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Showing 9 results for Limestone

Volume 3, Issue 1 (11-2009)

In this study, seepage phenomena through the left abutment of Marun dam are investigated. The Marun dam is a 170 m high rock fill dam, which regulates the waters of the Marun River, serves power generation, and flood control and provides irrigation needs. The dam site lies in the Zagros Mountains of southwest Iran. This region presents continuous series of mainly karstic limestone, marl, shale and gypsum ranging in age from Cretaceous to Pliocene. The region has subsequently been folded and faulted. All underground excavations are sited in the left abutment. The spacing of the diversion tunnels and pressure tunnel is considered to be acceptable, meaning relatively short, thus requiring 2 row grouting curtain into both embankments. Prior the reservoir impoundment, the concrete plug was constructed into the middle section of second diversion tunnel. Upstream section of tunnel was not concreted. During the first reservoir impounding, the old karst channels along ‘Vuggy Zone’ cut by the second diversion tunnel were reactivated and leakage occurred. The total amount of water leakage through the left bank of Marun dam was about. The unlined second diversion tunnel had a key role in connecting reservoir with karst conduit system. On the basis of detailed engineering geological analysis, the concept of remedial works was carried out. The main points of this concept are one of row grout curtain extension up to the section with shaly interbeds declared as watertight Asmari sequence (close to the watertight Pabdeh formation) and plugging of accessible section of main karst channel by concrete. In order to determine the seepage direction and karstification pattern, solubility studies were done. Also pinhole, XRD and XRF tests were carried out. The major joint system and interbedding cracks have predominant role in karst evolution process. Hydrogeological role of joints, perpendicu-lar to geological structure, is not negligible. As a result of these studies, seepage paths have been identified in the karstic limestone in the left abutment of the dam.

Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2011)

(Paper pages 1159-1178)
Young’s modulus measured as the slope of the stress-strain curve under static loading conditions (Es) in the lab is one of the most essential parameters for reservoir geomechanical modeling. However, information on the value of Es along the well length is often discontinuous and limited to cross well with the core. On the other hand, well log data for wave velocities Vp and Vs are often available for most hydrocarbon reservoirs. Hence, well-known equations are needed to calculate static Young’s modulus based on the compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp and Vs) that is dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed). Unfortunately, because of porosity and micro cracks in rock texture, Es and Ed are not equal. Therefore, correlation between static and dynamic parameters could result in a continuous and more reliable knowledge on the elastic parameters along the well length. In this research, laboratory experiments were carried out on limestone rock core specimens of Sarvak formation obtained from an oil well in the South West of Iran. Empirical relations were suggested to estimate UCS and static Young’s modulus from compressional wave velocity (Vp) and dynamic Young’s modulus. These empirical relations are prerequisite for continuous wellbore stability analysis in oil and gas well drilling
R Ajalloeian, M Mohammadi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2011)

(Paper pages 1059-1076)
Physical and mechanical properties of intact rocks are very important in civil engineering works that interact with rock such as underground structures, dams,foundations on rock, and rock slopes. Therefore geomechanical parameters such as compression strength and deformation modulus of rock can have fundamental importance in the different stages of design. Determination of these parameters is time consuming and costly. Since Asmary formation has broad outcrop in the west and southwest of Iran and many large projects are located in this formation, therefore it is a requirement to accomplish the present research. This paper is dealing to analyzing data from laboratory of two major projects of the Khersan 1 and 2 dam sites. In this regard, the physical, mechanical, dynamic and durability properties of intact rock and geology controlling agents of these changes has been evaluated and analyzed. Finally, new experimental relations between different parameters have been presented.
Akbar Cheshomi, Ebrahim Ahamadi Sheshde,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (11-2012)

Determination of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of intact rock is an important mechanical parameter required for many engineering projects. In some engineering projects, for example, well drilling has been accomplished for petroleum. The requirement of deep well to take samples to obtain rock core sample for determination of UCS is a difficult task. On the other hand, determination of this parameter is essential in order to analyze well wall stability and well development program. Therefore, the idea of using drilling cuttings is proposed for determination of UCS. In this paper, in order to develop relationship between UCS and single compressive strength (SCS) 7 block sample of microcrystalline limestone from Asmari formation were used. Then UCS test was performed and uniaxial compressive strength was determined. Next, these samples were crushed and 420 single particles were prepared. Then SCS for each particle was determined. Since the shape of particles affects particle strength, shape of particles was modified.  The total particles used for determination of SCS were spherical. In order to study the effect size of particle, particles with diameters 2, 3 and 4 millimeters were prepared and the SCS for each particle has been determined. With the increase of diameter of particles, the SCS has been increased too. In order to eliminate the effect of size of particles, it is defined variable size and strength and proposed chart between them. Coefficient of correlation between SCS and UCS is more than 0.91 which indicates a high correlation between them.
M. H. Ghobadi, A Ghorbani, H Mohseni, Ali Uromeiea,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2015)

 Knowing the engineering geological characteristics of carbonate formations is necessary for database. In this research, using petrological study and mechanical tests on 5 types of Ilam-Sarvak formations limestones in Khorramabad city, their engineering geological characteristics were determined and the relationship between physical and mechanical properties have been analyzed. IBM SPSS Statistics (version 19.0) software was used to determine the required relations. The relations have high correlations. Based on the studies on this of thin sections, rocks are characterszed as biomicrite. Limestones of Ilam-Sarvak formations have high hardening and low porosity. These rocks are in medium to high density, very resistant durability index, medium to high UCS and high point load strength category. The rocks are also impermeable. Based on the UCS, modulus ratio of the intact rock, the limestones are CM and CL. According to solubility test, the solution velocity constant was 1.39×10-6 m/s.
Sayed Rahim Moeinossadat, Kaveh Ahangari, Danial Behnia,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (6-2015)

The present study aims to employ intelligent methods to predict shear wave velocity (Vs) in limestone. Shear wave velocity is one of the most important rock dynamic parameters. Direct determination of this parameter takes time, cost and requires accuracy as well. On the other hand, there is no precise equation for indirect determination. This research attempts to provide some simulations to predict Vs using the information obtained several dams located in Iran, using different approaches, including adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and gene expression programming (GEP). 136 datasets were utilized for modeling and 34 datasets were used for evaluating its performance. Parameters such as Compressional wave velocity (Vp), density (g) and porosity (n) were considered as input parameters. The values of R2 and RMSE were 0.958 and 113.620 for ANFIS, where they were 0.928 and 110.006 for GEP respectively. With respect to the accuracy of the intelligent methods, they can be recommended for future studies
Samaneh Poormohammadi, M.r. Ekhtesasi, M.h. Rahimian,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (3-2016)

Mountains are usually formation origin of their neighbor land surface features such as hillsides and plains. some problems and errors may occur in application of RS technique for generation of geology maps and in separation of these units from other similar units. The main objective of this study is to integrate RS and geomorphology approaches for identification of different geomorphology units and finally separation of debris lime stones from massive lime stones in Bahadoran region, Yazd province. For this purpose, a Landsat ETM+ image was acquired together with band ratios, principal component analysis and factor analysis approaches to generate lime stone distribution map. Results of this study show that (integration of RS and geomorphology sciences) can better generate the lime stone distribution map compared with the first one
Dr Ali M. Rajabi, Alireza Hossini, Alireza Heidari,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (1-2018)

In many rock engineering projects, accurate identification of rock strength properties is very important. Uniaxial compressive strength is one of the most important features to describe the resistive behavior of rocks which is used as an important parameter in the design of structures especially underground openings. Determination of this parameter using direct methods, including uniaxial compressive strength tests is costly and time-consuming, and also sometimes preparation of standard samples in many rocks is difficult. In such cases, the implementation of some simple and non-destructive tests and using empirical relations can increase the evaluation speed and reduce costs. These relations even regional or local (For example within a geological formation or a single lithology) can help in the estimation of these parameters in order to be used in geotechnical projects. In this study, samples of existing limestones in south west of Tehran (Capital of Iran) were prepared and uniaxial compressive strength, point load, Schmidt hammer and Shear wave velocity tests on which have been performed. Then by the statistical evaluations of the results, the empirical relations between uniaxial compressive strength and the results of other tests are obtained. The comparison between the predicted and observed values of uniaxial compressive strength represents the validity of obtained empirical relations. The application of the proposed relations for limestones in the study area and those with similar geological conditions will provide acceptable results.
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Volume 15, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Clayey soils in terms of sharp reduction in strength and swelling ability as a results of water and moisture absorption, it is considered as one of the most problematic soils in civil engineering and construction works. Nowadays, Nano materials such as Nano clay are used to improve and stabilize of clay. On the other side, the increasing volume of municipal waste and residues materials especially debris of building destruction have caused many problems in mega cities such as environmental issues due to incorrect disposal of waste material. Main propose of this research is study of possibility in effecting Nano clay and limestone powder mixture for improve geotechnical properties of Kuye Nasr clayey soil in Tabriz City. In this study, Nano clay and limestone powder in both separate and combined conditions with 5 and 10 percentage are mixed with clay. Curing of stabilized specimens have been performed in 7, 14 and 28 days. For evaluating geotechnical behavior of mixture materials some tests were performed such as Atterberg limits, Compaction, uniaxial strength and direct shear (in 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 vertical stress). Results show that the simultaneous effects of 5% Nano clay with 10% limestone powder with 7 days curing period in ambient temperature conditions in clay reduced plasticity index by 72%, improved graining skeleton structure, reduced void ratio of inter grains and increased shear strength by 33%.



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