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Showing 13 results for Karami

Haniyeh Asadzadeh, Tajaldin Karami, Farzaneh Sasanpour, Ali Shamaie,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)

Today, due to structural changes in the economy, rapid developments in science and technology, restrictions on financial and human resources, the interdependence of countries, global competition, increasing desire for globalization, the need for a better understanding of "change" and "future" for governments, businesses, organizations, organizations And people demand it. To this end, futures studies help policymakers and planners to design appropriate development programs by establishing communication, coordination, and collaboration between organizations and institutions. This research is applied in terms of practical purpose and in terms of the nature and method of descriptive-analytical research and in terms of exploratory scenario modelling. Data were collected through documentary and field methods. In the field method, the researcher-made questionnaire was provided to the experts in the form of a mutual matrix for scoring factors. 30 experts were selected by Delphi method. The distribution of questionnaires was also unlikely. Mick McMurphy software was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the system of Tehran's urban area is in an unstable state. Also, the ten driving forces, including the ideologies of the ruling ideology, integrated management, expanding the infrastructure of information and communication technology, e-commerce, expanding economic competitiveness, economic branding, electronic management system, political transparency, facilitating the entry of multinational corporations, expanding urban diplomacy as drivers Influential ones were extracted in the development of Tehran's urban area. Finally, the scenarios facing the development of Tehran's urban area showed that there are eight scenarios, the first scenario with the highest probability of occurrence has 9 pessimistic and one pessimistic.
Dr. Morad Kavianirad, Dr Yadollah Karimi Pour, Dr. Hedayat Fahmi, Mr. Sadegh Karami,
Volume 17, Issue 46 (12-2017)

Efforts to provide security have always been of great importance to human being. In recent decades, the security issues of climate change have attracted attentions due to its sustainable consequences on the lives and civilization of humans. Among all countries, the ones which are placed in draught belt, like our country Iran, have hurt a lot because of low precipitations and also mismanagements in water resources control. Climate change show itself by changes in precipitation patterns, reduction of precipitation and increasing of temperature. According to the present data, Iran's central drainage basin which consists of important geopolitical provinces, has been affected by the above mentioned factors. This descriptive-analytic research is carried out based on the effects of climate change on Iran's central basin which provides approximately 48 percent of Iran’s GDP.  Continuity of climate changes in this region can make critical problems in social, environmental, economic and political scales and the lives of the citizens would be affected as well. To conclude, the persistence of the current conditions in climate change in the central drainage basin of Iran, would result in challenges through the national stability and security.

Abed Golkarami, , Afshin Motaghi, Hossien Rabiee,
Volume 18, Issue 49 (5-2018)

Knowing Country and understanding the capacity of its perimeter and international environment are essential components of the economy that the foreign policy of any country should be on the basis of territorial and social. The country relies on its geopolitical foundations that they are influenced by its geographical location can affect codification foreign policy in the international economy. Hence, this paper with an analytical -descriptive method to survey the geopolitical and geographical foundations of Islamic Republic of Iran's economy. This paper show that Economy of Islamic Republic Iran away with its Geopolitical foundations and to achieve an effective economic on the closed surrounding and international environment, review in Geopolitical foundations of foreign policy that is mentioned in the form of five components are necessary and is inevitable. Hence, Islamic Republic of Iran to pursue these foundations in foreign policy strategy, not only effects will be in terms of political and cultural on international environment but also in terms geo-economic impact on international political economy.

Hossein Imani Pour, Abdolreza Kashki, Mokhtar Karami,
Volume 18, Issue 51 (7-2018)

Heating requirements are one of the most important human issues in the fields of agriculture, tourism and energy management in the present and future .Knowing the extent of these changes can be very effective in making decision makers. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in the requirements of the heating degree day in conditions of climate change in southern Khorasan province. For this purpose, daily data from the minimum and maximum temperature of 11 stations of the South Khorasan province were received from the Meteorological Organization of Iran during the period of 1990-2015. The latest available scenarios of the fifth report of the Climate Change Interagency Panel (AR5 2014) include RCP scenarios from the Canadian Climate Change website and, using the SDSM macroeconomic statistics software, the data for the upcoming period (2016-2046) in the study area was thrown off. Using the Matlab software capability, the monthly and annual heating requirements of the stations were calculated in the current and future period. Finally, using the Kriging interpolation method, the zoning maps for cooling requirements for the current and future period are mapped in ArcGIS software. By examining the effect of geographic features (latitude and longitude and station height) on the heating needs in the area, it was determined that the role of heights is very effective in changing the heating needs. In the cold months of the year (Azar, Dey and Bahman), the highlands (Qain, Arsak, Fath Abad, Aryan Shahr, Darmian) require higher energy levels due to the need for higher temperatures. Increasing the temperature and warming of the air in the future, especially in the months of Farvardin and Mehr in most places, requires less use of exhaustible equipment in the future.

Mokhtar Karami,, Rahman Zandi,, Jalal Taheri,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)

In recent years with the development of cities coatings of the Earth's has changed surface.  These changes have caused some urban areas to have a few degrees higher than the surrounding temperature. This phenomenon is known as thermal islands. Mashhad is one of the major metropolises in Iran with the problem of thermal islands. Various parameters affect the formation of thermal islands in this city that should be considered. In this study TM, ETM+ and OLI images were used to obtain surface temperature over the period 1987-2016. The study of temporal variations in surface temperature showed that in the studied period, thermal islands were transferred from outside the city to the city. The model for describing the temperature of the surface of the earth has changed and has diminished from the temperature of the city's moderate and cool temperatures, and in contrast, the amount of high temperatures (thermal islands) has increased significantly. The TOPSIS method was also used to obtain the thermal forming factors. 13 natural and human factors affecting the formation of thermal islands were identified. Each expert opinion factor was used to determine the degree of importance. According to experts, the distance from the sanctuary with a weight of %234 and traffic of %155 is the most important and the height with a weight of %022 is least important in the formation of thermal islands. The final results obtained from this model showed that the factors affecting the formation of thermal islands are well recognized and the temperature decreases with these factors.

Mehdi Asadi, Mokhtar Karami,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)

The purpose of this study is to determine the evapotranspiration in Fars province that in many studies such as hydrological balance of water, irrigation systems design and management, simulation of product volume and management of water resources is very important. To do this, first, required data such as daily temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation pressures, solar radiation, etc. was collected. We used 12 stations with the same statistical interval, for the period 1995-2015. In order to estimate the evapotranspiration of the reference plant in different growth stages, Torent White, Penman-Monteith and Hargreaves-Samani methods were used. Results showed that with decreasing latitude, the evapotranspiration rate increased, and the highest rate of evapotranspiration occurs in the south, southeast and the center of the study area. The correlation coefficient R2 between height and White Penman, Monteith and Hargreaves Samani, are 0.9135, 0.53223 and 0.5286 respectively.

Mr Behroz Sobhani, Mr Vahid Safarian Zengir, Ms Akhzar Karami,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)

The limitations and boundaries of agricultural production is dependent on climatic conditions. Weather is one of the most important factors in human activities, especially agriculture. Corn cultivation in the country's food supply is essential.  Kermanshah province, with the potential favorable climate, optimum conditions for corn are cultivated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of precipitation and temperature in determining the agricultural calendar and to determine suitable areas for planting corn. To do this, climate data from 10 synoptic stations during the period of 20 years (1390-1371) were used. Use, Hoteling test and test observational data were analyzed. According to research, the station is under study, corn crop water demand in the months of June, July, August and September not secure and High temperature areas due to reduced need frequent in the months of May and June and in the lowlands due to a sharp increase in flowering time, seed maintenance and handling problems during the growing season makes this crop. Based on the results of Hotelling test 62 percent of the land area suitable Kermanshah province, 24 percent and 14 percent for maize is unsuitable. And also based on the results of t-test found 47 percent good, 38 percent moderate and 15 percent are unsuitable for corn. As a result, the central area of moderate temperatures for planting, eastern and northern areas of the southern and western areas of the province due to tropical cold and not suitable for maize cultivation.

Dr. Sadegh Karami,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)

Importance of climate change is global. This issue to some extent has been out of human control. Human beings can only provide security and the community with knowledge and management against its negative consequences. On the basis of this research, the present paper analyzes the impact of climate change on Iran, on a small scale and applied to the central catchment area. The findings of the research indicate that climate change has shown the geographic region of Iran in terms of changing the rainfall pattern, decreasing precipitation and increasing its temperature. In the next step, these cases resulted in excessive withdrawal of groundwater aquifers and it has reduced the quality of underground water. This chain has led to the design of inter-basin water transmission projects, which is at least the result of the cycle of social tensions that has occurred in recent years. Considering the geographical extent of the basin and its belonging to one of the most frequent aspects of Iran's civilization, the set of consequences of climate change in the central catchment area, in addition to its impact on various social, political, economic and environmental layers, also has several scale effects. And its destructive effects go beyond national scale and to an extent beyond the scope of Iranian culture. In this regard, the research findings indicate that climate change in the central watershed is influential in many aspects of society and the country, so that if the current process continues, the current Iranian civilization will face a strategic challenge. To this end, at the end of the research, good water governance, as the best way to confront and control the negative consequences of climate change on the central catchment area, and Iran in general, has been argued.

Mr Ahmad Zanganeh, Mr Tajedin Karami, Ms Roghayeh Yadolahisaber,
Volume 21, Issue 62 (10-2021)

Assessment is one of the important methods in analyzing the accomplishment of Sustainable development and as one of the necessities of planning can identify potential and actual environmental effect that is emerged as a result of the construction and development and provides logical options to solve them.  The purpose of the current research is to assess the environmental effects of multi-layer highways on the neighborhood. The research is applied In terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of nature. Moreover, this research is environment based and uses sustainable development in theory. In order to analyze the data, 8 neighborhood around the Sadr bridge (Tajrish, Gheytariyeh, Chizar, Zargandeh, Sadr, Rostam Abas, Ekhtiyarieh and Pasdaran neighborhoods) were chosen as the analyze unit. Assessment indexes were assed in term of social, skeleton, vision and health-hygiene, economic and ecologic and safety-security domains. statistical Qualitative and quantitative  methods including  one sample T test and Friedman test were used to rate the domains and spatial analysis methods (spatial statistics) were used to show the status of the neighborhood. We also used the TOPSIS technique and Iranian Leopold in order to rate the neighborhood in terms of environmental effects of multi-layer Sadr Bridge. Results of the assessment matrix showed that Sadr multi-layer project is confirmed by providing corrective options in activities with high and very high damage. Based on the research findings it was found that the neighborhoods around the Sadr multi-layer highway given the assed dimensions, each have a different susceptibility from the multi-layer Sadr Bridge. In this regard, the ecological and skeleton have the most susceptibility and the security each have the least susceptibility from the Sadr multi-layer Sadr bridge and in rating the neighborhood, Rostamabad had the most susceptibility and the Zarhandeh has the least susceptibility from the Multi-layer Sadr bridge.  

Neamatallah Safarzaei, Alireza Entezari, Mokhtar Karami, Gholamali Khammar,
Volume 22, Issue 66 (10-2022)

Today climate change cause increase in concentration of greenhouse gases has been cause increase extreme events and atmospheric hazards. goal of this research, analyze and review climate future is for atmospheric hazards in sistan region. In this study, to simulate minimum and maximum temperature data used from model data CanESM2 under three scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5) with SDSM statistical scrolling and to simulate rainfall data from the Hadcm3 model under scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) with statistical scrolling LARS-WG. For this purpose, after calibration, validation and data modeling at the selected station, the performance of the model from the viewpoint of the compliance of the base temperature data (1984-2005) and rainfall (1986-2015) with simulation values (2020-2039) evaluated at a significant level of confidence. To adapt base data to simulated data Used of the three criteria root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2) and mean squared error (MSE). According to simulated data were examined four important atmospheric hazard frost, heat waves, extreme precipitation and drought. The results showed that heat waves and drought in the future are serious threats in the region So that in 2021, under release scenario RCP 2.6, Predicted 32 heat waves and the study area will experience more than five heat waves in the year. In addition, most frequent drought forecast in 2020, under release scenario A1B. Extreme precipitation in some years under scenario B1 can be significant threat in the region. Intensity and abundance annual frost under release scenario RCP2.6 more than other scenarios and lower relative to investigated atmospheric threats.

Dr Tajeddin Karami, Dr Somayeh Teymouri,
Volume 24, Issue 73 (8-2024)

One of the theories that studied poverty and inequality after World War II and urban reconstruction in America in the duality of the suburbs and the central city is the theory of Spatial Mismatch. Despite the role of the background caused by racial-ethnic inequality and the contrast between the suburbs and the central city in the formation of the aforementioned theory, the main indicators of Spatial Mismatch indicate the lack of appropriateness between obtaining a job with sufficient benefits to access affordable and quality housing. This means that the backgrounds, structures and processes of inequality are different from one society to another and the lack of proportionality between the benefits of work and access to housing represents the spaces of poverty. The aim of the current research is to reveal the Spatial Mismatch between the two mentioned indicators in the metropolitan areas of Tehran. The current research is applied research in terms of its purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of its method. The main data required include major occupational groups and housing status in official population and housing censuses, which have been analyzed using spatial functions. The analysis of the research findings shows that there is a direct relationship between occupational stratification and the quality of residence in Tehran's municipal areas. In such a way that the concentration centers of the lower classes and workers who are deprived of jobs with suitable benefits have been formed in residential areas with poor quality and worn-out textures. Based on this, in the southern regions of Tehran, there is a greater disproportion between getting a suitable job and access to quality housing. While in the northern areas of Tehran, there is much more suitable work and access to quality housing. The final result shows that the two main indicators investigated well reveal and represent the «Spatial Traps of Poverty» which are the main focus of Socio-Spatial Issues in Inner City Areas.

Keywords: Spatial Traps of Poverty, Spatial Mismatch, Work and Residence Spatial Mismatch, Occupational Stratification and Tehran.

Dr Sara Karami, Dr Nasim Hossein Hamzeh, Dr Abbas Ranjbar,
Volume 24, Issue 74 (12-2024)

Today, dust storms affect the lives of many people around the world and cause a lot of financial and human losses. Every year, Iran is affected by dust storms caused by internal sources and external dust sources located in neighboring countries. Semnan province has several dust-producing sources due to its geographical location, that affect not only this province, but also the neighboring provinces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dust phenomenon of Semnan province and its monthly changes in the 15-year period, between 2003 and 2017. For this purpose, meteorological stations data of the province and the aerosol optical depth of satellite product have been investigated. Also, GOCART model has been used to estimate the amount of dust emissions from this region and to determine the vertical dust flux in Semnan province. The study of average dust flux showed that the highest values ​​of dust flux was in the southeast of Shahroud and then in the south of Shahroud, Damghan and Sorkheh. A monthly investigation showed that in all months, the average AOD in the southern half of Semnan province was higher than in the northern half. The highest levels of AOD were in May, April and June, and the highest amounts of dust flux were observed in March, June and July. Also, the prevailing wind direction was northeast and northeast, and this factor causes dust particles rising from this region and dust loading in the south of Semnan province and areas of Isfahan, Yazd and South Khorasan provinces.
Farzad Karami, Hamid Barghi, Yousof Ghanbari,
Volume 24, Issue 75 (2-2025)

Good governance, having the most important principles and criteria for public participation, accountability, accountability, centralism, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness, justice and equality, consensus and legitimacy is one of the new management approaches and new approaches to development and poverty reduction, especially poverty. This study aimed was to conduct a comparative analysis of the goog governance model in rural areas with an emphasis on the villages of the central part of Poldakhtar and Mosian section of Dehloran. The statistical population of the study, according to Cochran's formula, is 284 heads of households living in the villages of the two central parts and Mosian. Inferential data analysis was performed using t-test, and the sample villages were ranked in terms of rural governance status using The Topsis method. The results obtained from The Topsis method show that the governance situation in Mosian section of Dehloran Township is better than the central part of Poldakhtar Township, and the one sample t-test showed that the average of all components of rural good governance is above average and their significance level is an amount less than 0.05. The results of Levin test also show that there is a significant difference between the two central parts and Mosian regarding governance and its components, apart from responsibility (±1/96). Furthermore, In Mosian section, the average components (participation, accountability, and transparency) were higher than the central part of Poldakhtar Township and in the components (legality, collective agreement, justice, efficiency, and effectiveness) were less than the central part of Poldakhtar Township.

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