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Volume 17, Issue 47 (12-2017)

The attempt to recognize phenomena and affairs has always been a concern of the human mind and has constantly sought to complete this knowledge. The correct recognition is also achieved when the real nature of phenomena is clear to man. The phenomena are based on their own philosophical foundations and, therefore, their understanding requires perception these philosophical foundations and using proper methods of recognition. The map is also a phenomenon that has its own philosophical foundations and by understanding these philosophical foundations, the true meaning and the components that influence its meaning are clarified. Recognizing it correctly requires understanding many of the elements and other factors. To real understanding this phenomenon, one needs to understand beyond what is usually said about it. In this research, we tried to clarify the philosophical foundations of the map and the factors influencing its meaning by using of hermeneutical methodology. The results of this research showed that the map of the ontology aspect is of an objective-subjective nature. Therefore, it should be understood by methodology such as hermeneutics and not explanation. Also, using this method, it is determined that the mapping factors are divided into two categories. Internal factors, such as the choice of the type of projection and cartographic deviations and external factors such as, the mental purpose of the cartographer and the banners, understand map reader from map, and the spaces of thought, power, and so on make up the actual meaning of the map.

Dr Ehsan Lashgari Tafreshi, Dr َabbas Ahmadi,
Volume 19, Issue 54 (12-2019)

The emergence of decentralization approach and transfer some political authority to non-state actors has provided new actions for the management of geographical space under the name of spatial governance. The roots of the emergence of the concept of spatial governance return to the economic-political changing in the 1980s. The emergence of a decentralization approach and the transfer powers from government to nongovernmental institutions has provided a new concept in the name of "spatial governance". Therefore, governance is beyond the government and includes the private sector and civil society with the approach of market economy and participatory democracy. So, in this paper major question is “who spatial governance functioned in the post- positivism methodology?” In this regard, in the first step has been made to define the concept of governance and its dimensions and sub-sets in relation to geographical space. Then, by matching the spatial governance conceptual relationship with post-positivism approach, a new perspective on the causes of the greater impact of this school is presented in understanding this concept. According to the governance framework, the management and production of space is not only an objective or objective action, but also it is a constructive, unfinished, contingent, and conditional, conditional and social condition. therefore, the space policy was created in a cultural-historical territory must be consistent with the cultural and historical values of a particular of human beings group and the conditions for the development and optimization of space by these policies should fit into the pattern of their social life. in governance approach, some of the concepts such as truth, rationality, justice, goodness, and especially development, are not independent from its the social processes that shape it. On this basis, spatial governance cannot have universal dimensions.  Because social action is faced with a process that can create a single position at any given time, pro-active methodology cannot predict and predict it.
Mr Hamid Fakhimzade, Dr Hadi Sarvari, Dr Mohamadhadi Mahdinia, Dr Mahdi Mahmoodzade Vashan,
Volume 24, Issue 72 (6-2024)

A city requires city brand and appropriate strategies for beneficiaries, especially tourists; hence, city development plans can affect the type of city brand orientations. Accordingly, this study was conducted to identify the effective factors to design structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM was employed to rank the factors and find the correlation between them using Forner-Larcker Matrix. This was an applied-correlational study in which, data were collected through convergent mixed methodology, library study, questionnaire, and Semi-structured interviews. Birjand was chosen as the research field and a statistical sample was chosen at descriptive statistics using purposive and snowball sampling methods. Accordingly, 19 subjects were selected from urban experts, and 381 tourists were chosen at the quantitative step using simple random sampling. findings obtained from interviews implied that some points should be considered for the city branding of Birjand. The factors include the significant militarily and academic impact of Birjand on historical aspect and service-based economy of the city, cultural capitals, and the arts that are forgetting, immigration, and implementing the development-driving plans. The research model indicated that city development plans had the highest positive effects on the landscape and mental image regarding city branding plans. Moreover, According to the correlation between components, the highest relationship was between mental image and landscape (0.66).

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