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Showing 17 results for Earthquake

Mr. Ayat Jahanbani, Mr. Ali Shamie, Mr. Habib-O-Llah Fasihi, Mr. Taher Parizadi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Resiliency is one of the approaches to reducing the vulnerability of communities and strengthening peoplechr('39')s ability to deal with the dangers of natural disasters, especially earthquakes, and has economic, social, institutional, physical, and environmental dimensions. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and research method. The researcher-made questionnaire with 102 items was a tool for collecting research data. The sample size was 386 simple based on Cochranchr('39')s formulas and the sampling method was random. Exploratory factor analysis and path analysis were used in the SPSS25 software platform for data analysis and factor modeling. The results indicate that Parsabad city has the lowest scores in terms of social and physical resilience and is in a moderate to good condition; environmental resilience is in a moderate condition, institutional and economic resilience are in a bad situation. Also question factorization, 13 factors for social dimensions, (behavior during the crisis, crisis awareness, crisis preparedness, knowledge, cooperation, trust, assistance, reliance, interaction, accuracy, attitude, first aid, and necessary measures); 3 factors (Damages, Compensation and ability to return) for economic dimensions; 5 factors (performance of public institutions, the performance of semi-public institutions, institutional communication, institutional measures, and institutional context) for institutional resilience; 4 factors (open space, building resistance, public access and Relief access) for physical resilience and 3 factors (environmental, nutritional and soil factors) for environmental resilience. Finally, the modeling of resilience indicators for Parsabad city was presented.

Dr Shahrivar Rostaei, Dr Rahim Heydari Chyaneh, Mr Ayoub Zoghi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

As cities become more physically in structure and demographically wider, the rate of crises is also increasing consequently, and cities become more vulnerable to natural disasters for a variety of reasons, including economic and cultural poverty, fault alignment and non-compliance to regulations of earthquake-related issues.  What matters is the level of community's preparedness and the degree of vulnerability of the city and its residents, which can be reduced to the lowest level if properly planned and principle policies are adopted.  In this research, considering the high potential of Sanandaj in terms of seismicity and the existence of many faults in the vicinity and around of the city, it is tried to gain an authentic understanding of the subject with identifying the factors affecting the earthquake and combining indicators using the  Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) model. The results indicate that a large area of   the city is in the category of moderate to high vulnerability.52% is in the middle vulnerability category, 16.5% is in the high vulnerability category and 1% of the city is considered to be in the very high vulnerability category, which exactly matches the same marginal, old and densely populated neighborhoods. This situation does not render a proper structure and needs more consideration in prospective development plans.
Sana Rahmani, Sayed Hossein Vahedi, Leila Abedi Far, Saleh Ebrahimi Pour,
Volume 18, Issue 50 (6-2018)
Abstract

Iran is among the countries which id most vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes. This natural phenomenon creates a disaster in an area of Iran every few years and destroys the human and financial potentials of the country and it has also irreversible mental and emotional consequences. Due to the unexpected nature of most natural disasters and the need for rapid and accurate decision-making and implementation process, fundamental and theoretical basis has created a knowledge called crisis management. Bojnord city is the center of Bojnord town in North Khorasan province and is the largest city in the province. The city is one of the high altitudes of North Khorasan and is a mountainous region from the natural perspective. Based on census population in 2011, Bojnord has a population over 207,196 people. Bojnord is one of the cities that are located in a zoning with a very high relative risk. Moses Baba fault and Dubarar-tower fault of Bojnord are located in the immediate vicinity of city and in some regions the city is built along this fault. Faults in Bojnord have been the origin of devastating earthquakes in history and are able to work once again and threaten the city which determined the importance and role of crisis management and passive defense in earthquake more than ever. In addition to the potential threat, Bojnord faults has made clear the adverse consequences arising from the filling of Bojnord plain from human habitations and the development of the city towards the fault line at a distance of 150 meters and this has also attracted attention to passive defense two times more. Therefore, identifying risk zones (faults and earthquakes) in the city can show the vital artery in low risk decision areas and zones with low risk for the construction of temporary housing camps during the crisis. Bojnord is in a bowl surrounded by mountains and down the valley. 

Javad Jamalabadi, Mahammad Salmanimoghaddam, Ali Shekari Badi, Marzieh Nodeh,
Volume 19, Issue 55 (12-2019)
Abstract

Temporary resettlement of the population after the earthquake is considered as a pivotal element of crisis management. The selection of suitable centers for the establishment of citizens can have a significant role in rescue and rescue services after the earthquake. The purpose of this study was to identify potential spots for the construction of shelters and temporary accommodation of the population during the occurrence of a possible earthquake. This research is applied in terms of its purpose. The method of study is descriptive-analytical and documentary. Firstly, using the Delphi method, 16 main and effective criteria for locating these centers were identified in the framework of six clusters including access to the communication network, natural features, spatial characteristics, consistent uses, risk management and demographic performance. Then, using the experts' opinions and the network analysis process, the final weight of each criterion was determined. The most important parameters in this research are population density indexes, grade 1 arterial pathways, and suitable area. Finally, by combining the layers of all indicators, a map of the temporary population settlements was prepared in Sabzevar city. The results of the research show that the lack of suitable spaces, including parks and open spaces for temporary accommodation of citizens in Sabzevar city, is quite evident. At the same time, the points of the city, which have adequate open spaces and are compatible with the surrounding land uses, have a relatively better potential for deployment. Accordingly, the best places for temporary accommodation of the population after the earthquake in Sabzevar, including the Eram Park in the north, Imam Reza Park and the Football Stadium in Southeastern City, Shahr-e Basi, National Park and Shariati Conservatory in the city center, tourist hostel, Green spaces and sports grounds in the west, and finally technical and vocational schools in the city of Tohid. In order to improve the conditions in the aftermath of the earthquake, some suggestions are presented in this study.

Mrs Fatemeh Khodadadi, Dr Mojgan Entezari, Dr Farzaneh Sasanpour,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)
Abstract

Today, in view of the growing population and population density in urban areas, especially in densely populated and susceptible cities, the need for an inclusive and comprehensive approach to natural disasters and disasters caused by their occurrence has become more evident . Focusing more than the size of the population in specific urban areas, lack of preventive planning and lack of readiness to deal with accidents such as earthquakes, is a very serious and important threat to citizens and the survival of the city. The capital city of Karaj, as one of the major cities in Iran, has a high risk of earthquakes due to the presence of several active faults inside and outside it. Accordingly, investigations of the seismic vulnerability of this city are one of the necessities of Karaj city management. Regarding this, the metropolis of karaj was selected as the study area. The method of research and analysis of information collected based on database-based methods using the ELECTRE FUZZY model and Criteria for building materials, number of floors, quality of buildings, population density, building density, area of parts, width of passageways, geology, distance from faults, distance from medical centers, distance from public space, distance from urban facilities and travel compatibility for research purposes Were used. The results indicate that 6, 8, 1, and 7 areas of Karaj municipality are vulnerable to earthquake, so that more than 70 percent of Karaj city is vulnerable to earthquake vulnerability on low and low floors and Only about 20% of the city of Karaj due to its proximity to the fault and the high density of population, construction and ... is in high and high risk areas. According to the principles of urban planning, the regulations of 2800 can cover earthquake damage in these areas.

Sajad Bazdar, Mohamadreza Zandmoghadam, Saeed Kamyabi,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)
Abstract

Any imbalance in intra-city systems (urban spatial and urban areas) and external systems of the city (near and far-reaching districts of the city and region) causes its uncertainty and instability. As a result, estimating the risk and assessing the seismic vulnerability of a city is also considered as a major issue. The present study, with the developmental-applied and combination of field and library methodology and using the VIKOR method, has studied the issue in Ilam province. The results show that the cities of the province in terms of demographic density, literacy, etc. Each of them has an effective role in vulnerability, they can be effective in the damage caused by the earthquake. VIKOR and GIS models show that the regions in which these indicators are higher than other areas (surplus of defined standard) is not in the benefit of the region and if this surplus is in the benefit of the region. Statistically, the average VIKOR score was 0.125%. Though this amount expresses the situation inappropriately. But there are areas where VIKOR levels are much smaller than the average. Which includes the Dehloran, Ivan and Maleshahi cities
Ehsan Arkani, Hossein Hatami Nejad, Soheil Qare,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)
Abstract

Today, the vulnerability of cities, especially the old and worn-out tissues to earthquakes, has become a global issue for experts in various fields. This situation has become more acute in countries with dangerous natural structures, including Iran, in recent decades. Exhausted urban tissues, as the main boiling point of a city, reflect the identity of that city, and are vulnerable to natural disasters, especially unstable earthquakes. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying and prioritizing the factors affecting the increase of earthquake risk in worn-out urban areas. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of analytical method based on multi-criteria approach. Library and field methods were used to gather information. The statistical population of the study consisted of experts and specialists in the field of urban planning, and the sample size was estimated at 30 people. In order to achieve the goals considered in this study, fuzzy Delphi technique and BMW model were used. The results of fuzzy Delphi technique confirmed the identified factors and subscales. The results of the BMW model indicated that among the identified factors, natural factors with a final score of 0.321 were in the first place, housing quality factor with a final score of 0.287 in the second place, distance from special uses with a final score of 255. 0.0 is in the third place and the demographic and economic factor with the final score of 0.137 is in the fourth place.
Mr Mozaffar Mohamadkhani, Dr Zeynab Karke Abadi, Abbas Arghan,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)
Abstract

The structure of urban resilience consists of four dimensions: social, economic, institutional and physical. In the desired situation, a resilient city has a strong local society with a dynamic and sustainable economy that is governed institutionally and institutionally in a participatory manner. As a result of these super-physical factors, the city is formed in a cohesive manner and no withering is observed at any point. The purpose of this study is to assess the resilience and stability of Semnan in the face of natural hazards (earthquake). The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical and its statistics and information have been obtained using a questionnaire. The statistical population of this study was citizens living in Semnan city. Using Cochranchr('39')s formula, a sample of 384 people was selected from them by random sampling method. To assess the validity (validity), using face validity, the opinions of related people were examined and its reliability was assessed using Cronbachchr('39')s test in the SPSS software environment equal to / 863. It was found to indicate high coordination and reliability of the data. In data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical tests were used in Spss software. percentage; At the level of inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient and sample titech test as well as neural network model were used to examine the relationship between variables. Findings showed that the socio-cultural dimension with an average rank of 2.59 and the physical dimension with an average rank of 3.05 and the economic dimension with an average rank of 2.17 and finally the institutional-organizational dimension with an average rank of 2.56 show the current situation of resilience in Semnan.
Mahdi Mohammadi,
Volume 21, Issue 60 (3-2021)
Abstract

This paper focuses on convergence with the measures and activities of the global assemblies in order to promote the resilience of cities against earthquakes and to pay attention to their physical- skeletal development process, to analyze the resilience of the city of Zanjan and to design scenarios against the earthquake hazard.   The criteria used in order of priority and importance include: type of structure, building quality, building life, number of floors, occupancy level, enclosure coefficient, building density, grading, distance from the fault, number of units in the building, user adaptability, slope and facade Building, Which are applied in the three earthquake resilience scenarios after analytical hierarchy analysis (AHP) based on (relation No. 1).
According to the maps drawn from the scenarios, the resiliency rate in the central and southern parts of the city was weak and very weak and as far as we move north, west, and east, we increase the amount of physical resilience of the area. However, no resonance images in the scenario maps show any area with a very resilient domain. As in Ramallah scenarios 7 and 8, the resilience is in a non-resilient and very weak domain. The analysis shows that, according to the maps in any of the areas, there is no stability in the resilience That is, no area in the assessment of all criteria is resilient.
Abolghasem Goorabi,
Volume 21, Issue 60 (3-2021)
Abstract

Radar sensors obtain regular and frequent radar images from which ground motion can be precisely detected using a variety of different techniques. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is utilized to retrieve the spatial characteristics of the largest coseismic landslide Maleh-Kabood, induced by the Ms 7.3 Azgleh earthquake in Kermanshah Province, Iran. The available seven interferometric pairs with good coherence selected from the Sentinel 1, 2 imagery data covering the NW-Zagros mountainous area are used in the study. The post-seismic topographic change relative to the pre-seismic over the landslide area is spatially mapped from the persistent scatterer network adjustment solution. The quantitative estimation of local elevation change, mass sliding volume and deposit thickness associated with the landslide is conducted. The spatial pattern of mass movement suggests that the giant landslide is characterized by a major sliding length of 3570 m along the NW–SE directions with an extension width of 1500-2300 m along the Maleh-Kabood and Ghoch-Bashi gully respectively, and a peak height change of 20 m in the vertical direction neat mountain ridge. The affected area of landslide mass movement reaches 6.0 km2 (577 Hectares) with the volume up to 500 million m3. Comparative studies indicated that the Maleh-Kabood landslide is the largest landslide in Iran over the past few centuries. The study also demonstrates the potential of InSAR technique as an alternative to allow the quantitative measurement of mass wasting volume associated with earthquake-induced giant landslides.
 
Elias Mavedat,
Volume 21, Issue 61 (6-2021)
Abstract

An earthquake, though a natural phenomenon that can be very destructive, But urban planning and management can play an important role in the damage it poses. Today, risk analysis is one of the basic needs for planning in general and urban planning in particular. From the perspective of many researchers, urban regeneration is one of the most important issues for sustainability. It serves as a way to strengthen communities by using their capacities. From the issue of choice in the city of Ilam, Ilam is located in the Zagros zone. So that the Zagros area has the highest earthquake with magnitude 4 to 4/5 richter has. According to the necessity of this research, a combination of methods (descriptive, exploratory, surveying, and analytical). In terms of the nature of research, it has a developmental-applied approach in line with the overall objective of urban spatial management planning research from the perspective of resilience is a city of Ilam. Based on the VIKOR statistical statistic, Bootstrap and Bootstrap simulation have been used. Visio, Grafer, SPSS, MINITAB and GIS software have been used to complete the research. Results of the findings were based on Bootstrap simulation and based on the 196 cells studied, distributed among 14 urban districts; The minimum residual cell in the city of Ilam has been around 0.07 percent. Therefore, the dispersion and status of the Ilam city variables can not be confirmed at urban confidence level of 95%. Based on the VIKOR model of the 4th region, the least resiliency and the region of 2 is the highest Ilam city resilience. Also, the regression model calculations have shown that the applied model is a good predictor of the urban regression variable. Because the significance of the present study is less than 0.05.

Dr Mohammad Hosein Saraei, Dr Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mr Mohsen Adeli,
Volume 21, Issue 61 (6-2021)
Abstract

The route optimization process is one of the analyzes that can be used when there is a constraint on resources and time, including post-earthquake conditions. In this research, this analysis has been used to solve the Travelling Salesman Problem. In this case, the goal is finding the shortest path between a set of points and the algorithm will try to minimize the transmission costs and target function. This paper due to target, is practical and developmental, due to doing method is descriptive and analytical and due to information gathering method is documental and surveying. In order to implement this problem, by considering to the strict scenario of accessing resources, two algorithms including the Ant Colony Optimization and Imperialist Competition Algorithm in the MATLAB environment with the Dijkstra algorithm in the GIS environment have been used. The view points of the model are areas that prepared to temporary post-earthquake settlement in Gorgan city and the spatial and temporal real-time distances in the urban network are used instead of Euclidian distances. The results of the implementation of the model have shown that the Ant Colony Optimization has performed the route optimization in two parameters of time and distance more effectively than the two dijkstra and Imperialist Competition Algorithm.
 
Dr Ali Asgharzadeh, Dr Seyed Gholamreza Islami, Dr Iraj Etessam,
Volume 21, Issue 61 (6-2021)
Abstract

Earthquake and its related phenomenon are often considered as the causes of instability and disorder in engineering and architecture, and have resulted in the destruction of many buildings and urban fabric. Despite this, by changing our attitude to earthquake: by redefining it from problem to potential and from chaos to complex organization, a different layer of this phenomenon can become evident. Earthquake and fault lines can be considered as an organizing factor, which play an important but hidden role in the geography of habitation, e.g. settlement location, urban spatial network, urban development and spatial-structural network of buildings. This article adopts a holistic approach and quantitative-qualitative methodology to identify the role of self-awareness and mental imaging in the complex system of earthquake-qanat-city and its effects on urbanism and architecture in different scales, which has resulted in an earthquake compatible architecture in different periods in the history of Iran and in some contemporary examples too.

Nahid Bagheri Maragheh, Mohammad Motamedi, Ezatollah Mafi,
Volume 22, Issue 64 (4-2022)
Abstract

Abstract
Explaining the relationship between resilience to natural disasters is in fact how social, economic, institutional and physical capacities affect the increase of resilience in societies. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to investigate the resilience of Shirvan city in the face of earthquakes in which the research method is descriptive-analytical and the statistical population includes experts in the field of urban resilience for this group of 30 people. First, the indicators evaluated to assess the resilience of Shirvan city in the face of earthquake hazards using the ANP model, which were questioned by experts and elites, were 25 indicators in 4 physical, institutional, cultural, social and economic criteria. Paired comparisons were performed. Findings showed that the rate of resilience in Shirvan is low in 65.4% of the city and high in only 19.2% of the city. In other words, in 17 neighborhoods out of 26 neighborhoods of Shirvan city, the rate of resilience in the face of earthquake hazards is low and only in 5 neighborhoods of the city the rate of resilience is high. Therefore, the final results of resilience in Shirvan are 19.2% of the upper city, 15.4% of the average city and 65.4% of the lower city. In general, the results indicate that the resilience of Shirvan is in an unfavorable and unfavorable situation and the rate of resilience in this city is low in the face of earthquake hazards.
Dr Hoomayoon Molaei, Dr Emamgholi Babadi,
Volume 23, Issue 70 (10-2023)
Abstract

Abstract
Iran is one of the most earthquake-prone countries in the world and its cities have suffered a lot due to this natural phenomenon. The purpose of this study was the spatial analysis of earthquake crisis management. The research method has been applied-developmental. The research area of ​​Khuzestan province and the statistical population included elites in the field of urban planning in Khuzestan province who were selected by targeted sampling method. There have also been two statistical tests. The results of statistical analysis showed that from the perspective of statistical individuals, proper crisis management (organizational structure, proper distribution of emergency services, manpower, equipment and information system) has a positive and significant effect on reducing mortality and financial vulnerability. Also, the results of Hot spot analysis showed that hot and earthquake-prone hotspots in Khuzestan province were mostly located in Behbahan, Masjed Soleiman and Andimeshk counties
 
Dr Shahrivar Rostaei, Dr Rahim Heydari Chyaneh, Mr Ayoub Zoghi,
Volume 24, Issue 73 (8-2024)
Abstract

bstract
As cities become more physically in structure and demographically wider, the rate of crises is also increasing consequently, and cities become more vulnerable to natural disasters for a variety of reasons, including economic and cultural poverty, fault alignment and non-compliance to regulations of earthquake-related issues. What matters is the level of community's preparedness and the degree of vulnerability of the city and its residents, which can be reduced to the lowest level if properly planned and principle policies are adopted. In this research, considering the high potential of Sanandaj in terms of seismicity and the existence of many faults in the vicinity and around of the city, it is tried to gain an authentic understanding of the subject with identifying the factors affecting the earthquake and combining indicators using the Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) model. The results indicate that a large area of the city is in the category of moderate to high vulnerability.52% is in the middle vulnerability category,16.5% is in the high vulnerability category and 1% of the city is considered to be in the very high vulnerability category, which exactly matches the same marginal, old and densely populated neighborhoods. This situation does not render a proper structure and needs more consideration in prospective development plans.
Keywords: Urban Vulnerability, Earthquake, Classification Tree Analysis, ROC Curve, Sanandaj.
Sayyd Morovat Eftekhari,
Volume 24, Issue 74 (12-2024)
Abstract

One of the consequences of the earthquake can be changes in the elevation levels of the unevenness in the area of occurrence. These changes at the level of the region will not be the same and the amount will be different under the influence of several factors such as: earthquake intensity, landforms, geo-material, and structure geological... The purpose of this research is to measure the geomorphometric changes caused by the earthquake of 17th February 2021 at the level of Dana County using the radar technique differential SAR Interferometry. To achieve this goal, taking into account the appropriate coverage and measurement accuracy of the Sentinel 1 radar satellite images from two image scenes related to the earthquake area for the dates before (2021.02.08) and after the earthquake (2021.02.20) from the organization's website. European Space Agency (ESA) was received, after performing the process and data analysis Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR), it was found that after the earthquake dated 2021,02,17, a part of the studied area was affected by positive elevation changes with a rise of 0.11 cm and Negative changes of -0.6 cm subsidence have been encountered. These positive changes (uplift) are more noticeable near the epicenter of the earthquake in the east of Dena, and the negative changes (subsidence) are quite evident with the Syncline Valley on which Khorasan Rivers is located. And in dealing with the faults, changing the geological structure, geo-material of the region, it has a special irregularity.

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