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Showing 18 results for Landslide

Volume 1, Issue 2 (11-2003)

(Paper pages 179-192) Artificial Neural Network (ANN), has many abilities which have increade its application in different fields of engineering and geosciences. In this paper, the application of ANN in geological engineering(prediction of landslide hazard) in Talesh area, north of Iran, is evaluated. The results are shown that, the system is able to process input data by selecting effective parameters of landslide and give the landslide hazard potential as a ANN output. By considering the landslide hazard zonation map of the area and by using the ANN system, it becomes clear that, the Talesh area is a landslide hazard prone area. The most effective factors of slope instability of the area, are land use and land cover conditions, ground water and surface water effects, river erosion and tectonics activities.
B B, M Kh, ,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (11-2010)

Gotvand dam reservoir with over 90 km length is surrounded by Gachsaran, Mishan, Aghajari and Bakhtiari formations. The noticeable point in the dam reservoir is the presence of Gachsaran Formation that is composed of considerable volume of salt located  4 km upstream of dam. Salinity of dam water due to dissolution of salt in reservoir water can cause serious environmental problems. In addition to direct dissolution of salt in contact with reservoir water, slope instability can also influence on this process. Probable sliding in salty layers of slopes will insert a significant volume of salt in contact with reservoir water in a short time. In order to study the land-sliding process in reservoir area and also analysis of the effect of dissolution of salty layers on sliding, characteristics of dominant material engineering of mass constituent were defined by rock mechanics experiments. Then the results of performed tests on rock samples and GSI method were used to estimate the engineering parameters of rock mass. To investigate the land-sliding process in reservoir area and also the effect of dissolution of salty layers on sliding, some salt samples were transferred to the laboratory. Using circulation method, solubility of those samples were examined in different conditions. The results were generalized to the reservoir condition. Eventually, slope stability were analyzed by modeling with SLIDE software, considering different levels of reservoir water, influence of dissolution of salty layers. The obtained results indicate that slidings in reservoir area are mostly shallow and are caused by dissolution of salty layer.
Salman Soori, , , ,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (4-2012)

The Keshvari watershed is located at south east of Khorramabad city in Lorestan province. This area is one part of the folded Zagros zone based on structural geology classification. By consider the type of geological formations, topographic conditions and its area, this watershed is very unstable and capable for occurring landslide. In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) with structure of multi-layer percepteron and Back Propagation learning algorithm used for zonation of landslide risk. The results of ANN showed the final structure of 9-11-1 for zonation of landslide risk in Keshvari watershed. According this zonation, 23.81, 7.53, 6.49, 18.68 and 43.47 percent of area are located in very low, low, moderate, high and very high risk classes, respectively.
Somaieh Akbar, H Ranjbar, S Kariminasab, M Abdolmaleki,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2013)

The study area is located in Jiroft district, Iran, and is a part of Sahand-Bazman volcanic zone. There are various landslide factors and the importance of each factor are identified qualitatively, based on previous studies and regional specifications. Three landslides were recognized in the study area using direct method (field work) and aerial photographs interpretation. One of these landslides is located in the vicinity of Mohammad Abad of Maskoon Village. The aim of this study is landslide hazard mapping using two integration methods that includes Fuzzy Logic and Hybrid Fuzzy-Weight of Evidence (Hybrid F-W of E). The obtained results of maps from both methods, show a good agreement especially in introducing  high hazard regions. The hybrid method is based on the occurred landslide points and is more rigorous, so hazard regions delineated by this method occupy smaller areas than the areas introduced by fuzzy model. Therefore, hazard maps resulted from Hybrid and Fuzzy methods, can be considered as minimum and maximum limits of landslide hazard in the area, respectively. 
S. M. Fatemiaghda, V. Bagheri, M Mahdavifar,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2013)

In this research, one of the new methods for seismic landslides hazard zonation (CAMEL) to predict the behavior of these types of landslides have been discussed.  It is also tried to eveluate this method with the proposed Mahdavifar method.  For achieving this result, the influence of  Sarein earthquake (1997), have been selected as a case study. In order to apply seismic hazard zonation, the methodology of Computing with Words (CW), an approach using fuzzy logic systems in which words are used in place of numbers for computing and reasoning is employed. First, the required information which includes disturbance distance, ground strength class, moisture content, shake intensity, slope angle, slope height, soil depth, terrain roughness, and vegetation have been collected using air photos, Landsat Satellite images, geological and topographic maps, and site investigation of the studied region. The data is digitized and weighted using Geological Information System (GIS). At the next step, the hazard rate and areal concentrations with respect to landslide types are calculated using CAMEL program and then, landslides hazard map produced by the above mentioned method is compared with landslides occurred as a result of Sarein earthquake. Finally, for evaluating on prediction of the earthquake-induced landslides, empirical comparison have been done between CAMEL and Mahdavifar methods.
Hossein Soltani-Jigheh, Naser Shirdel,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2014)

A slope overlooking conveyor-belt system in Sungun copper mine complex has been downfall in 2006 and the buildings located on the upper part of the slope has been moved and destructed. Since the conveyor-belt system is an important part of the production process that transports excavated material from original stock to the rock-crusher equipment and to have continuous and firm production in the mining process, this slope must be stable during exploitation period safely. For this purpose, in this paper, first the structural and engineering geology of the area was studied and then the stability risk analysis is performed on the slope. According to the results of the stability analyses, the slope may be unstable against slip and probable instability may lead to damage or destroy conveyor-belt and its tunnel. Therefore, considering technical and cost conditions, slope geometry modification method with incorporation of the other methods are suggested to stabilization of the part of slope above conveyer belt. In addition, in the part of slope under conveyor-belt it is suggested to use other slope stabilization methods
Sm Fatemiaghda, V Bagheri, Mr Mahdavi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2014)

In the present study, landslides occurred during 1997 Sarein, Iran earthquake are discussed and evaluated. In order to meet the objectives, the Computing with Words (CW), an approach using fuzzy logic systems in which words are used in place of numbers for computing and reasoning is applied. Firstly, the necessary information which include disturbance distance, ground class, moisture, shaking intensity, slope angle, slope height, soil depth, terrain roughness, and land-use have been collected using air photos, LANDSAT satellite images, geological and topographic maps, and site investigation of the studied region. The data is digitized and weighted using ARCGIS software. At the next step, the hazard rate and predicted areal concentrations of landslides with respect to their types are calculated using CAMEL software (Miles & Keefer, 2007). CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using geographical information system(GIS). Finally, landslides hazard map is compared to landslides triggered by Sarein earthquake.
H Atapour, R Ahmadi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2015)

In present research, landslide hazard zonation of Latian dam watershed area has been carried out using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Valuing area accumulation, Factor overlay and Information value methods. At first, different maps comprising slope, aspect, altitude, faults, drainage network, access roads, lithology, land use and friction angle maps were prepared digitally using GIS. Afterward affecting factors were evaluated using old landslides. The results of evaluation show that seven parameters are important effective factors on sliding in this area. These parameters were leaded to landslide zonation maps. These maps show that potentially high risk zones point of view landslides are located near the central and western boundaries of the reservoir. Performance of four used classification methods were evaluated and compared. The evaluation results show that Valuing area accumulation and Factor overlay are precise methods for evaluating landslide potential in the study area respectively
Salman Soori, Siamak Baharvand,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2016)

Landslide is one of the mass movement processes that occur in Iran and parts of the world every year. It causes huge human loss and economical damages. In order to check the stability of slopes in Kakasheraf basin, in the first step sliding areas were identified using the aerial photography and field surveys and then distribution map of landslide is provided. The impact of each of these factors which included dip, aspect, altitude, lithology, landuse and distance from the road and drainage are assessed through Arc GIS software merging the effective factors on landslide with the landslide distribution map. Then these factors were prioritized using AHP model. In this study, the fuzzy logic and density area method has been used in the Kakasheraf basin in order to identify landslide hazard zonation. The empirical probability index (EPI) has been used to assess and classify the models outputs in the landslide risk estimation.Results show that the fuzzy logic is more applicable method than density area model for mapping the landslide risk in Kakasheraf basin
, M Fallah,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (11-2016)

This paper presents landslide assessment and landslide hazard zonation of the Polroud Dam area. Polroud Dam is one of the largest dams that are in construction, 29 km south of Roudsar in Gilan Province. Considering to geomorphology and geological conditions of the area, the site is susceptible to landslide hazard. Field survey shows many evidences of the instabilities especially in the slopes overlooking to the dam and the reservoir. The historical record also demonstrates high potential of the region to slope instabilities. A large landslide that occurred in 1996 discern that the frequency of the hazard in the region. Therefore, Identification of the landslide potential hazard is vital before impounding the reservoir. In this study, we investigated landslide hazard in the site and we have prepared landslide hazard zonation map using the main parameters. These parameters include; slope percent, slope aspect, lithology, fault, roads, drainage catchment, elevation, vegetation and precipitation amount. Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) has been used to prepare and to cross the maps. The results show that about 26 percent of the slopes are situated in highly hazard zones. It was determined also that lithology and slope aspects play main role in occurring of the landslides in the study area.

N Salimi , M Fatemiaghda , M Teshnehlab , Y Sharafi ,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (2-2017)

Landslides are natural hazards that make a lot of economical and life losses every year. Landslide hazard zonation maps can help to reduce these damages. Taleghan watershed is one the susceptible basin to landslide that has been studied. In this paper, landslide hazard zonation of the study area is performed at a scale of 1:50,000. To achieve this aim, layers information such as landslides distribution, slope, aspect, geology (lithology), distance from the faults and distance from rivers using artificial neural network-based Radial Basis Function (RBF) and perceptron neural network (MLP), has been studied. Principal of RBF method is similar to perceptron neural network (MLP), which its ability somewhat has been identified up to now and there are several structural differences between these two neural networks. The final results showed that the maps obtained from both methods are acceptable but the MLP method has a higher accuracy than the RBF method.

Mohammad Hosein Ghobadi, Seyed Hosein Jalali, Bahman Saedi, Noshin Pirouzinajad,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (8-2017)

./files/site1/files/5Extended_Abstract.pdf Extended Abstract
 (Paper pages 91-114)
Due to possibility of occurrence in various natural environments and the variety of natural and artificial factors that affect landslides, landslide has special importance in natural hazards. Depending on the landform, several factors can cause or accelerate the landslide. According to previous researches, Human activities, land morphology, geological setting, slope, aspect, climate conditions, proximity to some watershed features such as rivers and faults are the most important parameters. Landslides occur frequently each year and they can cause heavy losses which compensating some of them requires a lot of money and time.
Assessing landslide related hazards with only limited background information and data is a constant challenge for engineers, geologists, planners, landowners, developers, insurance companies, and government entities.
The landslide occurrence in terms of time and place are not easily predictable, for this reason, Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) or Landslide Susceptibility Zonation (LSZ) maps are used to predict the happening of landslides. A landslide susceptibility map depicts areas likely to have landslides in the future by correlating some of the principal factors that contribute to landslides with the past distribution of slope failures. These maps are basic tools for land-use planning, especially in mountain areas. Landslide susceptibility mapping relies on a rather complex knowledge of slope movements and their controlling factors. The reliability of landslide susceptibility maps mostly depends on the amount and quality of available data, the working scale and the selection of the appropriate methodology of analysis and modeling.
Such maps are obtained by dividing of a region into near-homogeneous domains and weighting them according to the degree of possible hazard of a landslide. There are two ways to do landslide hazard zonation: (i) a qualitative approach that is based on expert knowledge of the target area and portrays susceptibility zoning in descriptive terms; and, (ii) a quantitative approach based on statistical algorithms. In the present study of landslide susceptibility zonation, bivariate statistical methods (information value, density area, LNRF, frequency ratio) were used. In bivariate statistical analysis, each factor map is combined with the landslide distribution map and weighting values based on landslide densities are calculated for each parameter class.
Materials and Methods
The best method for studying landslides, which has long been of interest to researchers, is hazard zonation. In this method due to the affecting factors in landslide occurrence, the study area is classified into areas with low to very high risk. Such zonation could be of great help in regional planning. Different methods have been developed for this purpose. In this research four bivariate statistical methods namely information value, density area, LNRF, and frequency ratio are used to investigate the hazard zonation in Poshtdarband region, Kermanshah province. The study began with the preparation of a landslide inventory map. The instability factors used in this study included geology, land use, normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), slope gradient, aspect, distance from faults, distance from surface water, distance from roads, profile curvature and plan curvature. Landslide area ratio was calculated in classes of effective factors maps and weighted by four bivariate statistical methods. In addition, landslide hazard zonation maps were obtained from algebraic sum of weighted maps with regard to breakpoints of frequency curve. Finally, by using density ratio (Dr) Index through all four methods hazard classes were compared and with the help of quality sum (Qs) and precision (P) indexes these four methods were compared and evaluated.
Results and Discussion
If the landslide susceptibility analyses are performed effectively, they can help engineers, contractors, land use planners, etc. minimize landslide. In this study, bivariate statistical methods were applied to generate landslide susceptibility maps using the instability factors. The bivariate approach computes the frequency of landslides with respect to each input factor separately, and the final susceptibility map is a simple combination of all the factors irrespective of their relative significance in causing landslides in a particular region.
In table 1 subclasses of instability factors which had the highest value in different methods, are summarized.
The density ratio indexes (Dr), quality sum indices (Qs) and precision indices (P) were used to compare the methods. By overlaying the landslide inventory map of the study area and landslide hazard zonation maps, quality sum (Qs) and precision (P) indices introduce a suitable model for the studied region, and density ratio index (Dr) introduces division precision among the zones or hazard classes in each zonation model.
Table1. subclasses of instability factors in different methods which had the
highest value
            factor methods aspect Slope distance from surface water land use plan curvature profile curvature distance from fault distance from the roads NDMI
information value N, NE >40 >1000 forest concave concave <500 >1000 -0.17_ -0.408
density area N, NE >40 >1000 forest concave concave <500 >1000 -0.17_ -0.408
LNRF SW, S 10-20 >1000 pasture Convex convex <500 >1000 -0.17_ -0.408
frequency ratio N, NE >40 >1000 forest concave concave <500 >1000 -0.17_ -0.408
The density ratio for information value method in the very high hazard class is accounted 1.700495. These values for density area, frequency ratio, and LNRF methods are, 3.407827, 3.402257, and 1.694628 respectively.
Method precision (P) values for information value, density area, frequency ratio, and LNRF methods are 0.160826, 0.241024, 0.240672 and 0.16942 respectively.
  • Frequency ratio, density area and information value methods showed that forest land use, slope and slope shape factors have the highest impacts on a landslide occurrence.
  • The LNRF method showed that geology factors, pasture land use and distance from surface water had the greatest role in landslide making.
  • For frequency ratio, information value, and density area methods, the effective factors in landslide are the same, however through the LNRF method, the three factors which have the greatest impact on landslide happening, are generally different from the three other methods.
  • The density ratio values show that density area and frequency ratio methods respectively have more accuracy and applicability within all used methods for separating hazard classes in the study area.
  • The quality sum (Qs) results indicate that although there are minor differences, the frequency ratio compared to the density area method was more accurate and more applicable for separating landslide hazard in the Poshtdarband region.
  • The calculated results of P index indicated that among the used methods, the density area method with a nuance of the frequency ratio method is the most suitable method for the study area.

K Saberchenari, H Salmani, Ms Mirabedini,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (5-2018)

Landslides are natural events that one or more factors can effect in its occurrence that each of them plays a special role in this field. The hazard assessments of this phenomenon are a complicated problem due to the interference of the effective factors in its occurrence. The uncertainty that is due to ambiguous conditions of geology characteristics, hydrology, tectonics, land cover, rain, erosion, temperature fluctuations in the slope instability demonstrate the benefit of accurate methods in the study of slope instability. Since the prediction of the landslide occurrence is out of the power of current knowledge, identifying sensitive areas to landslide and ranking it can protect us from landslide dangers. According to preliminary estimates, annually 140 million dollar financial damages inflict by landslides over the country, while the loss of unrecoverable natural resources is not counted. In general, the ultimate goal of studying landslides can be found the ways that to reduce damages caused by them. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare the landslide hazard map.
The main goal of this research is landslide hazard zonation of Ziarat watershed using Dempster-Shafer. For this purpose, 13 modeling approach (using all factors and eliminating of individual factors) to prepare the hazard maps have used. Ultimately, the accuracy of the model has been evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The study area is one of the most prone areas to the landslide in the Golestan region. Sensitive lithology units, high diversity of topography and land-use changes have increased landslide susceptibility in this area. Therefore, investigation of effective factors in landslide occurrence and providing zonation maps to take management action in this area is necessary.
Material and methods
The study area is located in northern Iran, Golestan province. The Ziyarat watershed with an area of about 7800 hectares lies between longitudes 54º 10ʹ 13ʺE and 54º 23ʹ 55ʺE, and latitudes of 36º 36ʹ 58ʺN and 36º 46ʹ 11ʺN. At first, extensive field observations of the study area and aerial photos in 1:25000 scales have been used. So, a total of 50 sliding points are recognized and inventory map is produced (dependent variables). Then, 70% of total points (35 points) have considered for hazard zonation maps and 30% (15 points) for model validation.
In this research, twelve factors affecting (independent variables) landslide occurrence to provide hazard maps were applied. These factors include land-use, soil texture, geology, rainfall, slope, aspect, altitude, distance from faults, roads and rivers, stream power index (SPI) and plan curvature (CP). These factors can be divided into three broad categories which are topographical, geological and environmental conditioning parameters. The maps of these 12 factors have been produced using basis maps (DEM and Geology maps) in GIS software. The amount of Landslide density in each factor class have calculated from a combination of independent and dependent variables, and rating of classes have done based on Dempster-Shafer equations. Finally, the Landslide hazard zoning map has drawn from the summation of weighting maps in Arc GIS with 13 approaches. In this map, Value of each pixel is calculated by summing weight of all factors in that pixel. The pixel values are categorized based on natural breaks classifier into very low, low, medium, high and very high hazard zones. Then, an accuracy of zoning map has been evaluated by ROC.
Results and discussion
The result of effecting factors on landslide classification shows that Mobarak formation, forest and agriculture land use, areas with low distance from road and rivers, low altitudes, rainfall buffer of 550-650 mm, northwest aspect, clay-loam soil texture, areas with high stream power index, high slope amplitude and area with fault density lower than 2 km/km2 contain the most susceptibility to landslide. The result of model validation using ROC demonstrates that with eliminating lithology factor Dempster-Shafer model with 92.9% accuracy is located in the great class. Also, the model accuracy shows that with eliminating rain and altitude factors the model accuracy is decreased to 73.8% and 80.4%, respectively. So, these two factors were identified as the most effective factors in the occurrence of the landslide in the studied area. Based on the landslide zoning hazard map of the Ziarat watershed and landslide points (15 points) that are considered for model validation the 20, 40, 26.67, 13.33 and zero percent of landslides is situated in the very high, high, moderate, low and very low hazard classes.
In this research, susceptible areas to landslide in the Ziarat watershed have been mapped with the Dempster-Shafer model. For this purpose, 13 modeling approach to prepare the hazard maps have been used. The following conclusions are obtained from this study.
- The rain and altitude factors were identified as the most effective factors in the occurrence of landslide in the Ziarat watershed.
- Based on the landslide zoning hazard map of the Ziarat watershed 60 percent of landslides is situated in the very high to high hazard classes.
- The produced landslide hazard map is useful for planners and engineers to reorganize the areas which are susceptible for landslide hazard, and offer appropriate methods for hazard reduction and management. ./files/site1/files/0Extended_Abstract4.pdf 
Siamak Baharvand, Salman Soori, Jafar Rahnamarad, Maseoud Joudaki,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (10-2018)

Earth is a dynamic system. Change is one of its features. At its surface, there is almost no region that over the past few thousand years has not affected its neotectonic activities. In fact, it can be said that active neotectonic is changing the surface of the earth. Among geological methods for analyzing active tectonic movements, deciphering the geomorphology and morphotectonic nature play a very important role, because many geomorphic complications are sensitive to active tectonic movements and the geometric analysis of these complications provides evidence of the type, rate, and configuration of active tectonic deformations. Moreover, these geomorphic indices at a regional scale provide basic reconnaissance tool to identify tectonically active regions, their susceptibility to tectonic deformation, and level of tectonic activity.
In the presented study, tectonic activities and geological structural features of the Vark basin in Lorestan province, such as the discontinuities that may be detected on satellite imagery as lineaments, and in many cases control landslide occurrences, have been analyzed using the GIS and remote sensing.
Material and methods
Neotectonic investigation in the area: in order to analyze and to evaluate the tectonic movements in the Vark basin, considering the validity of geomorphic indices, longitudinal gradient (SL), river meanders (S), basin hypsometric curves (HC) and asymmetry factor (AF) have been used.  After calculating the desired indices, the tectonic activity of the area has been evaluated using the index of active tectonic (IAT).
Vark basin lineaments map derived from satellite images with proper resolution: using remote sensing techniques and visual interpretation of the OLI Landsat 8 satellite imagery, all fractures and lineaments of the region were identified and then by preparing the rose diagram, the trend of the lineaments of the area analyzed.
Landslide hazard zonation in the Vark basin: In this study, in addition to plotting landslide occurrence Points, eight other factors were also investigated. In order to provide a map of the factors affecting slip, the digital elevation model (DEM) in ENVI 4.8 and ArcGIS soft wares were used and the maps of slope, slope aspects, altitude classes, area geology, land use, topography and precipitation were prepared. Then, in order to zoning the landslide hazard, fuzzy logic method has been used. Fuzzy logic is based on the fuzzy layers and the fuzzy inference process.
Results and discussion
Analyzing the Neotectonic of the Area: as stated above, the relative active-Neotectonic (IRAT) index is derived from the interpolation of the morphotectonic indexes. In this case, after reviewing the morphotectonic indices of the study area and determining the activity rate of each indicator, the classification or prioritization of these activities were done. The results obtained from calculating the active tectonic index indicate that the study area with IAT is equal to one, has an active neotectonic.
Preparing the Lineation Maps of the Area: in this research, the aim of the data processing including satellite imagery and digital elevation model is identification and extraction of fractures and faults in the Vark basin. To this end, we can use the integration of the information layers derived from the above processes. In this step, all layers of information are logged into the ArcGIS software so that their overlap can provide a map of fractures and faults. On each information layer processed there is a series of lineaments recognizable that can be visually distinguished. After extraction of lineaments by comparing them with bundle compounds and maps derived from digital elevation model and geological map of the region, the lineaments of fractures and faults were separated from other lineaments and their shape file map has been prepared. In order to plot the rose diagram of fractures and faults, the Polar Plots ArcGIS Extension was used. The results obtained from this rose diagram showed that the dominant trend is the northwest southeast followed the trend in the region.
Preparing a map of landslide hazards zoning in the region and investigating its relationship with the lineaments: In order to overlap layers affecting the area's landslide hazard, Gamma fuzzy operator (λ= 0.9) has been used and landslides hazard mapping prepared. Based on the results, 12.40, 8.25, 37, 32.61 and 9.73 percent of the area are located in the very low, moderate, high and very high-risk classes, respectively.
In order to investigate the relationship between the lineaments and the landslide hazard maps as parameters that are affected by the tectonic activities of the area, the lineaments map was integrated with the map of landslide hazard. The results show that the most of lineaments identified in the study area have a northwest-southeast trend that are similar to the main faults of the region and Zagros. It can therefore be said that the lineaments are influenced by the faults and folds mechanism of the region. According to the lineament density in areas in places that are exposed to landslides, one can understand the close relationship between the lineaments and the landslide.
Based on the results obtained from relative active tectonics index, the Vark basin has an active neotectonic, which leads to an uplift in parts of the basin, as well as tilting in the southern part of the area.
In this research, the tectonic of the area, and then the relationship between the lineaments and the map of the landslide risk, as two phenomena affected by active neotectonic were reviewed. Investigating the lineaments of the region shows that the dominant trend is fractures north-west-south-east and following the trend in the region. In addition, analyzing the relationship between the lineaments with the map of the landslide hazard of the area shows that there is a close relationship between the lineaments and the zones with high risk of slipping.
Mahnaz Firuzi, Mohammad Hossein Ghobadi, Ali Noorzad, Ehsan Dadashi3,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (12-2019)

Slope stability could be a major concern during the construction of infrastructures. This study is focused to analyze the slope stability of Manjil landslide that was located 41+400 to 42+200 km along Qazvin-Rasht freeway, Iran. The Manjil landslide, which had 168 m long and approximately 214 m wide, was occurred due to inappropriate cutting in June 2013 and led to destructive and closure of freeway. Slope stability analysis was carried out using a finite element shear strength reduction method (FE-SRM). The PHASE2D program was utilized in order to model the slope cutting and stability of landslide. Slope angle was flatted with 3H:2V geometry and stabilized with piling. The results indicated safety factors of 1.95 and 1.17 in the static and pseudo-static states, respectively, while the maximum bending moment with single pile (SP) in the pseudo-static state was 5.69 MN. Maximum bending moment of the pile around the slip surface was significantly large and more than the bending moment capacity of the pile. Due to the large bending moment on the pile, pile-to-pile cap connections (two pile group: 2PG) should be designed at the toe of the slope. The obtained results showed reduction of this parameter to 2.48 MN. Thus, it can be concluded that 2PG is a suitable stabilization method for the Manjil landslide.
Bakhtiar Fezizadeh, Meysam Soltani ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Landslide is known as one of major natural hazards. Landslide susceptibility mapping is known as efficient approach to mitigate the future hazard and reduce the impact of landslide hazards. The main objective of this research is to apply GIS spatial decision making systems for landslide hazard mapping in the 5th segment of Ardebil-Mianeh railroad. Evaluation of the landslide criteria mapping and their relevancy for landslide hazard can be also considered. To achieve the research objectives, an integrated approach of Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fooler Hierarchical Triangle and Fuzzy logic methods were employed in GIS Environment.
Material and methods
Within this research, we also aimed to apply GIS spatial decision making systems and in particular GIS multi criteria decision analysis which are available in Arc GIS and Idrisi softwares. We have identified 8 casual factors (including: density of vegetation, land use, faults desistance, distance from rivers, distance from roads, slope, aspect, geology) based on literature review. Accordingly, these layers were prepared in GIS dataset by means of applying all GIS ready, editing and topology steps. The criterion weighting was established based F-AHP approach. The criteria weights was derived and rank of each criterion was obtained. Accordingly, the landslide susceptible zones were identified using GIS-MCDA approaches.
Results and discussion
Finally the functionality of each method was validated against known landslide locations. This step was applied to identify most efficient method for landslide mapping. According to the results and based on the values derived from Qs, P, and AUC, the accuracy of fuzzy method was accordingly about 0.33, 0.74 and 0.76, respectively. In context of Fuzz-AHP the accuracy of 1.08, 0.88 and 0.94 were obtained. While, the accuracy of Fooler Hierarchical Triangle were obtained 0.78, 0.84 and 0.91, accordingly.
As results indicated integration of Fuzzy-AHP represented more accurate results. Results of this research are great of important for future research in context of methodological issues for GIScience by means of identifying most efficient methods and techniques for variety of applications such landslide mapping, suitability assessment, site selection and in all for any GIS-MCDA application.

Hojjat Ollah Safari, Hamed Rezaei, Afsaneh Ghojoghi,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (11-2020)

The landslides, as a natural hazard, caused to numerous damages in residential area and financial loss. In many cases, we can forecast the occurrence probability of this natural phenomenon with using of detail geological and Geomorphological studies. This seems that one of the most effective parameters in landsliding phenomenon is structural parameters, especially faulting in rocky outcrops. For verifying this hypothesis, the Nargeschal area, as high potential of hazardous area, is selected as case study for investigation on influences of faulting on landslide occurrence probability. Many large composite landslides were happened in 2016 and hence, this area is enumerated an active zone of landsliding. This area with geographic attitude 55° 09' 06" to 55° 27' 21" Eastern Longitude and 36° 54' 23" to 37° 05' 15" Northern Latitude located in south of Azad shahr (in Golestan Provinces) placed in Northeastern of Iran.
Geological studies indicate that this area located in northern limb of Alborz fold belt (as a young fold-thrust belt with 900 km length) which formed in late Alpine orogenic events by convergence Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. In this zone, the structures have main NE-SW trends with main active faults such as Khazar and North Alborz faults, as reverse faults with north-ward movements. The remnant part of Paleotethyan rocks (which transported from collision zone toward southern part by low angle thrusts) located between these faults and formed the mountain-plain boundary hills.
Material and Methods
In this research, we investigated on effective parameters in landslide occurrence probability of Nargeschal area with using of remote sensing techniques, GIS environment abilities and complementary field investigations. Therefore, we have prepared the seven data layers of geological and morphological effective parameters which are affected on landslide probabilities. These data layers consist of: lithology of outcropped rocks, faulting condition, topographic slopes categorizes cultivation circumstances, seismicity condition, spring population (ground water condition) and surveyed occurred landslides. Then, the content of each data layer is weighted and classified into five classes in GIS environment. Finally, the content of each pixels in all of 7 layers are algebraically summed and recorded as an attributed table. Hence, the landslide hazard zonation map was prepared by drawing the isopotential surface map on the basis of quantities of attributed table by using of GIS functions in Arc view 3.2 software.
Results and Discussion
The results of this research illustrate that a high risk zone is located in central part of area as an oblique broad-stripe zone with NE-SW trend [6]. This zone is correlatable with high density of fractures zone and high population of springs and earthquake focus and also, taken place in Shemshak formation with shale, marl and siltstone rocky outcrops (upper Triassic- Jurassic in age). 
Also, the results of investigations on influences of structural parameters (especially faulting) in landslide hazard demonstrated that faults are indirectly impressed on this hazard probabilities via formed the high slope topography, poor strength faulted rocks, locating of spring presences and creation of seismicity, and hence, defined the spatial pattern of landslides.
Nargeschal area in Northern limb of Eastern Alborz is selected as case study for investigation on temporal relationship between Faulting and Landslides. The following conclusions were drawn from this research.
- It seems that the fault surface plays the role of rupture planes for landsliding.
- The structural factors also increased the ground slope and then, the close relationship is formed between landslides and faults.
- The results demonstrate the genetically relationships between landslides and faults in macroscopic scale in Nargeschal area.

Mahnaz Firuzi , Mohammadhosen Ghobadi , Ali Noorzad, Ali Asghar Sepahi,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Landslides have an effective role in the destruction of freeways and railroads, which have been caused to many human and financial losses. Understanding this phenomenon and its effective factors can be important in planning for development projects and away from landslide prone areas. Based on extensive field in the Qazvin-Rasht freeway that the authors carried out in various researches in 2014-2017, it was found that the freeway was threatened by the type of instabilities due to variety of lithologies  and tectonic structures exploitation phase and needs to be stabilized. The purpose of this study is to determine of the distribution of landslides in different types of lithologicalunits of the Qazvin-Rasht freewaythat shows the role of geology and differences in geotechnical characteristics and tectonic structures in the creation and distribution of landslides on the road.The role of geology on the difference in geotechnical properties and tectonic structures in the creation and distribution in the road. Geological engineering properties and appropriate stabilization methods is the other goals of this study.
Material and Methods
In the study, the locations and the type of landslides are distinguished and the information were plotted on geological map. Then by the ARC GIS 10.2 program, and the use of area density method, the percentage of landslide events in each geological formation was identified. In order to study the role of lithology (type of rock, texture, mineralogy, weathering, alteration and erosion), sampling were carried out from rocks of Karaj formation, Shemshak formation, Cretaceous orbitalolina limestone and Fajan conglomerate. Geotechnical characteristics of the samples were determined by performing laboratory tests such as dry weight, porosity, uni-axial compressive strength according to ISRM standard (1979). For determining the role of tectonic structures (number of joints, dip and dip direction, length (m), spacing (cm), filling percentage, opening (mm), roughness, weathering, water, friction angle) were performed. Then, the results obtained from relative density and frequency were matched with the geological, geotechnical characteristics and tectonic structures of each formation.
In order to separate different types of landslides on various kinds of rocks, area density and frequencyof  landslides were determined by Eqs 1 and 2. Graph of frequency and area density are presented in Fig. 6 and Table 2, respectively. As can be seen in this figure and table, in Karaj formation, the percentage of rock fall, toppling, avalanche, scree slope and combined slip are the highest. In the rocks belonging to the Shemshak formation, the susceptibility of the debris flow and landslides has been increased. In Fajan conglomerates and limestones of the Ziarat and Cretaceous formations, the rockfalls is more formed.
where LI: area density, AL:  area of landslides in each lithological unit, AT: area of landslides in total area.
where LF: frequency of landslide, NL:  number of landslides in each lithological unit, NT: number of landslides in total area.
Result showed that despite significant heterogeneity in lithology, geotechnics, engineering geology and tectonic structures, there are similarities between the types and distribution of landslides. Four of the identified landslides consist of rock fall, toppling, avalanche in the resistant and medium strength rocks such as andesite, trachy-andesite and basalts of Karaj formation, Cretaceous orbitalolina limestone and Fajan conglomerate with regard to the dominant direction of the joints in relation to the slope, the shear strength of the joints and their weathering, falling and scree slope in thesiliceous zone and composite landslide in the argilite-alounite zone due to the high alteration and groundwater level and water retention by the presence of clay minerals, landslide in the sequence of loose and resistant rocks, debris flow and landslides in the soils of Shemshak formation due to the lepidoblastic texture of the slate and their high erosion potential due to the weather climate along the Manjil-Rudbar freeway../files/site1/files/151/4.pdf

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