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Dr Habibollah Fasihi, Dr Taher Parizadi, Mrs Nahid Noori,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)

Among the many kinds of natural hazards, earthquake is one of the rare events that human science has not yet been able to control or even predict. Physical structure conditions of human settlements play an important role in vulnerability to this natural disaster. The purpose of this article is to investigate natural and physical characteristics of Kuhdasht in terms of earthquake vulnerability. The city with a population of 90,000 and an area of about 540 ha, locates in the west of Lorestan province, Iran. The data are provided from GIS file of 2016 Iranian Public Census of Population and Housing, GIS files of Kuhdasht land use and GIS files of Iran faults and lithology.  A few layers have been added to these files through observation. It is used Arc-Map 10-8 to combine layers and produce maps. Then we used Excel software to do statistical analysis on data tables. Findings showed that the site of study area locates in a middle risk zone of earthquakes, but its close distance to active faults can be a warning for occurring destructive earthquakes. High proportion of non-resistant buildings, high density of buildings in some parts of the city and the presence of two gas stations in the middle of residential buildings, are the most important components of Kuhdasht vulnerability. In contrast, plenty of open spaces, high proportion of non-apartment houses, low population density and permeability of passages are important strengths in this regard. The central part of the city from which the city originated, is more vulnerable than the other parts. Due to the existence of the trade centers here, it is necessary to pay more attention to in future plans.
Firooz Mojarad, Razieh Kheiri, Zahra Noorisameleh,
Volume 14, Issue 35 (3-2015)

Iran's Potential for the occurrence of drought at various severities illuminates the need to examine this phenomenon with new indexes. The major deficiency of the current indexes is that they cannot monitor the droughts in daily scale. Effective Drought Index (EDI) overcomes this defect. The goal of this study is to analyze the frequency of daily droughts by EDI in 43 synoptic stations in a 30-year period. Accordingly, the frequency of daily droughts in the stations was calculated by EDI during the seasons and the year. Then the stations were divided into five groups using cluster analysis based on total frequency of mild to most severe droughts (categories 1 to 4), and frequency patterns in each group were examined. The results showed that the most severe droughts have not happened in the stations except for Gorgan, Zanjan and Torbat-Heydariyeh. In contrast, the frequencies of mild, moderate and severe droughts, all being equal, are much more than most severe droughts, and their frequencies are almost equal. In 56 percent of the days, a variety of droughts (mild to most severe) has occurred in the whole country. Based on the output maps, frequency distribution of droughts in the country does not follow a certain geographical pattern, so it could be cocluded that all types of droughts have happened in all regions of the country. However, maximum total frequency of daily droughts (mild to most severe) is observed in the east and center parts. The decrease in the EDI values over time shows the tendency of the most stations towards drought.

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