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Mohammad-Reza Shafi’i Kadkani,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-2004)

In this article, first, the author introduces Abolhassan Kharghani – the great Iranian Sufi- in brief. Then, the remains of old language in Ghumis region (a part of the newly-established province of Semnan) will be sought. The old language of Ghumis has lived on in the words of Kharghani through a thousand years. This language manifests the differences between modern terms, verb structures and prefixes of Dari and those of Ghumis language dating a thousand years ago. Up to now, no study -neither Iranian nor Orientalist or European one- has been carried out on Ghumis language. Thus, this work can break the ground for such studies. The newly-discovered, yet old, sources of Maghamat– e Kharghani and Maghamat-e bayazid upon which this study builds have not been accessed by researchers.
Mohsen Mohammadi Fesharaki, Fazl Allah Khodadadi, Yousof Afsharnia,
Volume 6, Issue 17 (4-2013)

Grotesque as a form of art existed since the early period of Christianity in Roman Culture when the human, the animal and the plant were mixed together ina single painting. Indeed the grotesque is the manifestation of the world distracted and alienated, that is, to see the familiarworld as terrifying or ridiculous or both.In this genre the artist tries to convey to his audience the two conflicting feelings of fear and joy simultaneously. Hyperbole, dissonance, and absurdity are some of the important elements of the grotesque. One of the forms of the grotesque is the story. Thisresearch attempts in a descriptive-analytical method to study the grotesque in Iranian and foreign novels and show their differences in this regard.
Azam Rezaei, Kamran Ahmadgoli,
Volume 8, Issue 21 (9-2021)

Foucault’s discourse theory implies that man is not the origin of a discourse since he is not considered to be a creature of will and decision, but a mere "subject" whose identity, profession and position in the society are formed by different discourses and the power relations and rules of those discourses. In Edward Said’s view, Orientalism is a discourse with colonizing imperatives under the dictates of which and in accordance with its rules, power relations and colonizing purpose, orientalists present a superficial, stereotypical and distorted picture of the Orient. Edward Brown and George Nathaniel Curzon are contemporaneous orientalists who have common grounds in some important aspects of life. Hence, it is expected that both be under the influence of the dominant imperialist discourse of the Victorian age and write in line with its colonizing purpose. However, this expectation is not realized about Brown. He is diametrically opposed to Curzon and criticizes his bestial policies toward Iran. Rare orientalists like Brown, who live in the heart of the dominant discourse but are not affected by it and even go against it, pose a big challenge to the definition of Orientalism as merely a discourse. The present study is an attempt to evaluate Said’s reliance on Foucault’s discourse theory and its efficacy in his definition and analysis of Orientalism as a discourse by presenting the biographies of these two Iranologists and the reasons why they took completely different approaches to Iran in their travelogues and other writings. This evaluation shows that it is impossible to analyze the activities and writings of those orientalists like Brown, who defend Iranians' rights humanistically and benevolently, based on Foucault's discourse theory which belongs to Nietzsche's anti-humanistic tradition.

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