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Showing 25 results for Physical

Mr Yaser Nazaryan, Phd Amane Haghzad, Phd Laila Ebrahimi, Phd Kia Bozorgmehr,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Urbanization and increase in urban population as a result of the natural increase in population and rural-urban migration, has led to the concentration of the highest material and spiritual human capitals in these urban settlements. At the same time, various natural and human crises threaten these capitals. Urban management has undertaken various programs to deal with these crises, and the latest approach in this regard is to increase the resilience of cities. The concept of resilience can be discussed in various physical, economic, social and environmental dimensions.
The present study with a descriptive-analytical approach and with the aim of assessing the physical resilience of Tabriz metropolitan areas and determine their status relative to each other. For this purpose, multi-criteria decision making methods (MADM) and hierarchical analysis process (AHP) have been used. Also, 3 models of TOPSIS, VIKOR and COPRAS have been used to rank regions in terms of physical resilience. Finally, the Copeland model was used to combine the results of the mentioned models. The results show that regions 2, 8 and 9 jointly have the highest physical resilience. In the next ranks are regions 1, 10, 3, 7, 5, 4 and finally region 6, respectively.
Nahid Bagheri, Mohammad Mohammad, Ezatollah Mafi,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

From the time of human life until now, disasters have had a negative impact on human life; In response, individuals and communities are trying to mitigate the consequences of these disasters and establish scales to assess the initial effects; Also respond to the post-disaster needs and return to baseline. To address these challenges and, as a result, improve the quality of life in cities and metropolises, the need for long-term planning and decision-making in solving these problems is more necessary than ever. Therefore, dealing with new urban theories, each with the aim of solving urban problems, improving the quality and quantity of life of citizens in cities, improving the quality of the city environment, city management, advancing the city to become more desirable, and so on. , Is more important than ever. In recent decades, to solve these challenges and reduce its effects on metropolises and large cities, various solutions and perspectives have been proposed, one of which is to pay attention to the concept of resilient city. The present study is descriptive. - It is analytical and practical in terms of purpose. The statistical population of this study consisted of experts and professors familiar with the topics of the city. 35 university professors and experts in the field of research determined the sample size intended to complete the questionnaire. The results of this study showed that the criterion of physical characteristics of tissue with the highest D-R value (0.672) is at the top of the chart and shows that this criterion is the most effective criterion. Also, based on the calculated D + R value, the building quality criterion is the most important criterion. Also, the urban infrastructure criterion was considered as the most influential criterion due to the fact that it has the lowest D-R value.

Mr Mohamad Reza Hatafi Ardakani, Dr Mphammad Hosein Saraei, Dr Mohamad Mahdi Karimnejad, Dr Seyed Ali Almodaresi, Dr Saideh Moayed Far,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

One of the aspects of sustainable urban development and balanced physical development is in line with ecological and socio-economic environmental conditions. In the last decades of the twentieth century, despite many efforts in the field of sustainable spatial development of cities, this issue still remains an important challenge for geographers, urban planners, architects and urban planners. In many cities in developing countries, rapid urbanization and increasing urban population have exacerbated environmental hazards. This is doubly important in small cities. Because physical development, in addition to land use change, has met the basic needs of urban society, including the provision of safe and sufficient water, green space per capita, urban waste management and environmental pollution. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and analytical in terms of method. The statistical population consisted of university professors and experts in the field of research in Ardakan who were selected by purposive sampling. They were selected to conduct and implement the research. In order to achieve the research objectives, using a new analytical methodology of interpretive structural modeling (ISM), the relationships between the factors were determined and analyzed in an integrated manner. Finally, using MICMAC analysis, the factors were analyzed according to the impact and effectiveness on other components. The results of the interpretive structural model of the factors affecting the inner development of the city showed that the obtained model includes three levels and the results showed that the managerial and physical factors are the most basic factors affecting the inner development of the city that should be addressed in the first place. In other words, any action to pave the way for the internal development of the city, requires attention to these factors along with other factors

Dr Habibollah Fasihi, Dr Taher Parizadi, Mrs Nahid Noori,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

Among the many kinds of natural hazards, earthquake is one of the rare events that human science has not yet been able to control or even predict. Physical structure conditions of human settlements play an important role in vulnerability to this natural disaster. The purpose of this article is to investigate natural and physical characteristics of Kuhdasht in terms of earthquake vulnerability. The city with a population of 90,000 and an area of about 540 ha, locates in the west of Lorestan province, Iran. The data are provided from GIS file of 2016 Iranian Public Census of Population and Housing, GIS files of Kuhdasht land use and GIS files of Iran faults and lithology.  A few layers have been added to these files through observation. It is used Arc-Map 10-8 to combine layers and produce maps. Then we used Excel software to do statistical analysis on data tables. Findings showed that the site of study area locates in a middle risk zone of earthquakes, but its close distance to active faults can be a warning for occurring destructive earthquakes. High proportion of non-resistant buildings, high density of buildings in some parts of the city and the presence of two gas stations in the middle of residential buildings, are the most important components of Kuhdasht vulnerability. In contrast, plenty of open spaces, high proportion of non-apartment houses, low population density and permeability of passages are important strengths in this regard. The central part of the city from which the city originated, is more vulnerable than the other parts. Due to the existence of the trade centers here, it is necessary to pay more attention to in future plans.
Ms Zahra Sharghi, Dr Mostsfs Basiri, Dr Mahsa Faramarzi Asl,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (3-1921)
Abstract

The basic purpose of this research is to reveal the physical development process of the new city of Sahand, as one of the new cities of the country, using Landsat satellite images during the statistical period of 1401-1373. In this regard, satellite images required for 4 statistical periods of 1373, 1383, 1393, and 1401 were obtained from two Landsat 5 and 8 satellites. By running a band calculation function on the images of TM and OLI sensors, the values ​​of the physical changes of the urban fabric during the investigated time steps in Sahand city were calculated and extracted. The results of this research indicated that the physical growth and development of the city of Sahand has started since 2013. This year, the area of ​​the urban fabric has reached 282 hectares, which is a 28-fold increase compared to 2013. But in the next decade, i.e. 2013, the area of ​​the city reached 570 hectares with a 100% growth compared to the previous decade, and finally, in the last decade, the area of ​​the city reached 850 hectares with a growth rate of 50%. District 6 of Sahand city, which accounts for about 35% of the physical fabric of the city, has been one of the fastest growing areas of the city during the decades of 1393-1400. Considering that a significant correlation at the confidence level of 0.95 (P_value=0.05) was revealed between the population growth and the physical development of Sahand during the statistical period of 1380-1400 (R=0.91), therefore, the fitted regression model between the population growth And the growth of the urban fabric, by placing the proposed population density of this city after the implementation of Mehr housing policies (185 thousand people), it showed that the area of ​​the physical fabric of this city will reach 1181 hectares in the next decade and will face a growth of 38%.
 
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Volume 16, Issue 42 (12-2016)
Abstract

Guidance plan does with economic, structure, social and cultural attitude in Iran and this plan has high effect on rural life. Therefore it is essential that we study guidance plan base of rural managers and rural councils attitude. Investigative method was descriptive, analysis (survey method) and research tools were questionnaire. Statistical society includes rural managers and rural council members. Sampling method in rural managers was census method and rural council methods were random sampling method. Number of rural managers was 31 and number of rural council members was 103 respondents (in councils with 3 members we select 3 respondents and in rural councils with 5 members we select 3 respondents). Results shows that guidance plan have positive effect on structure of village. But in economic and cultural dimensions, there is no effect on villages. Maps of guidance plan were weak. Respondent believe that there are low satisfaction about guidance plan among rural managers and rural council members. It is important and we must notice to it.  


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Fariba Esfandiari , Soghra Jedi Gheshlagh Ilkhchi , Elnaz Piroozi,
Volume 18, Issue 51 (7-2018)
Abstract

ncompatibility natural environment in the areas of urban development can create various hazards as well as to provide natural, natural bed is capable of  In relation to climatic factors and soil, slope, climate and restrictions on the physical development of cities, the (Shia, 1369: 68). That threaten the lives of a lot of financial damage, so that a reduction in development processes and precludes the formation of the development process are stable. As a result of the planned development is greater than ever The development of the city due to factors such orientation should be Along with minimum harm to the environment is physical development. One is a Germi city of Ardabil province in the northwest and north of the province of Ardabil between ˚39 '10 - ˚38 '50 to the north of the Equator and ˚47 '25  - ˚48 '12 east of the Greenwich meridian. The city has a total area of square kilometers which is equivalent to 9.6 percent of 1725/ 2is Ardabil. The city due to its geographical location and placed on the steep and mountainous zone has numerous limitations. Therefore, investigating and analyzing natural phenomena and human factors area and will ultimately provide control measures and logical approach and limits of this process is essential. Therefore, in this study, We try to be as natural and human phenomena and limitations arising from the possibility of them have been studied in relation to the development of the Germi city And ways to determine optimal physical development of the city.

Ahmad Pourahmad, Nabi Moradpour, Hossen Hataminejad,
Volume 18, Issue 51 (7-2018)
Abstract

This study examined the effect of physical dimensions - space to encourage walking in Tehran. Micro level and macro level of the position of the subject matter, the authors were forced to Amirabad area of Tehran University as an area of study of their choice. The research method is analytical and survey. And the questionnaire for citizens was used. The population of the study, all residents of the neighborhood Amirabad and up Tehran University, using a sample of 384 randomly selected examples. The writers for more accurate research results, the sample size has been increased to 400. For data analysis software is used SPSS21 and LISREL8. The results indicate that the physical dimensions - space and encourage walking there. The amount of factor loadings obtained in all the research indicates that the selected indicators to measure the physical dimensions of space, encourage walking properly measure these dimensions, so that the physical dimensions, safety index (99/0 ) and the spatial dimensions of the security indicator (75/0) have had the highest amount of loadings. In addition, the effect of spatial scale on a direct and positive are encouraged to walk in space as well as the physical dimensions of 34/0 and 42/0 of variance explained that encourage walking.

Mr Sirous Hashemi Darebadami, Dr Ali Darvishi Boloorani, Dr Seyed Kazem Alavipanah, Mr Mohammad Maleki, Mr Reza Bayat,
Volume 19, Issue 52 (3-2019)
Abstract

The term urban heat island (UHI), described the phenomenon of climate change in urban areas compared with surrounding rural areas. UHI effects include: increasing in energy and water consumption, air pollution expansion and interfering in thermal comfort. Surface urban heat island (SUHI) contains patterns of land surface temperature (LST) in urban areas that has interaction with UHI in urban canopy layer and urban boundary layer and investigate with thermal remote sensing. SUHI has diurnal and seasonal variations so requires multi-temporal data to analysis SUHI. In this study, the multi-temporal MODIS (Aqua and Terra) data product were used to analyze the SUHI in day and night in Tehran metropolitan. Physical and biophysical surface properties such as: land cover/land use (LULC), elevation, albedo, vegetation index (NDVI) and impervious surfaces index (NDBI) were used to interpretation of the LST and SUHI changes. The results showed that SUHI in Tehran, has spatial-temporal diurnal and seasonal variation. So that during warm days the surface urban cool island (SUCL) is formed in Tehran. At night times, SUHI index values was different between 2 and 5 ° C (maximum in the spring). The results also showed that different of land cover thermal properties, albedo and elevation was the most important factors is the diurnal changes of SUHI while phonological changes of vegetation and albedo, was the most important factors in seasonal changes of SUHI.


, S Z, A T, M A,
Volume 19, Issue 53 (7-2019)
Abstract

Using the passive defense principles in urban plans and projects is important in the context of land use planning, reinforced concrete, citizen education, and increasing urban resiliency. Observing and adhering to these principles will reduce the vulnerability of the city and citizens to security and military threats. Therefore, this study aims at evaluating the spatial pathology of the physical and social structure of the 6th urban district of Tehran municipality with emphasis on passive defense approach principles particularly citizenship education principle. Therefore, this research has selected the 6th urban district of Tehran municipality, due to its important and sensitive land uses with regional and trans-regional functions as a research area. In this study, the AHP model was used to assess the physical structure pathology. In order to evaluate the social structure damages of the area, three neighborhoods were selected in the region using cluster-spatial sampling. Then, using the survey method, the authors sought to collect the views of the inhabitants. In order to determine the sample size, the Cochran's formula was used. The results of this study indicate that the vulnerability of the region in terms of the physical structure is moderate and downward. Additionally, the social vulnerability of the area is also above average. Finally, the factors influencing the vulnerability of physical and social structure were investigated. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the indicators of population and construction density are the most important factors affecting vulnerability from experts' viewpoint. In addition, it was revealed that education and awareness, resiliency against security-military threats, skill and expertise, respectively, are the effective indicators of the vulnerability of the social structure of the area.

Ms Masoumeh Amiribesheli, Mr Hosein Mogtabazadekhanghahi, Mr Yosefali Ziari, Mr Ali Nourikermani,
Volume 19, Issue 54 (12-2019)
Abstract

The urban land management is an l part of the urban management. In some countries such as Iran, there is no integrated urban land management and providing municipal services is assigned to nationwide organisations. This means urban management is offered by the municipality or subsidiaries of the aforementioned organisations such dispersion has occurred during serval decades. It is considered as the roots of organizatinal inefficiencies ( offocial and financial corruption is regarded as basic reasin for many crimes) and the origin or many conflicts between people and organizations(judicial) To do so, it follows an applied analytical descriptive approach. To analyse the data, mathematical and statistical methods were applied using Excel and SPSS.  Moreover, the GIS was used for visualisation and adaptive analysis. The study concluded that lack of clear visions and consequently uncoordinated organisations and their policies, isolated and vertical decision-making, and unmanaged intervention without the required organisational capacities are the critical reasons for inefficient urban land management.

Mahsa Asadi Aziz Abadi, Keramat Alah Ziari, Mohsen Vatan Khahi,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)
Abstract

A city is a vibrant, dynamic, and evolving phenomenon that grows and spreads over time and space, and is exhausted and degraded.It also faces crises such as natural hazards and artifacts, resulting from human relationships and physical elements, on the one hand, and social, economic, cultural, geographical, political, and historical conditions on the other. The deteriorated urban fabric, which has physical, functional and operational deterioration, are resistant to the above-mentioned crises and has low vulnerability. Therefore, the need of intervening in these fabrics is crucial for balancing, coordinating the foundations of social life, and improving the urban structure. In this regard, in this research, priority is given to the dimension of resilient deteriorated urban fabric based on a disaster resilience of place model which is one of the models of urban resilience measurement. This research is a descriptive-analytical according to method and is developmental-applied research in terms of the purpose. Also, Expert Choice software and AHP model are used to analyze the collected data by using a questionnaire. The results of the research indicate that, in three macro areas of Karaj, Hesarak and Mehrshahr, the physical-environmental resilience dimension has the highest weight and organizational-institutional resilience has the least weight. Overall, regarding prioritization of resilience dimensions, criteria and indicators, an increasing per capita of vital use in study areas, changing the economic structure of residents, as well as increasing the skill and coherence of citizens to deal with hazards and crises are important.

Mohammad Motamedi, Mohammad Gharavi,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)
Abstract

Cities are dramatically turning into complex social, economic, and environmental systems. Each urban system is vulnerable when it can not adapt to its changing conditions and critical situations. Therefore, in recent decades, natural disaster response approaches have introduced a new concept of urban resilience to prepare for disaster as much as possible. Is. Despite the recent attention and the abundant use of the concept of resilience in different areas of theoretical and practical limitations of this concept, this study aims to explain the causal pattern of resilience of cities. The present research is based on the descriptive-causal methodology. The statistical sample of the study was compiled by 35 experts and specialists in urban planning. Fuzzy Dumbled Fan was used to achieve the research goal. The findings of this study showed that based on the values ​​of D-R, among the four metrics of urban resilience, the physical criterion with the value (0.943) was the most effective measure of resilience in the city. Also, based on the D + R values, the physical criterion with the value of (896/2) was identified as the most important resiliency criterion in the city.

Mr Ghorbanali Karimi Dehkordi, Phd Rahmatollah Monshizadeh, Phd Bijan Rahmani,
Volume 20, Issue 56 (3-2020)
Abstract

The rapid expansion of cities and their uneven physical growth, so-called "urban creep", have corrupted the villages and their surrounding lands, causing irregular conversion of agricultural lands and degradation of environmental resources. This situation has also been widespread in Shahrekord, the capital of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. The purpose of this descriptive-survey research is to determine the physical developments of rural settlements around Shahrekord with emphasis on urban sprwal. The statistical population is household heads of rural areas (15000 people). Using the Krejcie and Morgan table, 400 individuals were selected. The tool used is a researcher-made questionnaire on three dimensions of economic, social, cultural and environmental physical consequences. Data were analyzed using one-sample t-test and Friedman test. The results show that the consequences of urban sprawl are respectively environmental-physical consequences (3/98), economic consequences (3/96) and socio-cultural consequences (3/89 (. The most important environmental-physical consequences are increased environmental pollution, destruction of traditional architecture, destruction of biodiversity; major economic consequences of stock markets and rising land and housing prices, diminishing villagers' reluctance to productive activities (agriculture and livestock), capital flight from villages And their savings in the city and the rising cost of living amidst the socio-cultural consequences of luxury and the tendency to consume luxury goods, reduce solidarity and participation, crowding and crowding in cities, modeling of life and urbanization culture. have been.

Mr Moslem Nori, Di Rostam Saberifar, Professor Esmaeil Aliakbari,
Volume 20, Issue 58 (10-2020)
Abstract

The change in the way cities operate and benefit from ICTs, etc., has led to population dispersal, activity, and housing. This trend, along with the devastating social and environmental impacts, has had quite visible and measurable economic consequences. A comparative study would be very helpful to avoid the implications of measuring the occurrence of this process and the impact of national and local factors on it. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to compare the dispersal trend of the two cities of Esfarain and Bojnourd. In this regard, the present study is applied in terms of purpose and analytical-comparative in terms of research method. Required data were collected from documentary library studies and Heldern, Shannon entropy and Gini coefficients were used to analyze the data. The results showed that according to Helderen's model, 84% of physical growth in Esfarain between 1345 and 1345 was related to population growth and about 16% to horizontal and spherical growth. For Bojnourd, this was also about 88% of the population growth and about 12% of the horizontal and spiral growth, which is slightly different from that of Esfarain. The Shannon entropy model also shows the sparse growth of physical expansion in the two cities of Esfarain and Bojnourd. The Gini coefficient calculated for Esfarain city is 0.096 and for Bojnourd city is 0.054 which indicates that population growth (Espalier) of Esfarain city is 0.015% more than Bojnourd city. Since the continuation of such conditions has numerous environmental, social and economic consequences for the residents of the cities concerned, it is advisable to strategically research, control and manage the physical development of the city and utilize the interpersonal development policy.
 
Elmira Azimi, Dariush Sattarzadeh, Lida Bolillan, Akbar Abdollahzadeh Tarf, Mahsa Faramarzi Asli,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)
Abstract

The prevalence of chronic health problems is increasing, both in terms of physical health and mental health in modern societies. Meanwhile, the health of individuals in society as human capital is important in advancing the goals of thematic communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physical-environmental factors on the mental health of citizens. This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical method. The statistical population of citizens living in Ardabil was estimated to be 384 using the Cochranchr('39')s formula. The field data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by formal validity and reliability using Cronbachchr('39')s alpha test and combined reliability. The results of this study showed that legibility and visual quality, access to urban green space, security of urban space, quality of urban furniture, mixing and variety of uses have a positive and significant effect on the mental health of citizens. Considering the value of the path coefficient obtained for the independent research variables, among the identified variables, the quality of urban green space with the path coefficient value of 0.44 had the highest path coefficient and had the greatest effect on the dependent variable, ie mental health of citizens. Also, the mixing variable and the variety of uses with a path coefficient value of 0.21 had the least effect on mental health.
Mohammad Golmohammadi, Mohammad Adalatkhah, Akbar Abdollahzadeh Tarf,
Volume 20, Issue 59 (1-2021)
Abstract

Many factors, including cultural factors, currents and schools of thought, and patterns of urbanization in the world are influential in the physical structure of a city. The physical structure of the city is the result of all the forces that give rise to the formation and formation of a settlement and has an objective and mental appearance. The growth and development of cities, due to various events in all historical periods, has been declining and rising. Nowadays, knowledge of the physical structure of the city and the reasons that govern its spatial expansion in different periods is necessary to control its expansion and is one of the important factors influencing the success of urban planners and designers. This study was written with the aim of identifying and prioritizing cultural factors affecting the physical structure of the city with emphasis on indigenous architecture. The present research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Library and field methods were used to collect information. The statistical population of the study consisted of experts and specialists in architecture and urban planning, with a sample size of 30 people. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the fuzzy Delphi technique and the BMW model were used. The results of fuzzy Delphi technique confirmed the identified factors and sub-factors. The results of the BMW model showed that among the identified factors, the privacy factor with a final score of 0.298 in the first place, the security quality factor with a final score of 0.273 in the second place, the nature connection factor and social interactions with a final score of 220 / 0 is in the third place and the hierarchical factor is in the fourth place with a final score of 0.209.

Mahdi Mohammadi,
Volume 21, Issue 60 (3-2021)
Abstract

This paper focuses on convergence with the measures and activities of the global assemblies in order to promote the resilience of cities against earthquakes and to pay attention to their physical- skeletal development process, to analyze the resilience of the city of Zanjan and to design scenarios against the earthquake hazard.   The criteria used in order of priority and importance include: type of structure, building quality, building life, number of floors, occupancy level, enclosure coefficient, building density, grading, distance from the fault, number of units in the building, user adaptability, slope and facade Building, Which are applied in the three earthquake resilience scenarios after analytical hierarchy analysis (AHP) based on (relation No. 1).
According to the maps drawn from the scenarios, the resiliency rate in the central and southern parts of the city was weak and very weak and as far as we move north, west, and east, we increase the amount of physical resilience of the area. However, no resonance images in the scenario maps show any area with a very resilient domain. As in Ramallah scenarios 7 and 8, the resilience is in a non-resilient and very weak domain. The analysis shows that, according to the maps in any of the areas, there is no stability in the resilience That is, no area in the assessment of all criteria is resilient.
Mr Jamaleddin Honarvar, Dr Sara Jalalian,
Volume 22, Issue 64 (4-2022)
Abstract

Housing, as the primary needs of mankind and providing his satisfaction, plays an essential role in improving the quality of life. In these conditions, the "home quarantine or social distance plan" is the only way to interrupt the transmission chain, this research seeks to examine the physical-social factors in the quality of today's homes (including a variety of species of housing) for long-term presence of humans in The conditions are quarantine. In this paper, we have tried to extract indices and components of the quality of different types of housing and the effect of each of the factors in the tolerance of quarantine conditions in different types of housing of Tehran. The method is based on applied purpose and in terms of descriptive-analytical nature and comparative technique. The documentary and field method and a questionnaire were used to collect information. To analyze the data, single sample t-test and mean test and to study the normalization of data were used by colomogorov-smarinov test. The statistical population of the study includes residents of different types of housing in Tehran are 381 samples. Measurement of research indicators with Likert spectrum and with a assumed average of 3 and 3 indicators and 9 components and 49 measures. These indicators include physical, social, cultural indicators. According to the results, residential complexes have the highest level of satisfaction (mean 4.41) of physical-social factors in the quality of life of residents of different types of housing species in quarantine conditions. The level of social, physical and functional indicators in general for residential complexes show a better condition. By summing up these indices and the overall examination of physical-social factors in the quality of life of residents of different types of housing in terms of quarantine conditions; It was found that apartment housing has the lowest satisfaction (3.77) of social physical factors of their quality of life in quarantine conditions. At the end of research, suggestions for improving the quality of life of residents of different types of housing in quarantine conditions were presented with respect to physical-social dimensions.

Masoumeh Amiribesheli, Hossein Mojtaba Zadeh Khanghahi,
Volume 22, Issue 66 (10-2022)
Abstract

Land is the most important factor in the physical development of cities; land management has now become one of the most important concerns and concerns of local governments. Also, the sprawling growth of cities has degraded the environment and natural resources around the cities. Meanwhile, due to inadequate and accelerated decision-making, some of the inner-city and inter-contextual capacity of cities for development or redevelopment has been overlooked by urban managers. Cities play an important role in the economic growth of each country, with nearly 60 percent of the GDP of developing countries being produced in cities. They are the main engines of the growth of each country's national economy. The present study attempts to investigate the decision-making patterns of urban land policies in the physical development of Sari. The type of research method is descriptive-analytical and it is of applied nature. The findings of the study indicate that the lack of a clear vision and consequently uncoordinated policies and institutions, centralized and non-cooperative decision making, and excessive tenure without the necessary institutional capacity are the most important reasons for the inefficiency of urban land management policy. Therefore, the appropriate model of government policy in urban land management is integrated urban land management based on clear and necessary vision formulation. Expressing a one-piece strategic policy, and delegating part of the government's powers to the lowest level of local institutions with more specific capacity building, government intervention in the four areas of land management, land use, taxation and construction must be consistent and consistent. Since the government does not have the institutional capacity to perform such verification, it is limited to policymaking and oversight to achieve the policy goals and fulfills part of its verification duties in each of the four domains whilst capacity building the necessary training courses. It moves step by step with the policies adopted to the lowest level of local institutions


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