 1 shows the annual subsidence rate map in Mashhad plain. Using the root-mean-square error (RMSE), the accuracy of the InSAR method was verified with GPS and leveling data.
The rate and distribution of land subsidence in Mashhad plain are affected by geological factors such as soil texture, deposit thickness, geological structures and groundwater drawdown. The geological and geophysical studies and exploratory drilling results in the Mashhad Plain indicate that the bedrock morphology is very rough. The bedrock outcrops in some places while in some other places covered by more than 300 meters alluvial deposits. Generally, by distance from the mountain, alluvium thickness and as a result the likelihood of subsidence would be increased. Mashhad plain is surrounded by the active and quaternary faults in the north and south edges. In the north of Mashhad plain Marly bedrock is uplifted by Tous fault and outcropped in the north of fault. In the south of Mashhad two normal faults have resulted to the increase of alluvium thickness in south and central of Mashhad plain. The change of river pathway also let to deposition of a sequence of the fine-grained and coarse-grained soils in central of plain between Toos and southern branch of South Mashhad fault (F2).
used to draw the cross section
In order to evaluate the subsurface conditions and its effect on the land subsidence, the soil texture are studied using the deep water wells and piezometers log (Figure 2). Fig. 3 shows the longitudinal section (northwest to southeast) of the area. As it can be observed, the soil texture includes of alternation of fine and coarse grains layers (Figs. 4). In this condition, sandy soils help to shortening the drain path of clayey layers and leads to acceleration of the consolidation. The average rate of annual subsidence in the area is 14 cm for one meter of drop in the groundwater level.
Nowadays, in the urban area, due to the urban sewage waters, there is a rising of groundwater level.  Therefore, no land subsidence has occurred in the central parts of the city. It is expected by completion of urban sewage network about 62 million cubic meters of sewage water will be eliminated from the aquifer recharge, which will cause a notable drop in the groundwater level and prominent land subsidence in specific area of the city. Considering the geological conditions and the operation of the existing faults, it is expected that in the case of groundwater drop, no significant subsidence will occur in south of the F2 fault, due to the decrease in the alluvium thickness and to the coarse texture of the soil. But in the northern and northeastern parts of the city, which are located between F2 and the Tous faults, high rate of land subsidence is expected.
Figure 4: The cross section of soil texture and the annual average rate of land subsidence and groundwater level drop
Using the radar interferometry processing, the highest annual rate of subsidence in Mashhad plain is about 32 cm/year. Land subsidence in Mashhad plain has an increasing trend and the geological conditions have a critical role in the subsidence rate and its pattern. Generally, soil texture near the mountain area in South is coarse and grain size decreases toward the center of the plain. But because the outcrop of Marly formation in the north slopes, soil texture is mainly fine grains. In the center of Mashhad plain soil texture constituted of fine and coarse grains which are converted together as inter fingering facieses, which have a critical role in decreasing of the consolidation time and increasing the land subsidence rate. It is predicted by complimenting of the urban wastewater network, the groundwater level will be dropped in the city area and the northwest and southeast subsidence ellipsoids which already can be seen will be connected together. Therefore, the area between F2 and Toos faults, will be shown the highest rate of subsidence, due to high thickness and fine-grained soil texture../files/site1/files/133/5Extended_Abstracts.pdf
Ramin Sarikhani, Amin Jamshidi, Artimes Ghasemi Dehnavi ,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (1-2021)

Groundwater salinization in semiarid regions is a limiting factor of use with strategic importance. In this study, the sources of salinity, chemistry, and quality of groundwater in Robat (Khorramabad plain, Iran) were identified through the geochemical methods. Using data analysis, the concentration of cations and anions were recognized with the order of Ca2+>Na+ >Mg2+>K+ and HCO3-> Cl-> SO42+> NO3-> F-, respectively. The high concentration of Na+, Cl-, and EC in some places is attributed to the gypsum and salty formations. In the study area, the salinization processes are identified by natural and artificial activities. The salinization mechanisms are identified by the natural dissolution of gypsum and salt from Gachsaran formation and man-made sources including boreholes drilled through Gachsaran Formation, salt mining, and agricultural activity. Also, the high concentration of nitrate is related to agricultural fertilizers and karstification effects. It is seen that the atmospheric NO3-. HCO3-, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentration exceeded the standard limit in a few samples probably due to the calcareous formation. Besides, hydrochemical facies of the groundwater are Ca- HCO3 and Na-K-HCO3. Due to the presence of calcareous and salt bearing formations, 46%, 26%, and 20% of all samples show a higher concentration of Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+, respectively, which exceed the permissible limits. Sulfate and fluoride concentrations are less than the permissible limits. However, due to the presence of calcareous formation, salt bearing formation, and use of agricultural fertilizers, 100%, 26%, and 20% of all samples show a higher concentration of HCO3-, Cl-, and NO3- than the permissible limits.

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