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Batool Heidari, Ishagh Toghyani, Sayyed Mahdi Nourian,
Volume 8, Issue 19 (4-2021)

Vis and Rāmin, by Fakhruddin As'ad Gorgani, is one of the first love poems in Persian literature that has been morally rejected in the history of Persian literature as it is the first story of marital infidelity in both ancient and Islamic Iran. Regardless of the poem’s content, one cannot deny its literary, social, and cultural values as well as its unique status among the ancient works of Persian literature. Although the poem has immoral content, there are reasons behind the immoral actions of the characters in the story that need due attention to some points for the analysis of the poem from a moral criticism perspective. They comprise knowledge about the poet and the society, religious beliefs affecting the actions of the characters, and the four main themes of the poem: “pleasure”, “fatalism”, “conflict between seniority and youth” and “love”. Vis and Rāmin can be considered as a literary example of art for art’s sake doctrine and morally as an example of the moral relativity of the characters in the story.      
Vajihe Torkamani Barandozi,
Volume 8, Issue 20 (8-2021)

Attention to the spiritual and psychological dimensions of the characters of the story using psychological theories has always been one of the methods of literary researchers to analyze the characters and show the capability and skill of the creators of the works as accurately as possible. In this descriptive and analytical research, using the “Choice Theory” of the contemporary psychologist, William Glasser, an attempt has been made to study the personality of Vis in “Vis and Rāmin” collection of poetry of Fakhruddin As’ad Gurgani. According to the choice theory, the root of all behaviors of a person emanates from one’s within and to satisfy one’s five fundamental needs (the need for love, survival, power, fun, and freedom). Thus, the main question of the research is that under the influence of which of the fundamental needs did Vis make bold choices? In other words, which of Vis’s fundamental needs were stronger than the other needs that led him to engage in such behavior? The findings showed that among the fundamental needs, the need for survival, the need for love and belonging, and the need for freedom were stronger in him than the other needs, respectively. Next after these needs are the need for power and the need for fun.

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