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Zahra Ganbar Ali Bagheni, Shahin Oujaq Alizadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 19 (4-2021)

Authoritarianism is the psychological mechanism of man to escape from the negative aspects of freedom in the society. Fromm believes that man surrenders to a superior power to escape the suffering of decision-making. Consequently, through authoritarianism man suffers from three opposing feelings: either one surrenders with a sense of powerlessness to a superior power (masochism), or one has arrogance and a sense of domination over others (sadism), and sometimes one communicates with the society through a masochistic-sadistic coexistence which leads to the loss of individual freedom and independence. In Behbahani’s poems, these mechanisms are manifested in the community around Simin with two approaches of submission and domination in their mild forms. Using an analytical-descriptive method, this paper examines the psychological mechanisms for escaping from the negative aspects of freedom in Behbahani’s poems from Eric Fromm’s perspective. The findings show that in Simin Behbahani’s poems – as Fromm asserts – she surrenders to a powerful whole that is sometimes the sacred love and sometimes destiny (fatalism) and sometimes the earthly love of Simin whom she cannot resist. Furthermore, occasionally in her poems, Simin goes so far as to dominate her beloved by asking God to be able to inflict endless psychological suffering on him through absolute domination.      
Pouran Alizadeh,
Volume 8, Issue 21 (9-2021)

Since children's fiction is a good ground for achieving the goals of thinking education programs, it has been welcomed by education systems. Lippmann is considered to be the originator of philosophy for children. His innovation brought about a fundamental change in the way of education, which was very well received. For this reason, in this article, the content of the Iranian stories of the age group "D" (seventh, eighth and ninth periods) has been adapted to the skills and components of Lippmann's philosophical thought. The statistical population of the article includes Iranian story books that have been written for children and adolescents of Dal age group (seventh, eighth and ninth period) in the years 1986 to 2016 and have received publishing permission. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical. The results show that some of the components of Lippmann's philosophical thought have been studied in Iranian fiction books, such as One Thousand and One Nights, Fairy Tales, Wolf Parties, etc. Like searching for reasons in a given situation, research question design, causal explanation, inference and goal setting are most common. On the other hand, they are weak in some other skills, such as evaluating the reasons presented, liquidity, etc .; And components such as "term definition evaluation" and "error detection" were not found in them.

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