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Showing 15 results for Monetary Policy

Seyed Fakhroddin Fakhrehoseini,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (3-2011)

A Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) Model is developed to study monetary business cycles impacts of volatilities of oil revenue and money supply on macroeconomic variables in Iran. The results show that 0.15 percent deviation from the trend of steady state inflation is explained by changes in oil revenue when it is accompanied by change in money aggregates. However, if such changes in oil revenues are not financed by the central bank, inflation deviates only by 0.1 percent. The results reemphasize the fact that money is neutral in a non-sticky price framework and only affect output and employment by 0.05 and -0.01 percent respectively.
Dr Jahangarde, Sara Ali Asgari,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (6-2011)

Macroeconomic performance has improved in many countries in the world in the last fifteen years or so. Much of the literature has concentrated on how central bank independence, inflation targeting regimes, and currency :::union:::s have contributed to improving the effectiveness of monetary policy and hence macroeconomic performance. Since the financial system is a key component of the monetary transmission mechanism, we study how a country’s financial development affects monetary policy efficiency in 28 developed and developing countries within 1995-2006. Specifically, our objective is to derive monetary policy efficiency measures (PEMs) - derivative from Krause and Rioja- for 28 Developed and developing countries and analyze the impact that the size and depth of the banking sector and the capital sector have on policy performance. In our empirical analysis we use three financial development measures: private credit, liquid liabilities, and a financial aggregate index that comprises banking and stock market measures. The Results of model estimation with generalized method of moments (GMM) technique, shows that financial development with mentioned indicators has a positive and significant effect on monetary policy efficiency. Also supervision in central bank independency and inflation targeting regimes -as control variables- has positive and significant effect on monetary policy efficiency. This result doesn’t make a difference whether the country is developed or developing and in the both of them more developed financial markets, controlling the central bank independency and applying inflation targeting regimes, significantly help to achieve a more efficient monetary policy.
Dr Akbar Komijani, Hossein Tavakoliyanh,
Volume 2, Issue 6 (12-2011)

According to Taylor (1993) rule, the monetary authority responds to deviations of output and of inflation from their targets through nominal interest rate fluctuations regarded as policy instrument. Another specification that has received considerable attention is that policymakers may have asymmetric preferences with regard to their objectives during recessions and expansions. Since according to Law for Usury (Interest) Free Banking of Iran, the objective of the central bank is not the control of interest rate, instead it is money growth rate which is used as an instrument, in this study we introduce a money growth rate reaction function and we use it to test the asymmetry in central bank behavior during recessions and expansions. The estimation results of a Markov Switching model for the period 1367:1 to 1387:2 show that the central bank sensitivity toward output is more during the recessions while its sensitivity toward inflation is more during the expansions.
Hossein Tavakolian, Akbar Komijani,
Volume 3, Issue 8 (6-2012)

  It is more likely that the monetary policy in Iran is discretionary and not based on a rule or a target. Besides, what is clear is that there have been explicit targets for inflation and economic growth in all five-year development plans (except the fifth plan). However, the question is that do policy makers observe the targets of development plans? Using an adjusted New Keynesian DSGE model for Iran, in this study we investigate the monetary policy under fiscal dominance and implicit inflation targeting of Iran. The results show that in most plans monetary authorities do not observe the explicit targets of five-year plans. The estimated monetary reaction function is only able to explain the period 2001-2011. The other result is that implementation delays of public projects have considerable effects on output and private consumption.

Dr Vahid Taghinezhadomran, Mohammad Bahman,
Volume 3, Issue 9 (10-2012)

  The ultimate goals of the monetary policy are price stability and the output growth. Monetary policy instruments are interest rate and the growth rate of monetary base. One of the well-known rules in conducting monetary policy is Taylor rule, through which, central banks change the interest rate while taking into account the output and inflation distortions. There are two problems with applying Taylor rule in Iran: First, the weak micro-foundation of the rule and second, according to this rule specially in the short run, instead of interest rate the policy variable is the growth rate of the monetary base. This research extends Taylor rule by explaining micro-foundation of the rule. So, using Generalized Method of Moments (GMM), we investigated the consistency of the Iranian central bank’s reaction function with extended Taylor rule in the period 1979- 2008. The empirical results show that although monetary authorities react appropriately with respect to output distortion, but their reaction is not appropriate with respect to inflation distortion.

Dr Alireza Erfani, Azadeh Talebbeydokhti,
Volume 4, Issue 12 (7-2013)

The commitment and forward-looking behavior of central bank is of great importance. Commitment imposes less social costs on the central bank and the public. However, while there is wide agreement on the importance of commitment, there is much less consensus on how to implement commitment through targeting or instrumental rules. In this paper, we have estimated a basic New Keynesian model in Iran economy based on quarterly data over a sample period for 1990-2010. Then, we introduced a kind of instrumental rules that is called Speed Limit rule. The main feature of this rule is that the output gap is replaced by the changes in the output gap in the central bank's loss function. Then, by calculating appropriate weights under alternative targeting rules, we showed that this rule has the lowest social costs. Then, assuming the use of interest rate as primary monetary policy by the central bank, it is optimal to consider the role of the changes in the output gap (i.e. speed limit rule) in addition to the role of inflation and the output gap. As we expected, the estimation results of this instrumental rule in Iran economy showed that this rule has not been used for determining the interest rate. In other words, among the variables considered, only inflation rate has a positive and significant relationship with the interest rate, and the output gap and the changes in the output gap are not used in determining the interest rate.
Kiomars Sohaili, Shahram Fattahi, Mahnaz Sorkhvandi,
Volume 6, Issue 21 (10-2015)

Monetary policy is one of the most important macroeconomic policies which could be used for achieving economic targets such as reducing the output gap and reducing the inflation's deviation from it's target level.  These policies can be implemented through the control of volume of money or the rate of interest. Based on economic theories, the Central Bank should conduct monetary policies within a rule-based framework. In periods of positive or negative output gap or when inflation's deviation from it's target level is positive or negative, different monetary policies should be adopted. Assessment of Central Bank monetary policy's conformity to rules and the consistency of these policies with economic theories like Taylor's theory, is of vital importance. In order to evaluate the consistency of central bank monetary policies with economic theories, this study investigates the monetary strategies of Central Bank regarding the inflation's deviation and output gap during the period 1974-2013. It applies the Bootstrap method for this purpose. The result shows that Central Bank does not counteract the output gap during the periods of recession and boom and it's reactions to the inflation's deviation is in the reverse direction.

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Volume 6, Issue 22 (12-2015)

In recent decades the development of capital markets in developing countries, economic growth is desirable to have. Developed countries owe much of its development direction of financial markets, especially the stock market knows. The stock market is precisely the collection of savings and private capital to finance investment projects and on the other hand, an official and is confident that the owners of dormant savings can be relatively affordable and safe place to seek investment and their funds to invest in companies operate. The role of the stock market to boost the economy of countries like Iran and wandered from one side to the large amounts of capita and on the other hand, face a shortage of investment, is striking. Therefore, understanding the factors influencing the behavior of the stock market can be considered useful for the capital's economy. In this context, this study examines the impact of fiscal and monetary policy shocks on stock market Iran. Regression model to estimate the structural model and the data for seasonal 1991: 1-2010: 4 was used. The results of the model indicate that the short-term shock to the money supply (monetary policy instrument) and long-term government spending shocks (monetary policy instrument) Fluctuations of stock price indices explain. In other words, the impact of monetary policy on stock prices faster than the impact of fiscal policy. Because government spending through the stock market affects ,First government spending on aggregate demand and thus income consumers and the general level of prices affects subsequent stock price changes, but by changing the money supply, the faster people can spend their surplus cash available to purchase the stock of assets that form part of it. The lag effect of monetary policy is much shorter than the lag effect of monetary policy

Sahar Bashiri, Mosayeb Pahlavani, Reza Boostani,
Volume 7, Issue 23 (3-2016)

This paper investigates the relationship between monetary policy and stock market fluctuations for Iranian economy within a DSGE model. This study models the role of monetary policy in two monetary regimes including money growth and Taylor rule with traditional factors and optimal simple rule in the new Keynesian monetary framework with nominal wage and price rigidities in the Iranian economy. Bubbles in our model emerge through a positive feedback loop mechanism supported by self-fulfilling beliefs. Results show that: first, using an optimal simple rule and determining the optimal coefficients of the Taylor rule by policy makers decrease the loss function. Second, the sentiment shock which represents the size of current bubbles relative to newly born bubbles and transfers to the real economy through endogenous credit constraint, drives the movements of stock market fluctuations and variations in real economy, leading to explain the positive contemporaneous correlation between stock prices and the real economy Third, using an optimal simple rule and determining the optimal coefficients of the Taylor rule with stock price Fluctuations by policy makers decrease the loss function and it confirms that monetary policy should respond to stock market bubbles in the economy.

Davoud Mahmoudinia, Jacob Engwerda, Rahim Dallali Esfahani, Rasul Bakhshi Dastjerdi, Majid Fakhar,
Volume 7, Issue 24 (6-2016)

In this paper we analyzed the strategic interaction between government and central bank in Iranian economy. Using dynamic differential games and Nash equilibrium within cooperative and non-cooperative setting, we try to find the optimal values of debt, deficit and monetary base. The results of simulation show that in cooperative case the level of equilibrium debt is lower than the non-cooperative case and converge speed is higher in cooperative setting than non-cooperation setting. Also in cooperative case than non-cooperative case, less creation of money and less government deficit are needed for debt stabilization in long run. The results also show that in both cooperative and non-cooperative cases under uncertainty, more active policies are used to track debt to its equilibrium level. These active policies lead debt goes to smaller level.

Hojjat Izadkhasti,
Volume 9, Issue 31 (3-2018)

The impact of monetary policy on nominal and real variables in the economy is very important and controversial issues in monetary economics. Thus, the interaction between the real and monetary sectors, are the questions that different schools of economic have different responses and assumptions in this design is neutral and super-neutral of money in the long run. Accordingly, the acceptance or rejection each of the above hypotheses, effects on the role of monetary policy in the economy. This study, has been investigated the effects of monetary policy in the framework of a dynamic general equilibrium model on inflation and welfare, based on the money in utility function in Iran's economy. Then, the model is solved by using dynamic optimization and analyzed the results in the steady state. Calibration results and sensitivity analysis in steady state indicate that by decreasing the growth rate of money supply from 22% in the base state to 12%, reduces inflation rate from 20.45% to 10.57% decrease and increases real money balances from 0.1304 to 0.1352 unit, But the ratio of capital to labor, per capita production and per capita consumption do not change in the steady state. Finally, with a decrease in the rate of monetary growth and the increase in real money balances, the welfare increases in the steady state situation.

Karim Eslamloueyan, Hamideh Yazdanpanah, Zahra Khalilnezhad,
Volume 9, Issue 31 (3-2018)

Risk-taking channel refers to the banks’ risky activities following the expansionary monetary policy. This channel may affect the financial and output stability. The risk-taking channel can influence bank soundness and hence be a source of financial instability and financial crisis. This topic has been the focus of many researches after the financial crisis of 2008. Using the structural vector autoregressive model, this paper investigates the existence of a risk-taking channel in Iran’s banking system for the period 2006:2-2015:1. The results of impulse-response functions confirm the presence of risk-taking channel in the Iran’s banking system. This channel is considered to be one of the sources of high non-performing loans in Iran’s banking system. Therefore, banking supervision and macro prudential policies may reduce the banks’ risky activities. Moreover, introducing risk-taking channel into the central bank’s loss function might be helpful in achieving financial stability and reducing the negative impacts of risk-taking channel on output and economic growth in Iran.

Qholamreza Rezaei, Hamid Shahrestani, Kambiz Hozhabre Kiani, Mohsen Mehrara,
Volume 10, Issue 36 (6-2019)

After the recent financial crisis, especially the financial crisis 2008, This raises the important question of what is the role of monetary policy in occurrence and  prevention of the financial  instability? so, this paper investigate the dynamics impact of monetary policy on the stock market returns and instability using Structural Vector Autoregression (SVARs) model During the period  1992:q2 to 2017:q1. In this study, the effect of monetary policies via the various monetary tools used by the Central Bank on the stock market is studied. to illustrate the performance of monetary policies, the four variables of weighted interest rate, monetary base growth rate, bank reserve ratio, and growth of commercial banks' debt to the central bank have been used as monetary policy tools.  The results of the impulse response function(IRF) show that monetary policy tools do not affect the stock market returns and instability. The results of the Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) also show that the share of monetary tools in explaining the changes in stock market returns and instability is insignificant and less than ten percent each. Although, the monetary base share is higher than the others, so the central bank's policy tools do not has a particular impact on the behavior and instability of the stock market.

Hossein Tavakolian,
Volume 12, Issue 43 (3-2021)

After the imposed war, Iran's economy has seen two relatively successful experiences in controlling inflation. These two periods include the final years of the Third Development Program and the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) term. This is while we are seeing a relatively high inflation rate in other periods. In this paper, based on literature on monetary rules and using a Time-Varying Parameter Bayesian Structural Vector Auo Regressive (TVP-BSVAR) Model with stochastic volatilities, we study a rule-based monetary policy or a systematic monetary policy and a non-systematic monetary policy (based on the stochastic volatilities of monetary shocks). The results indicate that in addition to the systematic monetary policy obtained from the model, the success of monetary policymakers in controlling inflation is not only due to inflation control per se (thst is systematictic) but also for non-systematic reasons such as fiscal policy through fiscal discipline and oil revenue management by both monetary and fiscal policymakers that does not fit into the framework of systematic monetary policy.
Davoud Mahmoudinia, Hadis Mazangi,
Volume 12, Issue 46 (12-2021)

Today, the unconventional policy of negative interest rate is discussed in many Western societies and developed countries, and the implementation of this policy in the financial and banking system has brought growth and prosperity in many economies involved in the crisis. In fact, by applying a negative interest rate, the bank will be able to direct credit allocation to productive and priority sectors. On the other hand, this policy, along with the independence of the central bank and the non-interference of the government in creating liquidity and making money from it, can reduce the level of inflation. Iran is a developing country with high inflation, and the interest rate as a monetary policy will not be very effective in the economy and is determined by the monetary authorities under the government's rule. When governments face budget deficits due to sanctions and lack of revenue sources, they create money by relying on their supervision over the performance of the central bank and use it as a solution to earn money, Therefore, it fuels inflation in the society. Therefore, in this research, within the framework of the optimization model of the money demand function and the model of money in the utility function, taken from the study of Walsh (2003) and Sidrauski (1967) and its extension, we will investigate the behavior of negative interest rates on inflation and optimal money interest. The obtained results show that in the environment of money interest and inflation, with the application of negative nominal interest rate, the equilibrium path has a downward and decreasing trend, and in this situation, inflation and money interest will decrease in the long term. Therefore, the government has the ability to compensate for its budget deficit through solutions such as bonds and income tax, and in the long term, by reducing the money interest rate, it can reduce the level of inflation in the society and this will improve the social welfare of people.

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