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Sana Rahmani, Sayed Hossein Vahedi, Leila Abedi Far, Saleh Ebrahimi Pour,
Volume 18, Issue 50 (6-2018)

Iran is among the countries which id most vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes. This natural phenomenon creates a disaster in an area of Iran every few years and destroys the human and financial potentials of the country and it has also irreversible mental and emotional consequences. Due to the unexpected nature of most natural disasters and the need for rapid and accurate decision-making and implementation process, fundamental and theoretical basis has created a knowledge called crisis management. Bojnord city is the center of Bojnord town in North Khorasan province and is the largest city in the province. The city is one of the high altitudes of North Khorasan and is a mountainous region from the natural perspective. Based on census population in 2011, Bojnord has a population over 207,196 people. Bojnord is one of the cities that are located in a zoning with a very high relative risk. Moses Baba fault and Dubarar-tower fault of Bojnord are located in the immediate vicinity of city and in some regions the city is built along this fault. Faults in Bojnord have been the origin of devastating earthquakes in history and are able to work once again and threaten the city which determined the importance and role of crisis management and passive defense in earthquake more than ever. In addition to the potential threat, Bojnord faults has made clear the adverse consequences arising from the filling of Bojnord plain from human habitations and the development of the city towards the fault line at a distance of 150 meters and this has also attracted attention to passive defense two times more. Therefore, identifying risk zones (faults and earthquakes) in the city can show the vital artery in low risk decision areas and zones with low risk for the construction of temporary housing camps during the crisis. Bojnord is in a bowl surrounded by mountains and down the valley. 

Mr Moslem Nori, Di Rostam Saberifar, Professor Esmaeil Aliakbari,
Volume 20, Issue 58 (10-2020)

The change in the way cities operate and benefit from ICTs, etc., has led to population dispersal, activity, and housing. This trend, along with the devastating social and environmental impacts, has had quite visible and measurable economic consequences. A comparative study would be very helpful to avoid the implications of measuring the occurrence of this process and the impact of national and local factors on it. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to compare the dispersal trend of the two cities of Esfarain and Bojnourd. In this regard, the present study is applied in terms of purpose and analytical-comparative in terms of research method. Required data were collected from documentary library studies and Heldern, Shannon entropy and Gini coefficients were used to analyze the data. The results showed that according to Helderen's model, 84% of physical growth in Esfarain between 1345 and 1345 was related to population growth and about 16% to horizontal and spherical growth. For Bojnourd, this was also about 88% of the population growth and about 12% of the horizontal and spiral growth, which is slightly different from that of Esfarain. The Shannon entropy model also shows the sparse growth of physical expansion in the two cities of Esfarain and Bojnourd. The Gini coefficient calculated for Esfarain city is 0.096 and for Bojnourd city is 0.054 which indicates that population growth (Espalier) of Esfarain city is 0.015% more than Bojnourd city. Since the continuation of such conditions has numerous environmental, social and economic consequences for the residents of the cities concerned, it is advisable to strategically research, control and manage the physical development of the city and utilize the interpersonal development policy.

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