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Shamsallah Asgari, Tayeb Razi, Mohamadreza Jafari, Ali Akbar Noroozi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)

Due to the importance of forests in natural and anthropogenic environment, the effects of meteorological drought on the dryness of oak forests in Ilam province were investigated. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of Zagros forests with drought occurring in the area. The results of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for the time periods showed that the most drought occurred in 2007, 2008, 2011, 2015 and 2016. Remote sensing data (MODIS images) were used to investigate the vegetation trend (NDVI) of trees during the period 2016–2016. The vegetation trend (NDVI) was significant over the period with the index drought index (SPI) with R2 = 0.9999. Ground harvesting of oak drying points and simulation using Landsat satellite imagery with 15 m pixel output from GIS software showed that 17894 hectares of area forests from 2000 to 2016 were dried and destroyed and prepared with oak forest and integrated layer. The output layers from the drought zoning were shown visually and the statistical analysis was performed in three 5-year time series. The results of these analyzes from 2002 to 2006 showed that the correlation coefficient between meteorological drought and oak drought 96.6% with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.985, for the time series of 2007 to 2011 the correlation coefficient between scratches Meteorological and oak dryness of 95.4% with R2 = 0.980 and coefficient of correlation for meteorological drought and oak drought of 98.8% and R2 = 0.995 of coefficient respectively. Its fluctuations in time series show the intensity and duration of the drying up of oak forests in the region. According to the results of this study, it is predicted that if the drought goes through this process, 1118.4 hectares of oak forests in Ilam province will be dried and destroyed annually.
Aliakbar Anabestani, Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidari, Fahime Jafari,
Volume 16, Issue 43 (16 2016)

The rural guide plan is the most important tool in the management of rural development in Iran. The final purpose of the plan, improvement of life quality and providing a safe and attractive environment to live in rural areas. The aim of this study is to emphasize the characteristics rural guide plans, which include: Improve the quality of housing, street network, land use and access to services, environmental rural its effects on the objective quality of life of the villagers tested. The research method in present study was functional in terms of purpose, and analytical-descriptive and solidarity methodologically. The study population was selected from 22 villages in which guide plan had been implemented, among them 8 villages with a population of 3835 households was selected by using sampling method. From the selected villages by using sampling method (Cochran), 249 randomly selected rural households were interviewed. Data collected from the questionnaires, were analyzed using the statistical analysis methods in SPSS, and Fitness model search EQS software. According to the results of Pearson's correlation tests, the findings of present study showed a significant and strong correlation between implementation of rural guide plan and the mental facet of life quality by a 0.75 correlation coefficient, so that rural guide plan explained 57% of the variation of dependent variable, and among guide plan dimensions the changing environmental rural affected the objective improvement of life quality of villagers by 29 percent. There is a direct and complete correlation in spatial distribution of relationship between the implementation of guide plan and the objective quality of life in 8 study villages.

Gholam Hassan Jafari, Asghar Rostamkhani,
Volume 16, Issue 43 (16 2016)

One of the unique properties of northern landforms of zanjanrood catchment is having smooth surfaces that have been interrupted by deep valleys. Rivers that don’t have a wide catchment upper their front mount are running in parallel deep valleys that the topographical situations don’t let them to receive around surface runoffs. This situation has made them to move in parallel form and not to join with each other. In some parts of sub basins, the water dividing line had been incorporated with the beach of main river valley (Sohrein River). The extent of catchments upper the mount front is not in a situation that let to dig valleys that sometimes exceeded to hundreds meters deep. These valleys had kept their primary height differences than it’s around. According to these properties, the style of formation and their evolution was considered as a geomorphological point. To get the answer, topographic and geologic maps and satellite images was made, and traced the geomorphologic effects of faults and corrected in different field works. Evaluation of tectonic activity in area, have been estimated by using Morphtectonics indicators of asymmetric factor (Af), integral hypsometric curve (Hi), valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) and transverse topographic (T). Relative Active Tectonics Index (LAT) showed the whole basin high activity (class2). Based on the Af index uplift have been attributed to the right bank in Sohrin and Sarmsaqlv basins and in Qracharian sub-basin to the left bank. Which states that the center of Neotectonic power center located in the place between the three sub-basins?

Mostafa Karimi, Mahnaz Jafari, Faramarz Khosh Akhlgh, Saeed Bazgir,
Volume 18, Issue 51 (7-2018)

Spatio-temporal variations of factors affecting the occurrence of precipitation can lead to a change in its amount. The atmospheric moisture is one of the most important factors for precipitation formation. In this study, changes in atmospheric moisture and its relation with occurrence of seasonal wet and dry periods were investigated in Iran. The re-analysis data from the ERA interim European Center for Mid-Term Projections (ECMWF) was used during the period 1981-2011. The z index (ZSI) was used to extract wet and dry periods of autumn, winter and spring seasons. The seasons with the maximum percentage of wetness/drought occurrence during the above periods were selected. Vertical integrated divergence of the moisture flux was extracted in three layers of the lower, middle and upper atmosphere above Iran. The results revealed that in all three layers, moisture flux was maximum during wet period and decreased in dry one. In all layers in wet and dry periods, the moisture content imported to Iran increased during warm season as compared to cold seasons. In addition, the difference in moisture content in the warm season was less than cold seasons and has less variations. There was no significant changes in moisture at high levels in three seasons. In general, there was a significant difference in terms of the winds pattern in the wet and dry periods. The favorable conditions of flow patterns on the water surface of the region provide the condition for increasing transport of moisture to Iran. Although, the moisture transfer reduced due to deviation and change of direction of currents, in dry period especially in the lower layer, and hence increase the occurrence of dry periods in Iran.

Reza Khoshraftar, Gholam Hassan Jafari, Mehdi Feyzolahpour, Habib Arain Tabar, Parvaneh Moradi,
Volume 19, Issue 54 (12-2019)

In this research, due to the abundance of tectonic and karstic structures in the Prav Bisotun region, the relation between fault building and karstic springs was evaluated. To do this, we first prepare information layers including the location of the springs, the location of the closed holes, faults, the slope and the elevation floor layer, and then the graph of the grains of the faults is drawn and weighted by the weight of the evidence Was investigated. Investigation of the relationship between springs and faults in the Prav Bistuon region using the weighted method showed that there is a close relationship between tectonic elements and the frequency of springs, so that at low distances of the faults, the number of springs more and with The distance from the fault, the number and frequency of springs, is reduced. Also, the results of diagrams showed that faults have a direct effect on the origin and orientation of the springs. In the study of the relationship between the slope and abundance of springs, it was found that most of the springs were located on a gradient of 0 to 5 percent and elevations of 1200 to 1400 meters. The above altitudes cover the mountain slopes.

Reza Reza Borna, Nasrin Nasrin Jafari, Farideh Farideh Asadian,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)

In order to understand the total consumption of buildings and accurately calculate how much energy each building uses, taking in consideration all the building's lifecycle phases is essential. In order to select the correct methodology for the main study, the researcher began with the determination and the parameters that would have been researched, as well as the analysis and comparison of the different methods used by other researchers to achieve similar goals. The following parameters define the final results and are stabilized or examined to determine their actual effect: A- Constant parameters: 1- Climate data 2- and data on the use of the building: B- variables: 3- Design data: 1- orientation 2- window to wall ratio 3- aspect ratio. This research uses a survey followed by a computer modeling methodology to achieve the goal of providing architects with techniques that reduce energy consumption in building units. To obtain reliable results that are useful to the construction industry in the country, the researcher has ensured that the virtual environment created in the modeling process mimics a typical building environment of Tehran units. Research has shown that passive design techniques have a major impact on the energy consumption of buildings. A significant reduction in consumption (67 percent) was noted when the orientation and percentages of the opening on the wall were changed. In summary, this study has shown that the application of passive, economical and simple design techniques has a major impact on the energy consumption of the unit rooms. If the architects take these ideas into account during the design process, the buildings will take on more responsibility for the environment and consequently reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Gholam Hassan Jafari, Mohammad Taherkhani, Khadijeh Rezaii,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)

Iran's vast country has different geographic conditions. As of the thirteen known climates in the world, it has eleven types. This has made many environmental, natural, recreational and economic benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate, identify and introduce the geotouristic capabilities of Ghezelowzan Basin based on the Fassoulas method. The catchment area of the Ghezelowzan is a landform of various quaternary processes that are changing. Identification of geosite plays an important role in explaining quaternary developments. The research methodology is based on description and analysis, which is described as a field study of the library to describe and describe the region. The selected geosites were then positioned on topographic maps of 1/50000 and using geological maps of 1/100000 of the region, the lithology of different landforms such as hoodoos, Behestan dom, salt domes Chehrabad, Pari lakes, copper mine Baiche Bagh, dikes Sedimentary, cuesta-like forms, kalut-like shapes, Kcadovan-like shaped forms, glacier circuses, and tectonic valleys-fridges. After identifying landforms, one of the most common and comprehensive geotouristic models called Fassoulas was used. The criteria defined in this model were defined in six main categories: scientific, ecological, conservation, cultural, aesthetic, economic and potential use. By assessing landforms in this model, it was determined that the chimneys of the Jen, Behestan, dome, Darband Ghaterchi valley and salt Dome of Chehar Abad were selected as the most suitable geocites for obtaining the maximum scientific and ecological score, while the Belogice glacier landform was also the lowest.
Masoud Safair Pour, Yahia Jafari,
Volume 21, Issue 60 (3-2021)

Creating a creative city and creative tourism are considered as one of the most successful urban management practices to attract material and immaterial capital. In pursuit of this goal, Miran-e-Shahriy has been developing a creative tourism infrastructure. The metropolis of Tabriz has also been selected as the capital of the Islamic countries for tourism in 2018, with its huge potential. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of effective factors on the realization of creative tourism and the infrastructure of this city in the pursuit of this goal. The type of research, applied and its descriptive-analytical method is correlation. Data analysis was done by statistical tests. Prioritization of the elements of the creative city and urban areas is in line with the development of creative tourism, using network analysis and topsis models. The statistical population of the study is 758421 people living in Tabriz's 10th district. Of these, 384 people have been selected using Cochran's formula and simple random sampling.The variable of this research is 10 criteria with 16 sub-criteria. The results of statistical tests showed that all components of the creative city have a significant correlation with the level of creativity of urban areas of Tabriz. In this regard, the two variables of creativity and creative class infrastructure were the most correlated with 0.583 and 0.557. The results of the ANP model showed that the criteria for creativity and creative class infrastructure with the score of 0.389 and 0.269 have the most importance in the formation of the creative city. The study of the status of different regions of the city according to the indicators of the creative city showed that eight of them are more suitable due to the concentration of historical works, shopping centers and recreation centers. As a result, practical solutions have been developed for using urban infrastructure to form a creative city and identify Tabriz to Islamic countries.

Gholam Hassan Jafari, Fatemeh Bakhtiyari,
Volume 21, Issue 62 (10-2021)

The Ghezel Ozan basin in an area of 50000 KM2 is in the northwest of Iran. Recognition of variables like captivity and deviation of rivers, erosion and compact surfaces, the affects of old lakes by the reflected affects on 1:50000 scaled topographic maps of the region, are some of the points which is tried to find out the changes of Quaternary of the basin. Although Ghezel Ozan basin is ended to Caspian sea as an open basin, the geomorphologic and topographic evidences show that this basin became independent between two basins of Ghom and Orumiye after Pasadenian moves and also was multiple closed sub basins which the waters were moved to the central pits in each surface such as Bijar, Zanjan, Tarom, Yangi Kand and Miyane. The size of some of these pits is such huge so that could be visible in topographic maps by water network and marl sediments of their bed. On the other hand, some are very small and limited which follow the local topographic position or has shaped under the influence of the main processes of the time and has been destroyed by changes. The past topographic situation and the main processes of glaciers in cold Quaternary, has made different lakes near Ghale Chay River. Pari Lake is an obvious example. However nowadays it is irrigated by an artificial channel ramified by Ghale Chay River.

Ms Mehdi Kashefi, Dr Mojgan Entezari, Dr Maryam Jafari Aghdam,
Volume 22, Issue 67 (12-2022)

vulnerability is considered as an inherent talent of underground water system that depending on the sensitivity of the system to anthropogenic effects. Natural vulnerability is based on the geomorphologic features of surface karst, type and level of aquifer recharge and hydrodynamic aquifer karstic aquifer in Fars province is the most important source of water supply for the supplement of drinking water of communities in the province, which are prone to pollution due to the natural conditions of the region and human activities. karstic aquifer of Shispir and Borghan plays a vital role in supplying drinking and agricultural water around them. The aim of this study is to estimate the natural vulnerability karstic aquifer of Shispir and Borghan using the proposed model of Cast action 620, and prioritize the level of aquifer in the field of conservation measures and provide management solutions in order to better protect them in this model. To prepare a natural vulnerability map are used geological maps, soil, vegetation, digital elevation model (10 meter) and precipitation statistics of meteorological stations and vulnerability map is evaluated as three factors of C, O, p. In the end, the region in terms of damage in five levels was classified in very high, high, low, low and very. The results of the COP model show the natural vulnerability of the region is high. In addition, the amount of vulnerability in the two upper and upper floors of this region is about 47 % where is the highest coverage area of that region of Shisper aquifer. The results of this study show the efficiency of the proposed methods by Cast Action 620 to detect and protection of groundwater resources from vulnerabilities and natural pollution.

- Ahmad Hosseini, - Mostafa Khoshnevis, - Mohammad Reza Jafari,
Volume 24, Issue 73 (8-2024)

Old trees as the most important genetic reserves of the country have great importance and value in various aspects of ecology, forest restoration management, ecotourism and even history. In this research, after identification of the old trees in the forests of Ilam province, their morphological characteristics including DBH, trunk height, total height, crown length, min & max crown diameter, crown health, crown firmness, crown symmetry, Trunk health and trunk shape were examined. The selection of old trees was based on DBH criterion. After the forest survey, 43 old trees including 5 Petrocarya fraxinifolia, 5 Ulmus glabra, 11 Fraxinus rotundifolia, 3 Celtis caucasica, 4 Platanus orientalis, 4 Ficus carica, 7 Olea europea and 4 Cupressus sempervirens were identified. The results showed that among single-stranded trees, P. orientalis had the highest mean DBH (171 cm), total height (15.8 m) and trunk height (6 m), and among multi-stranded trees O. europea had the highest mean DBH (260 cm). P. fraxinifolia and U. glabra had the highest mean of crown length (11 m) and F. rotundifolia had the highest crown area (195 m2). The highest percentage of single-trunks belonged to the P. fraxinifolia (80%) and C. caucasica (67%). The highest percentage of healthy trunks belonged to C. sempervirens (50%) and O. europea (50%) and the highest percentage of healthy crowns belonged to P. fraxinifolia (100%), C. caucasica (100%), P. orientalis (100%), O. europea (100%) and F. carica (100%). The highest percentage of crown symmetry was belonged to C. caucasica (100%) and the highest percentage of crown freshness was belonged to P. fraxinifolia (100%), F. rotundifolia (100%), C. caucasica (100%), P. orientalis (100%), O. europea (100%) and F. carica (100%). Based on the desirable morphological characteristics of old trees, it is possible to help the strengthen and restoration of Zagros forests by producing resistant seedlings from their seeds.
Key words: Old trees, Morphology, Oak forests, Ilam.

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