Volume 10, Issue 20 (11-2020)                   JRSM 2020, 10(20): 1-16 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Asadi A, Sheikh M, Hoomanian D, Rafiei S. The Effect of Attentional Focus on Gaze Behavior and Accuracy of Dart Throwing: The Attentional Task Demands Problem. JRSM 2020; 10 (20) :1-16
URL: http://jrsm.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2814-en.html
1- Tehran University
2- Tehran University , prosheikh@yahoo.com
3- Sport Sciences Research Institute
Abstract:   (2480 Views)
Focus of Attention and Quiet Eye (QE) of the affecting variables on aiming task performance in recent decades have always been interesting for psychologist and sport science researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of attention instructions on gaze behavior and accuracy of dart throwing of novice in low and high task load. In a semi-experimental design with repeated measurements, participant performed dart throwing under three attentional condition (internal, external and control) in two different task load (low and high). Result showed the external focus in high load task improved accuracy of dart throwing than internal focus; in the event that, for low load task there was no significant difference between the attentional conditions. Also, for QE none of attention, load task and their interaction effects was not significant. Results of research for performance supported the constrained action hypothesis; and in contrast to the conscious processing hypothesis. Also the result of gaze behavior suggests several interesting areas for future research.
Full-Text [PDF 810 kb]   (1222 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: motor behavior
Received: 2019/02/17 | Accepted: 2019/09/24 | ePublished ahead of print: 2020/10/24 | Published: 2020/11/30

1. Mann, D. T., Williams, A. M., Ward, P., & Janelle, C. M. (2007). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(4), 457-478. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.29.4.457]
2. Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International Review Of Sport And Exercise Psychology, 6, 77-104. [DOI:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728]
3. Lohse, K. R., Sherwood, D. E., & Healy, A. F. (2010). How changing the focus of attention affects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing. Human Movement Science, 29 (4), 542-555. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.001]
4. Saemi, E., Abdoli, B., Farsi, A., & Sanjari, M. (2016). The Effect of Differential Attentional Focus Strategies on Accuracy of Free Throw in Novice Basketball Throwers: The Role of Visual Information. Journal of Sport Psychology Studies. 4(14): 112-99. (In Persian)
5. Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J., & Bezodis, N. (2005). Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain Research Bulletin, 67(4), 304-309. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.035]
6. Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Wally, R. (2010). An external focus of attention enhances balance learning in older adults. Gait & posture, 32(4), 572-575. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.08.004]
7. Bell, J. J., & Hardy, J. (2009). Effects of attentional focus on skilled performance in golf. Journal Apply Sport Psychology, 21, 163-177. [DOI:10.1080/10413200902795323]
8. Wulf, G., Dufek, J. S., Lozano, L., & Pettigrew, C. (2010). Increased jump height and reduced EMG activity with an external focus of attention. Human Movement Science, 29 (3), 440-448. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2009.11.008]
9. Wulf, G., Zachry, T., Granados, C., & Dufek, J. S. (2007). Increases in jump-and-reach height through an external focus of attention. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2(3), 275-284. [DOI:10.1260/174795407782233182]
10. Radlo, S. J., Steinberg, G. M., Singer, R. N., Barba, D. A., & Melnikov, A. (2002). The influence of an attentional focus strategy on alpha brain wave activity, heart rate and dart-throwing performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33(2), 205-217.
11. Lohse, K. R., & Sherwood, D. E. (2012). Thinking about muscles: The neuromuscular effects of attentional focus on accuracy and fatigue. Acta psychologica, 140(3), 236-245. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.05.009]
12. Lohse, K. R., Sherwood, D. E., & Healy, A. F. (2011). Neuromuscular effects of shifting the focus of attention in a simple force production task. Journal of Motor Behavior, 43(2), 173-184. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.2011.555436]
13. Asadi, A., Farsi, A., Abdoli, B., Saemi, E., & Porter, J. M. (2019). Directing Attention Externally and Self-Controlled Practice Have Similar Effects on Motor Skill Performance. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 141-151. [DOI:10.1123/jmld.2017-0027]
14. Vickers, J. N. (2016). The Quiet Eye: Origins, Controversies, and Future Directions. Kinesiology Review, 5, 119 -128. [DOI:10.1123/kr.2016-0005]
15. Vickers, J.N. (2007). Perception, cognition, and decision training. The quiet eye in action. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
16. Vine, S. J., Moore, L. J., & Wilson, M. R. (2014). Quiet eye training: The acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(1), 235-242. [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2012.683815]
17. Williams, A. M., Singer, R. N., & Frehlich, S. G. (2002). Quiet eye duration, expertise, and task complexity in near and far aiming tasks. Journal of Motor Behavior, 34(2), 197-207. [DOI:10.1080/00222890209601941]
18. Wilson, M. R., & Pearcy, R. C. (2009). Visuomotor control of straight and breaking golf putts. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(2), 555-562. [DOI:10.2466/pms.109.2.555-562]
19. Moore, L. J., Vine, S. J., Cooke, A., Ring, C., & Wilson, M. R. (2012). Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: The roles of response programming and external attention. Psychophysiology, 49(7), 1005-1015. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01379.x]
20. Vine, S. J., & Wilson, M. R. (2011). The influence of quiet eye training and pressure on attention and visuo-motor control. Acta psychologica, 136(3), 340-346. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.12.008]
21. Wulf, G., McNevin, N. H., & Shea, C. H. (2001). The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. The Quarterly Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 54 (4), 1143-1154. [DOI:10.1080/713756012]
22. Maxwell, J. P., & Masters, R. S. W. (2002). External versus internal focus instructions: Is the learner paying attention?. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 14(2), 70-88
23. Maxwell, J.P., Masters, R.S.W. and Eves, F.F. (2000). From novice to no know-how: A longitudinal study of implicit motor learning. Journal of Sport Sciences, 18, 111-120. [DOI:10.1080/026404100365180]
24. Maxwell, J. P., Masters, R. S. W., & Eves, F. F. (2003). The role of working memory in motor learning and performance. Consciousness and Cognition, 12(3), 376-402. [DOI:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00005-9]
25. Vickers, J. N. (1996). Visual control when aiming at a far target. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22(2), 342-354 [DOI:10.1037/0096-1523.22.2.342]
26. Rienhoff, R., Fischer, L., Strauss, B., Baker, J., & Schorer, J. (2015). Focus of attention influences quiet-eye behavior: An exploratory investigation of different skill levels in female basketball players. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(1), 62-74 [DOI:10.1037/spy0000031]
27. Klostermann, A., Kredel, R., & Hossner, E. J. (2014). On the interaction of attentional focus and gaze: the quiet eye inhibits focus-related performance decrements. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36(4), 392-400. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.2013-0273]
28. Querfurth S, Schücker L, de Lussanet MHE and Zentgraf K (2016) An Internal Focus Leads to Longer Quiet Eye Durations in Novice Dart Players. Front. Psychol. 7:633. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00633 [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00633]
29. Wulf, G., Töllner, T., & Shea, C. H. (2007). Attentional focus effects as a function of task difficulty. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(3), 257-264. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2007.10599423]
30. Klostermann, A., Kredel, R., & Hossner, E. J. (2013). The "quiet eye" and motor performance: Task demands matter!. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39(5), 1270-1278 [DOI:10.1037/a0031499]
31. Riley, M. A., Stoffregen, T. A., Grocki, M. J., & Turvey, M. T. (1999). Postural stabilization for the control of touching. Human Movement Science, 18(6), 795-817. [DOI:10.1016/S0167-9457(99)00041-X]
32. McNevin, N. H., & Wulf, G. (2002). Attentional focus on supra-postural tasks affects postural control. Human movement science, 21(2), 187-202. [DOI:10.1016/S0167-9457(02)00095-7]
33. Russell, R., Porter, J., & Campbell, O. (2014). An External Skill Focus Is Necessary to Enhance Performance. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2, 37-46. [DOI:10.1123/jmld.2014-0038]
34. Beilock, S. L., Carr, T. H., MacMahon, C., & Starkes, J. L. (2002). When paying attention becomes counterproductive: Impact of divided attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 6- 16. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.8.1.6]
35. Zentgraf, K., & Munzert, J. (2009). Effects of attentional-focus instructions on movement kinematics. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(5), 520-525. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.01.006]
36. Schorer, J., Jaitner, T., Wollny, R., Fath, F., & Baker, J. (2012). Influence of varying focus of attention conditions on dart throwing performance in experts and novices. Experimental brain research, 217(2), 287-297. [DOI:10.1007/s00221-011-2992-5]
37. Wulf, G., & Su, J. (2007). An external focus of attention enhances golf shot accuracy in beginners and experts. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 78(4), 384-389. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2007.10599436]
38. Marchant, D. C., Greig, M., & Scott, C. (2009). Attentional focusing instructions influence force production and muscular activity during isokinetic elbow flexions. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2358-2366. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b8d1e5]
39. McKay, B., & Wulf, G. (2012). A distal external focus enhances novice dart throwing performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(2), 149-156. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2012.682356]
40. Poolton, J. M., Maxwell, J. P., Masters, R. S. W., & Raab, M. (2006). Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing?. Journal of sports sciences, 24(1), 89-99. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500130854]
41. De Oliveira, R. F., Oudejans, R. R., & Beek, P. J. (2008). Gaze behavior in basketball shooting: Further evidence for online visual control. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 79(3), 399-404. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2008.10599504]
42. De Oliveira, R. F., Oudejans, R. R., & Beek, P. J. (2006). Late information pick-up is preferred in basketball jump shooting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(9), 933-940. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500357101]
43. Vickers, J. N., Rodrigues, S. T., & Edworthy, G. (2000). Quiet eye and accuracy in the dart throw. International Journal of Sports Vision, 6(1), 30-36.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb