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Showing 13 results for Border

Dr Afshin Mottaghi, Mr Arash Ghorbani Sepehr, Ms Parisa Ghorbani Sepehr,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)

In the field of spatial planning of border areas, the macro-perspective view of geography should be applied in order to identify the possibilities, capabilities and limitations of border areas, at least to avoid the tensions and challenges due to unbalanced development. , Deprivation and spatial heterogeneity arise, prevented. The research method in this study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. In this regard, using a combination of multi-criteria decision-making techniques similar to the ideal option (TOPSIS) and Shannon entropy coefficient, the distribution and development of spatial development indicators in health-service sectors in Kurdistan province evaluation The border cities of this province have been classified according to the level of having these indicators. The question of the present study is what is the situation of the cities of Kurdistan province in terms of spatial distribution of health and service indicators? It seems that the level of enjoyment of any of the border cities of Kurdistan province is not at the desired level. The findings of this study indicate that Kurdistan province, despite having a special position and high geopolitical potential, is still one of the most deprived provinces in the country. In addition, there is a kind of imbalance and heterogeneity in the distribution and development of facilities and development indicators in the border cities of the province. Based on the analysis of 13 indicators of the space organization from a total of 4 border cities of this province, Saqez and Baneh cities in the semi-privileged (semi-deprived) group and the two cities of Marivan and Sarvabad in the category without (deprived) place Taken. Based on the results of this study, the space organization in the border cities of Kurdistan province is highly heterogeneous and these cities are in the middle to lower level in terms of health-service development that is necessary in terms of health and services This border province should be given special attention to ensure the lasting security of the border citizens of Kurdistan.
Mohammad Najarzadeh, Aliakbar Bidokhti, Jamal Moradnejad,
Volume 15, Issue 36 (6-2015)

According to WTTC (World Tourism and Travel Council) forecast tourism contribution of global GDP will be about 6000 billion dollar in 2020 and will create 300 million job Therefore, Tourism could be considered as multidimensional field that response to tourists needs with diversity interests and motivations. Shopping is the most necessity needs and it is the one popular activity for tourists. Border regions facilitate this activity because they have two potentials: appropriate geographical situation and non-favorite economic condition for host community. One of the best and most popular border cities in Iran country is Baneh that placed in the west boundaries between Iran and Iraq country. Region’s Economy  extremely depends on tourism shopping and majority of the host community directly or indirectly involved in that bussiness. Therefore, we can connect tourist's satisfaction with welfare and/or economical condition improvement. As, if it realize positively, region will develop in close future. This paper aims to evaluate performance of factors influencing tourists overall satisfaction in the Baneh border city due to important of development issue. Here, factors divided into two categories: shopping factors and tourism environmental factors. This research has followed a practical object, a descriptive approach with Field- Survey type in the method. Statistical population included tourists who have traveled to baneh city to purchase mainly. Matching to Morgan's table 400 tourist as statistical sample have selected and the questionnaire give to them randomly. The tools for gathering were base on two method, early data (from the field- survey study) and secondary data (from the library studies).   An analysis of the results revealed that, in thematic destinations, in addition to factors related to specific Theme (Subject) that they were more influencing, The tourism environmental factors also can  influence on the tourist total satisfaction . In sumery, this research aims to examine amount of satisfaction factors impact on the overall satisfaction. Finally, suggestions for relevant governmental institutes are provided.

Javad Bazrafshan, Mehrshad Toulabi Nejad,
Volume 16, Issue 41 (9-2016)

The objective study was to investigate the effects of social capital on sustainability security in the villages the border areas. Statistical population including the villages of the central city of Saravan are heads of households (N= 9946). 421 households (23 villages) using Cochran formula and simple random sampling were selected. for the analysis data, descriptive and inferential statistics two methods (single sample t test, Pearson correlation and path analysis) is used. Results the research findings on the impact of social capital in rural sustainable security shows that the greatest impact is related to social security. Memorizing of patterns such a way that increases language, preservation of culture and religion, reducing drug use among youth, reduce the amount of conflict is between the people and so on. the lowest impact related to later economy. findings also show that dimension politico-military security partnership, trust and of cohesion between peoples and cooperation between police forces and and border guard to increase the political participation of the people, ethnic and sectarian narrow the gap, reducing illegal traffic in neighboring countries, increased cooperation with military forces in the fight against bandits and smugglers and maintain security and order is sent.

Javad Bazrafshan, Mehrshad Toulabi Nejad, Najmeh Hamli,
Volume 18, Issue 49 (5-2018)

This study explored the factors and drivers of livelihood pattern change in rural households through sustainable livelihoods Approach. The study was considered applicable and used a descriptive-analytic method. To collect the data, questionnaire and interview instruments were utilized. The statistical population was Minan rural households in Sarbaz border province (N=4544). Using Cochran’s sampling technique, 354 households were selected as the participants of the study. One sample t-test, chi-square, and logistic model were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that out of 354 respondents, 72.88 % believed their livelihood pattern had changed and 27.12% supposed no change. 15 out of 45 variables under study were considerably effective and had significant relationships with livelihood variable. Economical (0.400), personal (0.360), and geographical isolation (0.312) factors played major roles in this regard. Moreover, it indicated that out of 354 respondents, 39.8% assumed that they had chosen fuel smuggling, 25.4 % goods trading,  and 22.9 % service works as a reaction to this livelihood change for the living. Thus, it can be argued that integrated rural livelihood and accessible proper foundations for subsistence outside the farms (such as rural industries) can diversify living and prevent both livelihood change and use of illicit and hazardous activities, for instance, fuel and goods smuggling.
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Amin Kooshki, Mr Mehrshad Toulabi Nejad,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)

In this research, the development of cross-border cooperation (CBC) to study the factors and stimuli affecting the stability of the ::::union:::: in the border regions were discussed. The aim of the present study, functional and combination method (qualitative and quantitative) is. The data-gathering tool was a questionnaire and interview. The statistical community included various experts in the fields of political science, geography, economics, sociology, law enforcement experts, governorate and governorate in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Using a targeted sampling, 70 experts were selected. For analysis of data, descriptive tests and binary logistic regression model (LM-Newton-Marcard-Raphson method) were used. The results showed that in the area of planning for unity in Sistan and Baluchestan except for the determination of the right of the Hirmand River in the Sistan region, which was concluded with the country over a period of time, the plan was not approved or implemented, and among the five factors Economic, social, cultural-religious, institutional-structural and political security, three economic factors (0.478), political-security (0.473) and cultural-religious (0.363) have the most effect on the stability of unity of border regions in Studied area. The results of this study can be used to develop border cooperation cooperation and coherence stability in different border regions of Iran.

Morad Kaviani Rad, Meysam Toulabi Nejad, Farid Rezaei,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of climate change on the border security of Thalassa Babajani villages. The study area consists of 11 villages of Salas Babajani city with a population of over 2500 people. 333 questionnaires were designed using Cochran formula. The research method was a descriptive-analytic and statistical questionnaire. The results showed that the impacts of climate change were firstly on food security and consequently security in the border villages of Thales Babajani so that most of the population in the study area were concerned about climate change such as flood and drought. Forced to change their livelihoods due to lack of food. The results also showed that with climate change, some former farmers have moved to their village boundaries for daily livelihoods due to climate change and food scarcity, which could in the future be the third border region and its villages. Serious challenges lead to insecurity. Because these people will face the same dangers as engaging in border guards between the two countries, Iran will result in the risk of death for those who were once farmers or ranchers and the security of the area would also be compromised.

Mr Farhad Ramezani, Dr Maryam Ghasemi, Dr Hadi Zarghani,
Volume 21, Issue 60 (3-2021)

Today, in the context of sustainable rural development, the need to move quickly from traditional livelihoods to sustainable livelihood patterns is evident. It is obvious that achieving this change is not possible without regard to the household's livelihoods and assets. Livelihoods include the types of natural, physical, human, social and financial assets that are considered as essential to the livelihoods of the poor. Accordingly, the main objective of this study is to measure the level of livelihoods of households living in the border villages of Torbat-e-yam. The descriptive-analytic research methodology is an applied-developmental type. In the present study, livelihood assets were categorized into 5 types of assets with the help of 64 indicators. These indices in the confirmatory factor analysis explained 66% of the variance, and also the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91, indicating the validity and reliability of the research tool. The statistical population of the study is all border villages in more than 20 households in Torbat-e Jam. The unit analyzes 264 households in 17 villages located 10 kilometers from the border between Iran and Afghanistan. The results of the study showed that the livelihood of rural households living at the border is very low, so that the average human capital is 2.13, capital 1.87, social capital 2.48, physical capital 1.81, natural capital 12 / 2 in the Likert spectrum is significantly lower than the theoretical one. Also, the "livelihood assets" structure with an average of 2.22 was measured as "low". The results of the research show that the livelihood patterns of the border villages continue to be characterized by traditional livelihoods and have little adaptation to sustainable livelihoods, and the settlement in the village, along with the geographical isolation of the borders, has created many livelihoods for the dwelling population. Any activity in the field of livelihood modeling requires attention to the multiplicity of livelihoods.
Reza Mohammadi, Zyinab Karkaabadi, Ghlam Reza Miri,
Volume 22, Issue 64 (4-2022)

In this study, the actions and interactions between the city and the border were studied and explained. This research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of descriptive-analytical method in library and field method. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. The statistical population consists of one percent of the population of border towns of Zahedan, Mirjaveh, Dost Mohammad, Khash and Saravan(N=8092). Using Cochran formula, 367 people were selected as the sample. Data were analyzed using Structured Analytical Model (SOWT-ANP). Findings and results showed.the most important effective factor on city-boundary relations is social factors with a mean of 3.55 and among weaknesses, Most affected were social weaknesses with a mean of 3.63 and among the opportunities examined, economic and managerial factors with a mean of 3.53 and Finally, they have the most impact on all types of threats, injuries and social threats with an average of 3.75. Also, the use of the method(F.ANP)in this study showed that the highest weight related to the threat factor was "management", which gained 7.9% of the final weight and took the first place. "Establishing economic, political and environmental security to deal with crises, attacks and ... (ST2)" is the most desirable strategy of deciding on the issue of zero value. And the strategy of "non-cooperation and interruption of cross-border relations with neighbors (WT1)" has been identified by experts as the worst strategy in this regard. Therefore, it can be said that among the factors (SWOT) "threats and challenges" in security and management dimensions is the most influential factor And the real gap between the "opportunities" is the key to improving the relationships between cities and territories. Also, from the standpoint of sustainable development management (institutional and structural) factors with the highest degree of importance and social, economic and environmental factors are ranked next.
Dr Ahmad Aftab, Mr Ali Majnoony, Mr Akbar Houshmand,
Volume 22, Issue 65 (6-2022)

The present study aims at identifying geopolitical components affecting the spatial planning of border regions in the East Azarbaijan province. The research is an applied research that has been carried out using statistical tests, path analysis and Promethean decision making model. The results of the research showed that social variables with r = 0.811, r = 0.662, political, r = 0.851, ranked first to third. The results of path analysis also showed that political components with 0.96, social and cultural components with 0.93 and economic components with 0.36, have a direct effect on the realization of eastern Azarbaijan province boundaries. Finally, the results of the Prometheus model showed that Sardasht, Maku, Oshnaviyeh, Piranshahr, Orumiyeh, Salmas, Khoy, Siah Cheshmeh and Sardasht, respectively, are in the first to the nineteenth priorities. Therefore, according to the findings of the research, it is suggested that security and security measures are implemented with economic, political, and socio-cultural approaches.
Murad Kaviani Rad, Afshin Motaghi Disfani, Hossein Mokhtari Hashi, Ahmad Rashidinejad,
Volume 22, Issue 66 (10-2022)

International rivers, as borders or crossing national borders, have been considered as a significant part of international relations. Especially, approximately half of the world's population lives within the basin of these rivers, and more than 90% are living in countries with these basins. This condition, by creating an undeniable relationship of interdependence, has made water a critical issue for these countries. Thus, as populations and economies grow and develop and national water resources are exploited for additional growth and development, government action and reaction to a higher share of these transnational sources will increase. By the way, the type of government interaction in line with exploiting these common resources includes a wide range of cooperation to tension and war. In some parts of the world, common water resources in the form of rivers have used as a linking factor between nations and governments. So that, instead of conflict, the beneficiary countries take the path of cooperation and convergence and they have taken important steps with regard to the development of the region as optimal management of common water resources. Although the achievement of international cooperation is a long, lengthy and complex path, always, there are many ways to follow, many steps to take, and many options for appraisal and selection. The current research is a descriptive-analytical research and by means of library resources and examining the practical status of cooperation in a part of the Danube River as a model, concluded that cooperation was not just for water agreements and factors such as environmental concerns, regional security, regional benefits (such as joining organizations and ::union::s), mediation (governments, international organizations, and institutions), etc., are effective in this process.

Masood Safari Aliakbari, Mohammad Reza Poodineh, Mohammad Azadpour,
Volume 23, Issue 70 (10-2023)

The drought occurs in a large number of livelihoods of rural households, especially in villages of border areas facing livelihoods. To deal with these effects, the use of coping strategies in rural areas is essential. Therefore, considering the importance of this issue, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drought on rural communities and identify strategies for coping with its implications in border villages in Zahedan. The present research is in terms of purpose, applied and method of combined (quantitative and qualitative). The data collection tool and questionnaire were observed and interviewed with farmers and villagers. The statistical society is related to rural households in Zahedan (10278 households), which uses a simple quota and random quota sampling 380 Household was selected as the first instance. In order to analyze quantitative data, Johansson's exploratory test was used. Exploratory interviews were used to investigate and analyze qualitative analyzes. The results showed that drought in Zahedan city villages had the greatest effect on reducing water resources, cultivation, employment, income, rural poverty, number of livestock or animal products, rural migration, vegetation loss, erosion and soil salinity and reduced price Had land and land. The results of the use of coping practices among farmers in the region showed that the status of using these actions is not suitable, and more than half of the farmers do not use these methods. However, some farmers have used more relatively simple and low cost methods that do not need to specialize and with the characteristics of border villages. In terms of farmers, such as smuggling fuel and goods, leaving the village and migrate to the city, addressing non-agricultural jobs, flooring or lyrics of Qanat and manual nutrition of livestock as the most important methods for compatibility with drought and decrease The effects are it.

Reyhane Salehabadi, Syrus Ahmadi, Afshin Motaghi,
Volume 23, Issue 71 (1-2024)

Borders are known as places where government institutions implement their own law in a variety of ways and forms. Given the different approaches to border control and management, it can be seen that this issue is still viewed as a security issue in developing countries, including Iran, and most of the approaches related to this are from a purely security perspective. The boundary view must be multidimensional and comprehensive. In this study, we seek to answer the questions of how land border management can be done. And which of the indicators of border management is more weighty and important? Therefore, the research method is a combination of Kendall, Demetel and AHP methods. The findings of the study show that we have five main components of border management in economic, cultural-social, civil, security-military and integrated management, and each of the seven components. Using these techniques, it can be stated that indicators such as identifying and identifying opportunities and identifying their fertility factors (0.1), studying and understanding the geographical location and spatial conditions of border regions (0.099), can be determined and determined. Identifying threats and identifying their roots and factors (0.098) and excluding border areas of isolation (0.096) are the most important. Therefore, it can be concluded that border management should be considered in combination with other factors, ie the application of only one approach, such as economic or security, cannot solve the problems of the country's border regions.

Ali Rostami, Mohammad Aidi, Alireaza Slambolchi, Mohammadreza Rabiee Mandejin,
Volume 24, Issue 73 (8-2024)

Tourism is now considered as one of the most important income industries of the world. Tourism as one of the main and basic approaches can be used in solving problems resulted from unemployment problems and downturn in different countries and the twenty-year vision of Iran specially consider tourism and attracting tourists. The huge volume of the tourists in the world are religious tourists and most of these religious tourists choose Mehran international border for entry and exit from Iran for doing pilgrimage and their religious affairs due to being safe and vicinity to The Holy of Holies in Iraq. This research aims at designing and explaining religious tourism model in Mehran International Border. Having determining the sample size qualitatively via snowball method, 14 experts of religious tourism including academics and trustees of religious tourism were recognized and they were interviewed directly and the research findings showed that religious tourism pattern in Mehran International Border has six main components including casual conditions (religious and tribal communities, provincial infrastructures, common border of Iraq and vicinity to The Holy of Holies, advertisements) categories (tourism and its subcategories, religious places in Iran and Iraq, security) grounds (commercial free zone in Mehran welfare and health services, economic part of religious tourism), interferer factors (political factors, conveying affairs to non-governmental sector, weather changes), strategies (cooperating with educational centers and universities, increasing governmental investing, using capacities of religious days) consequences & results (income and creating jobs, people’s persistence in border and non-immigration, cultural development of province, destruction of environmental, road and jungles of province) which could be introduced as a proper pattern for religious tourism in Mehran International Border according to the opinion of experts.

Keywords: tourism, religious tourism, pilgrimage, Mehran International Border.
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