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Showing 40 results for Subject: Political geography

Dr Afshin Mottaghi, Mr Arash Ghorbani Sepehr, Ms Parisa Ghorbani Sepehr,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

In the field of spatial planning of border areas, the macro-perspective view of geography should be applied in order to identify the possibilities, capabilities and limitations of border areas, at least to avoid the tensions and challenges due to unbalanced development. , Deprivation and spatial heterogeneity arise, prevented. The research method in this study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. In this regard, using a combination of multi-criteria decision-making techniques similar to the ideal option (TOPSIS) and Shannon entropy coefficient, the distribution and development of spatial development indicators in health-service sectors in Kurdistan province evaluation The border cities of this province have been classified according to the level of having these indicators. The question of the present study is what is the situation of the cities of Kurdistan province in terms of spatial distribution of health and service indicators? It seems that the level of enjoyment of any of the border cities of Kurdistan province is not at the desired level. The findings of this study indicate that Kurdistan province, despite having a special position and high geopolitical potential, is still one of the most deprived provinces in the country. In addition, there is a kind of imbalance and heterogeneity in the distribution and development of facilities and development indicators in the border cities of the province. Based on the analysis of 13 indicators of the space organization from a total of 4 border cities of this province, Saqez and Baneh cities in the semi-privileged (semi-deprived) group and the two cities of Marivan and Sarvabad in the category without (deprived) place Taken. Based on the results of this study, the space organization in the border cities of Kurdistan province is highly heterogeneous and these cities are in the middle to lower level in terms of health-service development that is necessary in terms of health and services This border province should be given special attention to ensure the lasting security of the border citizens of Kurdistan.
Dr. Mahmoud Dehghan, Dr. Ataalah Abdi, Dr. Afshin Mottaghi, Dr. Mirhadi Hosseini,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

In geopolitics literature, small and low-endowment states that compound lesser geopolitical potentiality and weight are considered as the trivial scale agents in comparison with the first and second level powers. These agents, in spite of the local geopolitical codes but sometimes can effect on the regional and even global events of geopolitics. The Caucasian region, historically, have had a field for appearance and exposition of sub-khans that their overall actions and agencies effected the events of the region and due to its cultural proximities to Iran, have effected in Iran’s geopolitical functions in national scale. The present paper with descriptive-analytical method, have studied historical role of the local agencies in geopolitical events of the Caucasia and their impression on the great scale events. Secondly, the paper has studied the quality of the chosen countries of the region in current circumstances of the global system. Results indicate that the Caucasian countries act according to their historical legacy as a small-scale agents among the great scale actors.
Dr Ahmad Rashidi Nejad, Dr Murad Kaviani Rad, Dr Afshin Mottaghi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Security complex represents a unique group of countries where the process of "security building" and "making insecure" or both for this group of countries are increasingly related with each other. In other words, their main security concern is so intertwined that their security problems cannot be solved independently. Thus conceived, "hydropolitic complexes" include those countries which are geographically the owner and from technical point of view, are the user of part of the shared river. In fact, a group of the countries which are considered to be part of a region due to their water resources (rivers, lakes and aquifers), would have no common geographical borders but their "national security" and "hydropolitic security" are so interrelated that their security and hydropolitc problems cannot be resolved without their cooperation. The methodology of current descriptive-analytic study focused on Mesopotamia and Hirmand drainage basins (in parts of Iran), is grounded on the hypothesis that in a hydropolitic complex in the same way that the threatening of water security of each one of the member states might lead to the threatening of national security of other members, some threats can be posed against the water security of each one of the member states due to the threatening of the national security of other members. The data required for this research have been collected using library sources (books, journals and internet). The results of this study showed that how hydropolitic security is endangered following the eruption of insecurity in Afghanistan. At Tigris and Euphrates Basin, the climate changes and Turkey's inattention to hydropolitic security of Syria (by closing the floodgates of the dams) provided the ground for the emergence of internal crisis in Syria, and its reverberations posed serious threats against the security of Turkey, Iraq and Iran.
Ahmad Rashidi Nejad, Mostafa Fallahi, Ma Azam Arefi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Water scarcity is considered to be the root of underdevelopment and poverty and has the potential to shape the feeling of poverty and deprivation in individuals and society. Accordingly, this study aims to explain the connection between "feeling of relative deprivation" and "hydropolitical relations", while studying the construction process of Gauvshomar dam in Lorestan province, question; How does not building a dam affect the formation of a sense of relative deprivation in the people of an area? Follow up. The research method is descriptive-analytical with a quantitative and qualitative approach and based on documentary-library studies and field observation. The questionnaire is a measurement tool and SPSS analysis tool. Indicators used in research (economic, social, cultural, environmental-physical, political-security). The results showed that the lack of construction of the dam has increased the feeling of relative deprivation in terms of economic, social, cultural, environmental-physical, political-security and in general the formation of dissatisfaction in the people of the study area.
 
Hassan Kamran Dastjerdi, Ali Akbar Razavi Hosseinabad, Kyomarth Yazdanpanah,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

The country of Iran, with its geopolitical foundations, which is influenced by its geography, has always been the focus of the countries of the world, especially the world powers, throughout history. The use of this capacity and conditions for the economic prosperity of the country depended on the ability of the statesmen and the type and structure of the government systems in formulating foreign policy, and how effective they were in changing the social environment and the way of economic livelihood of the people. In a fundamental and theoretical way, this thesis has analyzed the formulation and presentation of the national strategy of the Islamic Republic of Iran based on its geopolitical characteristics.
The results of this research show that the spirit that governs it according to the structure it entails (statehood), is economic regardless of geographical and geopolitical infrastructure, and this field of foreign policy has not only failed to achieve success, but is also passive. And it has become introspective and stopped from being effective and dynamic. While looking at Iran's geopolitical and geographical foundations, we find that its geopolitical position does not have a global effect and is not below the regional level.
Dr Majid Rasouli,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Iraq is considered the most important part of Iran's foreign policy. For Iranian policymakers, Iraq is a more critical and therefore more sensitive operational theater than other countries where Iran supports local militia groups. History has shown that events in Iraq can have important consequences for Iran's stability. Iraq continues to be a threat to Iran's national security, and that is why Iran seeks to shape Iraq's internal policy and strategic direction. Since 2003, Iran has skillfully infiltrated the Iraqi Shia population by taking advantage of the long common borders and cultural, religious and economic relations with Iraq. Iran's influence is multifaceted and includes access to a wide range of political and social actors. Therefore, this research seeks to investigate the different factors of geoculture in Iran-Iraq relations. To achieve this goal, descriptive-analytical method and Wizard software were used. The findings of the research showed that the divergent factors in geoculture relations between Iran and Iraq were in critical and semi-critical conditions. The robust scenario board consists of 8 different possible situations. Out of these 8 possible situations, 3 are critical, 1 is semi-critical, 1 is static, 2 are semi-optimal, and 1 is optimal. Meanwhile, it should be stated that the majority of Iranian and Iraqi citizens have a common religion, and that is Shia Islam. Hozas or seminaries in the religious cities of Qom in Iran and Najaf in Iraq are centers of Shiite education. However, they were developed under two distinct and competing traditions. Therefore, this factor could be used to improve the situation.
Mis Zakeyeh Aftabi, Phd Morad Kaveyani Rad, ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract


 Water is a strategic and rare resource that has been severely limited in recent years due to various national and transnational variables and has severely affected the areas of security, stability, development and prosperity in countries. The high impact of water in the aforementioned areas has placed water at the center of foreign policy and hydropolitical relations of many countries, including South West Asia. In recent years, despite the issue of the water crisis and its role in the relations between Iran and Iraq in scientific, political and media circles, the dimensions of this issue remain unknown and different interpretations have been given. The current research, which is of a research nature and the required inputs were collected in a library method with the aim of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the dimensions and angles of the hydropolitical relations between Iran and Iraq, is based on the fact that, in addition to identifying the content and methodological features, the research gaps To identify the existing in this field with qualitative meta-analysis method. Using the qualitative meta-analysis method, this research has examined 34 researches conducted in the period of 2014-1402 in the form of domestic scientific-research articles, dissertations and articles in prestigious international journals. The results of the research showed that a comprehensive study has not been conducted that has investigated and analyzed the various dimensions of the hydropolitical relations between Iran and Iraq. In this regard, the lack of accurate and real data and the weakness of the theoretical-cognitive foundations of the research are among the shortcomings of the research conducted in the field of relations between the two countries.
Masoud Malekian Dolat Abadi, Gholamhosein Heidari, Farhad Hamzeh,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

ABSTRACT
The world today is witnessing the height of geopolitical competition; An arena where only energy resources are no longer considered as the support of countries, but the corridors have become the place of power competition and every country tries to find a place for itself in the network created by these emerging corridors. In other words, the global geopolitical trend intensifies competition over maritime bottlenecks and secures access to cross-border markets. This research is a type of "theoretical foundation" research; Its method is also descriptive-analytical and it is collected in a certain way from comparative methodology with library and internet tools. It seems that in the chronopolitical alcove in the field of Iran-Iraq relations, each of the actors is trying to position their role in the international corridors, which they pursue in line with several goals; Such as Iraq's pursuit of the "FAW Corridor" initiative, and Iran, which seeks to develop the circle of economic cooperation and take a place in the emerging alliances of the East. Although it is not possible to confidently predict the future of relations between the two countries from a chronopolitical perspective, signs of less cooperation and more competition in the relations between the two countries due to various variables and reasons can be seen on the horizon. The most important indicator of possible competition includes competition in transit routes (corridors).

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Morad Kaviani, Morteza Tahami,
Volume 15, Issue 37 (9-2015)
Abstract

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Volume 17, Issue 45 (8-2017)
Abstract


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Volume 17, Issue 45 (8-2017)
Abstract


Dr. Morad Kavianirad, Dr Yadollah Karimi Pour, Dr. Hedayat Fahmi, Mr. Sadegh Karami,
Volume 17, Issue 46 (9-2017)
Abstract

Efforts to provide security have always been of great importance to human being. In recent decades, the security issues of climate change have attracted attentions due to its sustainable consequences on the lives and civilization of humans. Among all countries, the ones which are placed in draught belt, like our country Iran, have hurt a lot because of low precipitations and also mismanagements in water resources control. Climate change show itself by changes in precipitation patterns, reduction of precipitation and increasing of temperature. According to the present data, Iran's central drainage basin which consists of important geopolitical provinces, has been affected by the above mentioned factors. This descriptive-analytic research is carried out based on the effects of climate change on Iran's central basin which provides approximately 48 percent of Iran’s GDP.  Continuity of climate changes in this region can make critical problems in social, environmental, economic and political scales and the lives of the citizens would be affected as well. To conclude, the persistence of the current conditions in climate change in the central drainage basin of Iran, would result in challenges through the national stability and security.
 

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Volume 17, Issue 47 (12-2017)
Abstract

The attempt to recognize phenomena and affairs has always been a concern of the human mind and has constantly sought to complete this knowledge. The correct recognition is also achieved when the real nature of phenomena is clear to man. The phenomena are based on their own philosophical foundations and, therefore, their understanding requires perception these philosophical foundations and using proper methods of recognition. The map is also a phenomenon that has its own philosophical foundations and by understanding these philosophical foundations, the true meaning and the components that influence its meaning are clarified. Recognizing it correctly requires understanding many of the elements and other factors. To real understanding this phenomenon, one needs to understand beyond what is usually said about it. In this research, we tried to clarify the philosophical foundations of the map and the factors influencing its meaning by using of hermeneutical methodology. The results of this research showed that the map of the ontology aspect is of an objective-subjective nature. Therefore, it should be understood by methodology such as hermeneutics and not explanation. Also, using this method, it is determined that the mapping factors are divided into two categories. Internal factors, such as the choice of the type of projection and cartographic deviations and external factors such as, the mental purpose of the cartographer and the banners, understand map reader from map, and the spaces of thought, power, and so on make up the actual meaning of the map.
 

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Volume 18, Issue 48 (3-2018)
Abstract

 In the current disorderly world, securing benefits and achieving optimal security for countries alone is very difficult and unavoidable. Uniting with other countries and powers is a way to advance national goals and provide benefits, and bring more guarantees for countries to survive, advance, develop and peace. The factors and conditions that lead to the unification of the countries have been a lot of controversy and debate and have been analyzed from a variety of perspectives. Although geographic proximity and geographical similarity seem to be the prelude to creating unity between countries, the Iranian-Iraqi model in the Middle East is challenging this claim. Except for a few days in the early 20th century, the two countries were in conflict with the majority of the century, even an eight-year-old war between them. So the main question of this research is how geopolitical factors contribute to the unification of countries, and what are these factors and components in the strategic relationship between Iran and Iraq? This research is descriptive and based on library and document data. The results of the study show that the components of the internal environment (economic, socio-cultural components, geographic and political components, security and geopolitics), the regional external environment and, ultimately, the global environment have affected the quality and quantity of the strategic linkage of Baghdad-Tehran. The strategic link between the two countries is a function of the accompaniment and positive function of the triangle, which itself is based on more complex components.

 
Abed Golkarami, , Afshin Motaghi, Hossien Rabiee,
Volume 18, Issue 49 (3-2018)
Abstract

Knowing Country and understanding the capacity of its perimeter and international environment are essential components of the economy that the foreign policy of any country should be on the basis of territorial and social. The country relies on its geopolitical foundations that they are influenced by its geographical location can affect codification foreign policy in the international economy. Hence, this paper with an analytical -descriptive method to survey the geopolitical and geographical foundations of Islamic Republic of Iran's economy. This paper show that Economy of Islamic Republic Iran away with its Geopolitical foundations and to achieve an effective economic on the closed surrounding and international environment, review in Geopolitical foundations of foreign policy that is mentioned in the form of five components are necessary and is inevitable. Hence, Islamic Republic of Iran to pursue these foundations in foreign policy strategy, not only effects will be in terms of political and cultural on international environment but also in terms geo-economic impact on international political economy.

Morad Kaviani Rad, Hadi Aazami, Majid Rasouli, Ahmad Bakhshi,
Volume 18, Issue 50 (3-2018)
Abstract

Fundamentalism is one of the security issues of today's world, and the Territorialize and , Territoriality of  fundamentalist terrorist groups has attracted a large part of the world's security literature.  Over the past decade, Southwest Asia and North Africa have emerged from domestic crises and transnational power interference, the focus of the emergence and expansion of radical ideas that impose huge costs on the regional and trans-regional countries of the world. Meanwhile, the northern continent of Africa, and in particular the country of Libya, as a fragile state emerging from the internalities and role of the regional interventionist powers, has provided opportunities for the expansion of ISIS's fundamentalist organization.The present study is based on the descriptive-analytical nature of the hypothesis that based on internal factors such as strategic position and huge oil resources, the crisis of legitimacy, spatial inequalities (axis-margin), the weakness of national correlators, weakness of central government power, Interventions of regional and global powers territoriality have been provided a platform for fundamentalist organizations such as ISIL in Libya, and the data and information required for research has been compiled in a library-based way . The results of the study showed that the fragility of the government in North Africa, in particular Libya, Territorialize and , Territoriality grounds have provided for ISIL's .

Dr Ehsan Lashgari Tafreshi, Dr َabbas Ahmadi,
Volume 19, Issue 54 (9-2019)
Abstract

The emergence of decentralization approach and transfer some political authority to non-state actors has provided new actions for the management of geographical space under the name of spatial governance. The roots of the emergence of the concept of spatial governance return to the economic-political changing in the 1980s. The emergence of a decentralization approach and the transfer powers from government to nongovernmental institutions has provided a new concept in the name of "spatial governance". Therefore, governance is beyond the government and includes the private sector and civil society with the approach of market economy and participatory democracy. So, in this paper major question is “who spatial governance functioned in the post- positivism methodology?” In this regard, in the first step has been made to define the concept of governance and its dimensions and sub-sets in relation to geographical space. Then, by matching the spatial governance conceptual relationship with post-positivism approach, a new perspective on the causes of the greater impact of this school is presented in understanding this concept. According to the governance framework, the management and production of space is not only an objective or objective action, but also it is a constructive, unfinished, contingent, and conditional, conditional and social condition. therefore, the space policy was created in a cultural-historical territory must be consistent with the cultural and historical values of a particular of human beings group and the conditions for the development and optimization of space by these policies should fit into the pattern of their social life. in governance approach, some of the concepts such as truth, rationality, justice, goodness, and especially development, are not independent from its the social processes that shape it. On this basis, spatial governance cannot have universal dimensions.  Because social action is faced with a process that can create a single position at any given time, pro-active methodology cannot predict and predict it.
 
Morad Kaviani Rad, Afshin Mottaghi, Hadi Zarghani, Hasan Sadrania,
Volume 19, Issue 55 (12-2019)
Abstract

One of the problems in analyzing hydro-political relations in the system of international rivers is that the same factors can create a wide range of conflict or cooperation, and even an identical variable may play a different role in relation to other variables in each coastal country; Therefore, the recognition of the variables and the role that each variable has in developing a pattern of analysis of opportunities and risks for countries that share transboundary waters with other countries is essential. Iran is in the Harirud basin shared with Afghanistan. The presence of this basin in a dry and semi-arid strip of world has caused Iran's dependence on the water of Harirud to provide water to the east and northwest, and especially to the metropolis of Mashhad. Therefore, the research question is: What are the variables and indicators effective on the Strategic Importance of Harirud for Iran? For this purpose, 86 indicators were identified using library and field studies and categorized in geographical-geopolitical, technical-economical, and political-social variables in expert meetings with experts. After identifying the most important variables using the Delphi method, the role of each variable in the structural analysis of the variables has been investigated with the help of the Micmac software. The results indicate that geopolitical -geographical variables are the most effective and Most impressive variables, and indicators of the importance of Harirud for drinking water, food security, security of water resources and Afghanistan's position in Iran's foreign policy, strategic indicators for the importance of Heriud for Iran.
Hasan Kamran Dastjerdi, Marjan Badiee Azandehie, Yashar Zaki, Abbas Ahmadi, Narjessadat Hossainy Nasrabady,,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)
Abstract

 In today's world, the process of globalization and communication and information innovations has brought the "cities" into an actor of national and global competition. No urban point in the world can rely on maintaining its traditional role in the urban hierarchy, as other urban areas compete in a network structure with other cities in order to enhance their position on the network and overcome other competitors. In contemporary cities, forces, activists, and urban actors face a different role in their political, economic, social, and cultural domains, with a view to their modern and highly sensitive interests, and therefore competition between the positive and the negative ones It has emerged or is underway. Given the importance of this, political geographers and geopolitics are studying the important process, which is in fact the "urban geopolitics", created in the wake of urban competition, and with the growing competition of urban action-makers and forwards ahead. , Pay. The present paper uses a descriptive-analytical method to make it clear that urban geopolitics, on the one hand, includes a set of common rivalries, ideas and perceptions of political factions, religious denominations, or other social centers that social groups It brings to the fore and creates a worldview for them. On the other hand, the concept of this survey shows how these perceptions, the field of decision-making by citizens, and the occurrence of competition, change, and sometimes even protests in urban environments. It then changes with inspiration from geopolitical conditions. Hence, a kind of geopolitical measure on a city scale has made cities important actors in diverse geographic areas. The results of this research show that the multi-dimensional phenomenon of the city is studied by political geographers and geopolitics, with emphasis on the pivotal elements of space, politics, power and competition.

Morad Kaviani Rad, Meysam Toulabi Nejad, Farid Rezaei,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)
Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of climate change on the border security of Thalassa Babajani villages. The study area consists of 11 villages of Salas Babajani city with a population of over 2500 people. 333 questionnaires were designed using Cochran formula. The research method was a descriptive-analytic and statistical questionnaire. The results showed that the impacts of climate change were firstly on food security and consequently security in the border villages of Thales Babajani so that most of the population in the study area were concerned about climate change such as flood and drought. Forced to change their livelihoods due to lack of food. The results also showed that with climate change, some former farmers have moved to their village boundaries for daily livelihoods due to climate change and food scarcity, which could in the future be the third border region and its villages. Serious challenges lead to insecurity. Because these people will face the same dangers as engaging in border guards between the two countries, Iran will result in the risk of death for those who were once farmers or ranchers and the security of the area would also be compromised.


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