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Showing 26 results for Land Use

Yaser Nazaryan, Amane Haghzad, Leyla Ebrahimi, Kia Abozorgmehr51,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Vulnerability is the inevitable result of risks and crises that threaten societies to varying degrees. One of the main threats is earthquakes. The recent approach to disaster management programs is to increase the resilience of communities that have different dimensions. One of them is the physical dimension of urban resilience, which is linked to the components of land use planning. In this research, with the aim of analyzing land use criteria affecting the resilience of Tabriz city and using fuzzy AHP method, research has been done.
Based on the results of the study of theoretical foundations, 13 effective criteria have been identified and the basis of action. The required data were extracted and used from maps and spatial information of urban plans, especially the detailed plan of Tabriz, Then Using ARC Map10.3.1 software, each criterion is analyzed and each criterion is presented in the form of a fuzzy map. Sum, Product and gamma fuzzy operators have been used to achieve the final resilience map. Due to the high accuracy of the gamma operator, its results are considered as the final output.
The results show that in the city of Tabriz, 2% have very low resilience, 40.8%, low resilience,15.3% moderate resilience, 23.5% high resilience and 7.2% very high resilience - based on the Used criteria-. Areas with low resilience are generally located in the north of Tabriz city and correspond to the informal settlement texture and the worn-out texture of the city, which corresponds to the fault line of Tabriz and Micronutrient and permeability are other features of these areas. Due to the high population density in these areas, it is necessary to immediately adopt the necessary programs to improve the quality of physical resilience criteria in the city.

Ruhollah Namaki, Akbar Abdollahzadeh Tarf, Hassan Sattari Sarbangholi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Air pollution and adverse effects of pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels in urban settlements are among the important environmental issues of metropolises that need to pay attention to ways to reduce air pollution in cities. Global experience has shown that urban form indicators are one of the most important factors affecting air pollution and energy consumption in the city. Therefore, paying attention to the form of the city plays an important role in the long-term perspective of cities for better air quality. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. In order to collect the required data and information, library and documentary methods have been used. To analyze the data and answer the research questions, the Moran statistical technique was used in the GIS software environment. The results of this study showed that the air pollution situation in Tabriz in terms of air pollutants, ie sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide in the second half of the year is more than the first half of the year, so that among the air monitoring stations The field had the highest number of air pollution. Also, the results of the study of the effect of urban form and land use pattern on air pollution showed that urban form and land use are effective on air pollution.
Mr Milad Khayat, Ms Atefeh Bosak, Dr Zahra Hejazizadeh, Dr. Mohammad Ebrahim Afifi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Using urban growth and development modeling, it is possible to draw a development trend appropriate to the city's position according to environmental and natural factors and population attraction. The purpose of this study is to represent a model of urban development in Shushtar that can be used as a felicitous tool to analyze the complex processes of urban development. To achieve this goal, two databases consist of urban land use maps for educational, medical, habitation, etc and Landsat satellite images for major land uses such as rivers, barren areas, forests, etc were used by GIS and MATLAB software environment in three time periods 1991, 2004 and 2014. Existing urban land use maps were updated by using Landsat satellite imagery after digitization. Then the effective parameters in urban development were entered as inputs with the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference algorithm (ANFIS). in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, training for 1991 and 2004 was performed. the result of urban development forecasting using the algorithm was compared with the current situation in 2014. The results are very close to reality and with an accuracy of 93.7%. The land use change map, which is the result of the change detection process, can be prepared based on multi-time remote sensing images and combined with urban user maps, and the relevant consequences examined. The use of intelligent algorithms in this research has allowed us to execute modeling with high accuracy. The results are satisfactory and this development was predicted for the coming years.
 
Maryam Hoseini, Mohammad Karimi, Mohammad Saadimesgari, Mehdi Heydary,
Volume 16, Issue 40 (6-2016)
Abstract

According to urban environment complexity and dynamism and need to targeted land use change, incorporation GIS and PSS in the form of Spatial Planning Support Systems is inevitable. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial planning support system for urban land uses change (ULCMS), such that planners can enter expert knowledge in the form of desired criteria and weights and see their influence in results. The developed system including modules for land suitability evaluation, calculation of the area of required land and land use change. Access models, neighborhood models and Multi Criteria Decision Making methods, fuzzy operators, linear regression, maximum potential and hierarchical optimization models is used in planning and implementation these modules. System practical test performed for measuring residential, commercial, industrial, agriculture and service land use changes for the year 1390 and 1395 in Shiraz city. The result shows that ULCMS help users in better understanding, showing complexity of land use system and development and improvement land management strategies for the creation of better balance between urban expansion and environmental conservation.


Ahmad Mazidi, Mahdi Narangifard,
Volume 16, Issue 40 (6-2016)
Abstract

Expansion of urban areas has impacted on climate in local and global scale. As a result, residents’ life would be influenced accordingly. In this study, the effects of changes in land cover and land use change on climate of Shiraz and Fasa were studied in a long-term period. To ensure the normal data, Kolmogrov-Smirnoff test was employed. The minimum and maximum temperature parameters and relative humidity were evaluated using non-parametric Mann-Kendall and regression method in a 45-year period (1966-2010). The results showed a decreasing trend for the minimum temperature and humidity for Fasa and minimum and maximum relative humidity for Shiraz whereas other quantities showed an increasing trend. The study examined the effects of land use changes and land cover types in the 23-year period (1987-2010) using images of LANDSAT satellite of TM sensor on temperature pattern in two cities. During these 23 years, a reduction of 113 square kilometers for barren land of Shiraz and 5/7 square kilometers for barren land of Fasa and extending 110 kilometers residential users and 3/5 square kilometers in Shiraz and Fasa were reported.


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Volume 17, Issue 46 (12-2017)
Abstract

This research tends to analyze and assess the impact of intercity flows rate on land use changes around the community roads of the cities of Babol, Ghaem Shahr and Sari. This research is descriptive-analytic and performed in quantitative method. A wide range of techniques including gravity model, flow analysis model, entropy analysis and GIS software environment were applied for performing required analysis. Research findings show that increase in passenger transfer and cargo transit in the community roads of the cities of Babol, Ghaem Shahr and Sari, resulted in increase in applications for land use changes around these roads; of course, the impact of passenger transfer (with correlation coefficient of 0.72) was higher than cargo transit (with correlation coefficient of 0.43). Concerning their existing interactions and multicenter of the studied area (based on entropy analysis), codification of control system and integrated spatial management is hereby suggested in form of a comprehensive urban plan toward supervising and managing land use changes in suburban areas of the aforesaid cities.
 

Bakhtiar Feizizadeh, Ali Khedmat Zadeh, Mohammad Reza Nikjoo,,
Volume 18, Issue 48 (4-2018)
Abstract

Remote sensing technology is one of the most efficient and innovative technologies for agricultural land use/cover mapping. In this regard, the object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) is known as a new method of satellite image processing which integrates spatial and spectral information for satellite image process. This approach make use of spectral, environmental, physical and geometrical characteristics (e.g. texture, shape) together images contexts for modeling of land use/cover classes. The main objective of this study is to classify micro land use/cover of Meyandoab County by applying appropriate and effective algorithms and parameters in the object based approach. For this goal, Quick Bird and Aster satellite images were used within the integrated approach for processing and land use modeling. Accordingly, the land use map was classified in 9 class based on spectral and spatial characteristics.  In order to perform OBIA, the segmentation was applied in the scale of 10, shape parameter of 0.7 as well as the compactness of 0.3. In terms of the classification task, fuzzy based algorithm and operators (AND, OR) was applied to detriment the membership functionality of segments for each class as well as classifying the related objects.  We also applied textures, geometric, NDVI, GLCM, brightness algorithms based on fuzzy operators and assign class algorithm. In order to applying the validation of results, the accuracy assessment step was performed and the finally overall accuracy of 93.6 was obtained for the derived map. The Kappa coefficient was also detriment to be 0.92. The area under cultivation included respectively for lands of wheat and barley, prunes and plums, apples, vineyards and alfalfa hay2622.42, 4505, 4354.55, 4457.85, 14110.58 hectares.
 


Chenoor Mohammadi, Manouchehr Farajzadeh, Yousef Ghavdel Rahimi, Abbas Ali Aliakbar Bidokhti,
Volume 18, Issue 48 (4-2018)
Abstract

 This study is aimed at estimating monthly mean air temperature (Ta) using the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), latitude, altitude, slope gradient and land use data during 2001-2015. The results showed that despite some spatial similarities between annual spatial patterns of Ta and LST, their variations are significantly different, so that the Ta variation coefficient is four times the one of the LST. Our analysis indicated that while in winter latitude is the key factor in explaining the distribution of the differences LST-Ta, in other seasons the role of slope and vegetation become more prominent. After obtaining the spatial patterns of LST and Ta, we estimated Ta using regression models in spatial resolution of 0.125˚. The lowest estimation error was found in the months of November and December with a high explanatory coefficient (R2) of 70% and a standard error of 1 ° C.  On the other hand, the maximum error was obtained from May to August with R2 between 59 to 63% and a standard error of 1.6 ° C which is significant at the 0.05 level. In addition, result of evaluation of individual months showed that estimation of Ta is more accurate at the cold months of the year (November, December, January, February, and March). With considering different land uses, the highest R2 was related to waters and urban areas (96 to 99%) in warm months, and the lowest R2 was for mixed forest and grassland (between 15 and 36%) in cold months.

Taher Safarrad, Mehran Mansourinia, Hersh Entezami,
Volume 19, Issue 53 (7-2019)
Abstract

Population growth and urbanization development are the main triggering factors of changes in urban land uses. These, in turn, result in changes in the components of radiation balance. The present study tries to analyze the role of urban land uses in radiation balance by calculating net radiation and its analysis. For this purpose, the Landsat 8 satellite image of 2016 was used. Characteristics of radiation flux including net radiation flux (RN), ground surface albedo (α), incoming longwave radiation (RL↓), incoming shortwave radiation (RS↓), outgoing longwave radiation (RL↑), and ground surface temperature were computed using Sebal algorithm.The values ​​of these components in different land uses (compressed residential, scattered residential, green area and wastelands) were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. The results of this study showed that the selected land uses have significant differences in the amount of radiation flux, therefore the wastelands are warmer than the residential areas by about 6 oC and the residential areas are warmer than the green areas by about 1.5 oC. The results also indicated that these differences are due to changes in output energy (α and RL↑), and any change in land use over time will ultimately lead to a change in the radiation balance and the temperature of those places, which this temperature increase, is different from the increase of the temperature due to global warming.

Dr Sayyad Asghari, Hadi Emami,
Volume 19, Issue 53 (7-2019)
Abstract

Earth surface temperature is an important indicator in the study of energy equilibrium models at the ground level on a regional and global scale. Due to the limitation of meteorological stations, remote sensing can be an appropriate alternative to the Earth's surface temperature. The main objective of this study is to monitor the surface temperature and its relationship with land use, which is monitored using satellite imagery. For this purpose, the images were first obtained and the necessary pre-processing was applied to each one. Then it was compared to modeling and classification of images.  Firstly, in order to investigate the changes in user-orientation, a user-defined classification map for each object was extracted using the object-oriented method. Then, to investigate the land use change, a map of user-landing changes map was extracted in an 18-year time period (2000-2017). Finally, in order to monitor the surface temperature, the surface temperature map of Ardebil was extracted.  The results showed that there is a strong relationship between land use and surface temperature. As a user, urban users have a temperature of about 41 ° C (2017), which is also due to heat-absorbing urban temperatures.  This is despite the fact that the use of hydrocarbons is due to a lower heat absorption of 34 ° C (2017). This shows the role of different uses in determining surface temperatures.  Also, the relationship between surface temperature and vegetation cover was investigated in this study. The results showed that areas such as soil and urban areas with a lower coverage than areas such as agriculture and pasture, have a higher temperature.  Because the coating is always an obstacle to the entry of heat, it has an inverse relationship with superficial heat.


Amir Safari, Ali Ahmadabadi, Zahra Sedighifar,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)
Abstract

Flood plains and adjacent rivers, which, due to their particular circumstances, are considered suitable places for carrying out economic and social activities, are always subject to the dangers of flood events. Hence, in these areas, determination of flood progression and its elevation relative to the surface of the earth, as well as determining the characteristics of the flood during the various return periods, which will be called flood zoning, will be of great importance. In this regard, this research aims at integrating the WMS hydrologic model with ARC GIS software to estimate flood zones in the Damand, Goladdareh, Saadabad and Maghsoud Baik watersheds on the main river of Darband. At first, the river Darband was divided into 19 main sections and in the HEC-RAS model, the river was zoned. In this research, using different digital maps, the flood extent in the riverside lands was calculated for a flood with a return period of 2 to 500 years. The SCS method was also used to increase the accuracy and reliability and also to identify areas susceptible to runoff production. The results of the study show that, due to land use changes, especially in the river basin and the abundant construction of the studied basin, there is no flood control power.

Mehdi Razjouyan, Sadralddin Motavali, Gholamreza Janbaz Ghobadi,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)
Abstract

Tourism with a wide range of environmental, economic, social and physical impacts is one of the factors affecting the pattern of land use which, depending on the region's ability to attract tourists, as well as the type, volume and forms of tourism, the intensity and quality of this change effect varies. One of the many factors that can affect sustainable urban development is tourism and its consequences, so that a comprehensive study of the implications of tourism development in a metropolitan area needs to be considered as a sustainable urban development. The method of research is after collecting field information. Using a completed questionnaire, SPSS software is used to analyze the data. Then, using descriptive and inferential statistics, we analyze the relationships between the variables. And also, to show the results of analytical and descriptive data GIS and Excel software were used.  Finally, in GIS software environment, the zoning of the best places for tourism development will be analyzed. The results of this research show that from the perspective of half of the officials and government experts, the expansion of tourism industry, on one hand, causes the region's economic prosperity and, on the other hand, reduces regional security and causes pollution of the environment. 

Mrs Mehrnaz Rezvani, Mr Yosefali Ziari, Mr Naser Eghbali, Mr Hosein Mojtabazade Khanghahi,
Volume 20, Issue 57 (6-2020)
Abstract

Urban land utilize planning, for optimal use of existing facilities and urban spaces is one of the main cores of urban planning, which is usually defined as a multi-objective issue. In line with the absence of specific categorization, system for land use in Iran the use of metaheuristic algorithm and artificial intelligence is required. One of the algorithms that introduced and used in recent years are the optimization algorithm (BBO) based on biogeography. Current research is from practical research group and type of descriptive-analytic research, the data analysis method would be write and execute in MATLAB software by using biogeography algorithm. The purpose, after identifying most effective variable, will be to improve the present status of the system's distribution use indicators and their adjacency in the county surface. For comparing the results of current research, in terms of desired area needed uses with development plan of Semnan County, each dimension of (GIS) layer should be provide.overlapping of the layers would be compare with development design.




Saideh Eiyni, Dr Saeide Eini,
Volume 21, Issue 60 (3-2021)
Abstract

The aim of this research is to investigate drought stress in rangeland rangelands in Ardabil province. According to the monthly rainfall data, 4 synoptic stations of Ardebil province (Ardebil, Khalkhal, Meshgin Shahr and Parsabad Moghan) during the statistical period of 2016-1996 were used to calculate drought index (SEPI) index for 4 periods of 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Landsat TM and OLI satellite imagery was also used to prepare landslide classification maps based on the maximum probability model and calculation of vegetation indices NDVI, EVI, SAVI and LAI. In order to investigate the relationship between the studied indices, Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) have been used. The results of the classification showed that the extent of the rangelands of Ardebil province in 1394 in the year 1377, both in the rangeland and in the rangelands, is a significant decrease. According to the results of SPI, the drought condition during 2011-2015 is more than the other periods studied. Vegetation dispersal maps were based on decision tree tree classification algorithm and according to NDVI index for the studied months. Also, according to the results of the evaluation, the highest correlation was observed between the NDVI index and the 6-month SEPI index, and the lowest mean squared error was found between the SAVI index and the 6-month SEPI index, but in general, the most suitable indicator for Drought monitoring in Ardebil province pastures is a 6-month NDVI and SEPI indicator.
 


Taher Safarrad, Yadollah Yousefi, Atefeh Rezaei Taleei,
Volume 21, Issue 62 (10-2021)
Abstract

Information on a variation of impervious surface is useful for understanding urbanization and its impacts on the hydrological cycle, water management, surface energy balances, urban heat island, and biodiversity. This research attempts to detect impervious surfaces and its changes by satellite imagery in Qaemshahr. The relationship between impervious surfaces and changes in land surface temperature in the city was investigated. For this purpose, after obtaining three images in 1978, 2000, and 2017, and performing the necessary preprocessing, the reflection values of the infrared spectrum and ground surface temperature in the study area were calculated. The reflectance of this spectrum was investigated in various land uses vegetation, asphalt and building areas in two parts of the urban and the suburb.  Using the results of ANOVA and Tukey these properties compared to different land uses. By the difference between Permeable surfaces and impervious surfaces, the impervious surface index was calculated. The results of the detection and comparison of the three surveyed images showed that the impervious surfaces in Qaemshahr were significantly increased from 1978 to 2017. In the next step, by calculating the land surface temperature, it was determined that the temperature of the impervious surfaces is higher than the other parts of the study area. An increase in the population of the city followed by an increase in urban construction has led to an increase in impervious surfaces and a reduction in green space and this has caused a rise in city temperatures. The results of this study showed that increasing impervious surfaces has led to an increase of around 4 degrees in the city's temperature. Finally, any increase in the impervious surface at the city will lead to unsustainability in the urban environment, if not accompanied by proper planning.

Dr Alireza Mohammadi, Mr Reza Hashemi Masoomabad, Mrs Chnour Mohammadi,
Volume 21, Issue 63 (2-2022)
Abstract

One of the most important and urgent issues of urban planning is the equitable distribution of facilities, services and accessibility of citizens at the urban level. Economic and commercial centers, including banks and financial institutions, are one of the most important economic sectors of cities and can be sustained. Social, economic, physical, and environmental impacts of neighborhoods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of citizenschr('39') access to commercial land use in Ardebil neighborhoods. Therefore, the present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in nature. The statistical population of the study is 44 localities of Ardabil city. Spatial statistics models, Hot Spot Analysis, and GIS software were used for data analysis. Finally, regression function in Idrisi Selva software was used to analyze the correlation between commercial user and population as well as to determine the relationship and correlation of this user with other service users. The results show that in Ardabil neighborhoods there is inequality in terms of overall business use. As a result, the neighborhoods have high commercial use weights and high concentrations of hot spots in optimum condition, including areas 3 and 5 from zone 2, zone 7 from zone 1 and zone 6 from zone 3. Also, commercial low weight blocks and low concentrations of hot spots, which include areas 8 and 11 from zone 2, area 11 from zone 3, are lower in urban sustainability. Finally, based on the results of the research, some suggestions have been made.

Abdolmajid Ahmadi, Ebrahim Akbari, Javad Jamalabadi, Maryam Alemohammad,
Volume 22, Issue 64 (4-2022)
Abstract

Awareness of the status of vegetation, land use change and surface temperature in each region, and the timing and location of their changes over time are important for micro and macro planning. In order to make optimal use of land, knowledge of land use changes is necessary, which is usually possible by detecting and predicting land use changes. Measuring the role of researches and researchers has been instrumental in the study of natural resources, especially vegetation, surface temperature and user variations in each location, as well as the availability of information for different times for valuable studies. In this study, ETM and OLI were used to study the process of land use change, vegetation cover, surface temperature, and hazards caused by them in perennial seasons. The results show that the area of use changes over the period 2000-2010 has decreased the area of use of the developed area, agricultural and growing gardens and the area of land and rangelands. Artificial vegetation has risen in aggregate and rangeland lands are showing a decreasing trend. Due to the importance of vegetation and its role in reducing the temperature of the earth's surface, the trend has been decreasing in regions with intensive vegetation and high temperature. Also, in the period from 2010 to 2017, the range was further increased and the city's growth continued sporadically, causing environmental changes and rising temperatures in the city. The change in the city's increased range has increased environmental risks, including the loss of good agricultural land and the increase in the temperature of the city. Due to the fact that most agricultural land is located in the vicinity of the city under cultivation of saffron, which in the warm seasons does not have surface coatings, changes in the type of cultivation can also affect the temperature of the earth.

Professor Maryam Ghasemi, Mr Amin Faal Jalali,
Volume 22, Issue 66 (10-2022)
Abstract

the analysis of land use utility matrix based on human and natural criteria in residential areas is the necessity and issues that planners in urban and rural areas in terms of access to communication network, central location, weather, noise and etc are a turning point for how optimal use is of resources. the aim of this study is to identify the level of user desirability in rural areas of Binaluod county. in this study, 14 user groups with 52 % of land use terms of central location, access to communication network, smell, facilities and equipment, slope, air, sound and vision were investigated. the present study is descriptive - analytical and data collection were collected in the field method by 48 local experts in eight villages. the results show that based on the four alternatives (4: Completely desirable and 1: totally undesirable) the bakery users with an average of 3/99 and the gymnasium with an average of 4 have made the highest compatibility in terms of the desirability of the location and land of the historic tank with /38 and the dilapidated housing with 3/40. Also, the average utilization rate of land use in the village of Zashk 3/74, in the village of Dehno 3/82, in the village of Jagherz, 3/78, in the village of Abedeh Alya, 3/89, in the village of Nochah equaled 3/92, in the village of Hesar Golestan 3/76, In the village of Hesar Sorkh 3.79 and finally in the village of Ruhni, the utility rate was 3.80. the results show that despite the wide range of land use changes outside the context of study villages, the level of land use within the rural fabric is desirable in terms of quality of high - order location, 3/81.

 
Musa Abedin, Ehsan Ghale, Nazfar Aghazadeh, Maryam Mohamadzadeh Sheshegaran,
Volume 22, Issue 67 (12-2022)
Abstract

Studies have shown that the role of thermal temperature measurement in studying and estimating surface temperature is very important. Earth surface temperature is an important indicator in the study of equilibrium energy models on the ground at the regional and global scale. Due to the limitation of meteorological stations, remote sensing can be a good alternative to earth surface temperature estimation. The main objective of this study is to monitor the surface temperature of the Earth using satellite imagery and a relationship that can have a surface temperature with land use. For this purpose, the relevant images were first obtained and the necessary pre-processes were applied to each one. Then it was compared to modeling and classification of images. Firstly, in order to study land use change, land use classification map was extracted for each two years using a controlled classification method. Then, to study the land use change, the land use change map was extracted for a period of 28 years (1987-2015). Became finally, in order to monitor the surface temperature, the surface temperature map of Meshginshahr was extracted. The results showed that there is a strong relationship between land use and surface temperature. High-vegetation areas and low-temperature blue areas. Also, rainfed farming has the highest average temperature relative to adjacent areas, which indicates the dryness of agricultural products in the Meshginshahr city.

Dr Amir Saffati, Dr Ezatallah Ghanavati, Mr Hamid Alipour Dezdouli Asl,
Volume 23, Issue 68 (4-2023)
Abstract

Studying the morphology of the rivers and identifying the causes of these changes are widely useful in determining the evolution of rivers and planning the maintenance of the river system. The Karun River, between Bandar-e-Khoramshahr and the constant flow of water in the country, plays an important role in the country's water cycle. Due to the morphological changes of this river that have disrupted the normal functioning of the river, it is necessary to investigate the morphological changes and its causes. In this study, with the aim of investigating these changes with satellite imagery, Landsat images for 1990, 2005 and 2018 were prepared and morphological changes were extracted after required processing. The results show that out of the 36 investigated sections, the width of the river has decreased in 29 sections so that it has narrowed to 450 m around Ahwaz. In order to investigate the causes of changes, the effective parameters in changes such as precipitation, discharge, runoff coefficient, waterway length, permeability coefficient, landform, lithology, land use change, wasteland, slope percentage, drainage density and vegetation density, land Theology and floodplains, To assess the hazards of the area, were used. Floodplain parameter was extracted using ANP_Fuzzy model and landslide and land use parameters were extracted using SVM model. Among the factors affecting these changes that were investigated using logistic regression models and factor analysis were land use changes, vegetation density and sediment yield. These changes have resulted in the destruction of natural habitats along the river, the ability to self-purify water, sudden floods, threatening and damaging human structures, agriculture, and so on.



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