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Showing 126 results for Subject: motor behavior

Dr Behrouz Abdoli, Dr Alireza Farsi, Mr Javad Riahi Farsani,
Volume 5, Issue 10 (12-2015)

Self-talk as “an internal dialogue, through which the individual interprets feelings and perceptions, regulates and changes evaluations and convictions, and gives him/her instructions and reinforcement”. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of instructional and motivational self-talk on the pattern of coordination and accuracy of basketball free throw to specify the effect of each types of the self-talks on of basketball free throw skill necessities (patterns of coordination and accuracy). Using available sampling method, 20 male basketball players with the mean age of 23.5±5.5 were selected who had at least 5 years of practice in basketball and were playing in one of the credible leagues of the country. In this study the basketball free throw skill was evaluated through two sessions with the time interval of 24 hours in two phases with and without self-talk (instructional and motivational). The data of the motion pattern and the accuracy of basketball free
throw were recorded in both phases of the test, and the kinematic data was used to compute the throw hand elbow-wrist No-RMS in order to investigate the coordination pattern. In statistical analysis, the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics
(mean, standard deviation, tables and figures) and inferential statistics (the analysis of variance with repeated measure and dependent t test). The results of throw accuracy showed that solely the use of instructional self-talk leaded to a significant
enhancement of the basketball free throw accuracy (t(9): 4.388, p: 0/002). Moreover, there was a significant difference between the effect of instructional self-talk and motivational self-talk in favor of instructional self-talk (2: 0.444, F(1,18): 14.364, p:0.001). Exploring the results of coordination pattern revealed that instructional selftalk leads to a significant (t(9): .048, p(1,18): 2.288) decline in elbow-wrist No-RMS and consequently an improvement in elbow-wrist interalimb coordination in performing the basketball free throws. The results indicated that the usage of instructional selftalk are benefical in improving the skills that require motiom coordination and accuracy of performance and it is superior to the use af motivational self-talk in this regard.

Mr Farhang Yazdan Parast, Dr Hamid Salehi,
Volume 5, Issue 10 (12-2015)

In this investigation the authors presented an attentional demand explanation for the choking under pressure occurred in sport skills. For this porpouse, attentional demands in tennis serve performance was compared under low and high pressure conditions by using dual task paradigm. Twenty tennis players served as participants and performed sixty serves as primary task in low and high (competition) conditions. Secondary task was to respond an auditory stimuli that presented during tennis serve in four probe positions. The results showed that on one hand, the pressure condition deteriorated tennis serves performance and on the other hand, it caused an increment in level of attentional resources and changeed pattern of attentinal demands. The results indicated that skillful athletes allocated more attention to their performance and more focusing to some positions of the skill under pressure condition compared to normal condition. It suggested that such attention demands changes can cause choking in sport. The results provide objective and stronge support for the predictions of self-focus theories proposed for choking in sports.

Mrs Behnaz Arbab, Dr Mohamad Kazem Vaez Moosavi, Dr Rokhsareh Badami,
Volume 5, Issue 10 (12-2015)

The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between perfectionism and competitive anxiety in Women's national karate team. Methodology: This is descriptive and correlational study in which 30 women from national karate team (adults and younger adults) formed the whole statistical population Completed the Martens Competitive state and competitive trait anxiety questionnaire and also completed the Dunn and colleagues’Sports perfectionism questionnaire. The findings of the research were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean & standard deviation), Pearson correlation coefficient and Stepwise regression analyses. Results: Results from Pearson correlation coefficient indicated negative correlation between perfectionism sport and self-confidence, and a positive correlation with trait anxiety. Stepwise regression analysis results indicated that perfectionism is generally the strongest predictor of trait anxiety. Also, perceived pressure from the coach predictor of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence, and concern over mistakes and personal standards are predictors of somatic anxiety. Conclusions: moderating Perfectionism helps the athlete to be less affected by competitive anxiety, increases her self-confidence and thus, the probability of success increases.

Mr Ebrahim Ghasem Zadeh, Dr Seyed Mohamad Hosein Razavi, Mr Saeed Amir Nezhad,
Volume 5, Issue 10 (12-2015)

Objective: The purpose of current investigation is studding of talent identification factors and education talent development on the track & field's athletes in Iran by views of experts, coaches and athletes.Methodology: The descriptive research method was used in current research. The number of 150 experts, coaches and athletes were recruited in this research.  The number of 6 variables and 45 options form questioner were applied in statistical analysis.  Reliability of questioner was examined and the result shows the high in reliability (Cronbach's alpha test: 0.82). For data analysis KS, binomial, one sample t-test and the Friedman test were used. SPSS software was applied for statistical analysis.The result of statistical analysis has been shown significant effect and intervention by one sample t-test and binomial test in 6 factors: Knowledge and understanding, How to attract and identify, Quality of track and equipment, Role of the Athletics Federation and council, Coaches and sponsors role.Conclusion: Given the importance of the athletics federation and sponsors role in the talent Identification and talent education on the track & field's athletes in Iran, these factors may play an vital role

Mr Meysam Shah Hoseini, Dr Aidin Zarifi, Dr Farhad Ghadiri,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (9-2016)

The purpose of this study was to predict competition result of judo players base on emotional intelligence and its subscales. To get this research done, a 70 person sample from Population of judo players of national leagues in 90-91 season were selected (age = 22.0 ± 3.36 year, judo experience 8.4 ± 2.33 year). The instrument which used in this research was emotional intelligence questionnaire of “Bar-on” that was completed by athletes prior to the competition. Then, the competition result of each athlete was recorded in the questionnaire by the researcher. To analysis the data, descriptive Statistics, independent t_test and logistic regression were used. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and its subscales with the result of competition and also emotional intelligence including three of its subscales that is: emotional self-awareness, realization, and impulse-control, might be proper predictors of competition result in athletes. Therefore improving and developing of these subscales can be effective in increasing success chance in the athletes

Mr Mohamad Moradi, Dr Hasan Khalaji, Dr Alireza Bahrami,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (9-2016)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between sport success and kinesthesia in male athlete college students. The methods used in the study was descriptive correlation. 100 students athletic in different fields from students’ of state university of Arak in 2012-2013 with the mean age of 21/80±1/94 purposefully using random multistage sampling were selected. (34 students in volleyball, 33 students in badminton, 33 students in wrestling). To collect data, with Personal information questionnaire, Ego orientation in sport questionnaire (Duda & Nichols, 1989), Zhecoofski dominant-hand's angle accommodation tests (1988) and Ablacova force control dominant-hand's (1990) were used. Data was analyzed by person's correlation test, multilevel regression analysis and the Analysis of variances. Shown in findings, volleyball players got a better score than other athletes in terms of sport success and kinesthesia. Also analysis of variances showed a significant relationship between sport success and kinesthesia. According to the results, sports of which kinesthesia of the dominant hand was their main reason of success had better kinesthesia and athletic success.

Mr Mehdi Nabavi Nik, Dr Abbas Bahram, Dr Hamid Reza Taheri, Mrs Mahnaz Zolghadr,
Volume 6, Issue 11 (9-2016)

Visual context is the context that exists in front of eye field which changes as player moves anyway and forms the new visual context. The favorite locations are the zone that players practice many times over the practice  time. The players performs the best own performance from that. The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual context as one of the reasons making the especial skills in favorite location of experienced players. 8 elite basketball players were men with at least 8 years of experience of basketball. They were asked to throw 210 jump shots from 7 different locations in the 3 set and 21 blocks. The middle location is the favorite one. The throws are performed with the players' own pace and there is 2 minute rest between sets. All throws return to players with the same way. Separate linear regression for each of the players has been calculated at seven different angles. Then, these data are separately used to calculate the predicted values ​​in the favorite location of each player. The actual performance of the players at different angles was compared with the predicted values​​ by independent t test. The results showed that there was significant difference between the predicted and actual performance of the players in the favorite angles (p<0.05). The findings show that the performance of the elite players in their favorite spots is dependent on the angle of vision especially at favorite locations. It seems that elite players over the years to practices at the certain point acquire some visual benefits that led to the specific performance in their favorite locations

Dr Hamid Reza Taheri, Mr Mohamad Reza Ghasemian Moghadam, Mr Davood Fazeli,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (11-2016)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of skill level on variability of
intra limb coordination and control variables in top spin strike. The 16 participants
of this study were divided into two groups of Skilled and Novice. The Skilled group
was consisted of players who ranked as 8 top in national ranking at their age stage
and the Novice group was consisted of players who recently learned the top spin
skill. They performed 10 top spin strikes with emphasis on speed and accuracy.
Movement kinematics were recorded and analyzed. There was a difference
between these two groups in variability of intra limb coordination (p<0.05) and the
Skilled group performed more consistent. However, there was not any differences
between these two groups in movement control variables (all p>0.05). This study
showed that the skilled performers have more consistency in their movement
patterns, while it could be no difference with novice performers in control variables
as cause of task constraints.

Dr Behrooz Abdoli, Dr Nasoor Ahmadi, Mrs Azam Ghazi,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (11-2016)

According to Specificity of practice hypothesis, availability of visual information
specially during performing tasks witch vision has an important role in improving
the accuracy, causes further performance decrements in No-vision transfer test.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of vision and amount
of practice on accuracy and kinematic of dart throwing. 20 female students of righthanded
who were all novitiate in the skill selected voluntarily and randomly
assigned to full vision and No-vision groups.The subjects following participated in
pretest, performed acquisition phase that consisted two level of modest and
extensive practice (45 trials and 300 trials). 10 minutes after each level of practice,
participants completed transfer trials in a no-vision and no-KR condition. Overall,
Mixed ANOVA (2×3) in acquisition phase revealed that vision improved Dart
throwing accuracy performance. Kinematic analysis revealed no significant
difference between two groups in Wrist flexion, Angular displacement of elbow and
Angular displacement of shoulder. Whereas after 300 trials of practice, there was
significant difference between groups in throwing time and angular velocity of the
dart. After extensive practice, Mixed ANOVA (2×2) showed that, withdrawal of
vision resulted in specificity of practice effects on dart throwing accuracy, but
results of kinematic pattern, regardless of the amount of practice did not support
specificity of practice.

Dr Mohamad Taghi Aghdasi, Dr Hasan Mohamad Zadeh, Mr Akbar Ghavami,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (11-2016)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between passion to
physical activity and life satisfaction in male students. 383 male students were
chosen through cluster sampling among various schools in Tabriz and completed
passion scale (Vallerand, et al. 2003), and multidimensional life satisfaction scale
for students (MSLSS, 2001). T-test and Pearson correlation test was used for data
analysis. Results showed that students with Harmonious Passion to physical
activity have higher levels of satisfaction with their family, life environment, school
and friends than students with obsessive passion. The results also showed
obsessive students have a higher level of satisfaction in self subscale compared
with Harmonious students. In general life Satisfaction, the results showed that
Harmonious students have more satisfied than the obsessive students. The results
showed there is a significant relationship between life satisfaction and Harmonious
passion, but not in Obsessive passion. Overall, the results supports the Dualistic
Model of Passion (DMP) (Vallerand, 2003).

Mr Amir Abbasgholi Poor, Dr Daryoush Khajavi,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2017)

When an athlete experiences a failure or a success naturally think about its reason(s) and actually search the responsible for the situation. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive - correlational study was surveying attribution and motivation styles of elite and sub-elite female athletes in individual sports. The statistical population was female athletes in swimming, badminton, karate, taekwondo, table tennis and archery sport teams from which 120 samples selected availably. Data collected with the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS).Data was collected and analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient test at a significance level of 0.05.  The results showed that elite and sub-elite athletes' attribution style was different significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Also, there were not significant differences between amotivation levels of elite and sub-elite athletes (P ≥ 0.05). Results indicated that there were no relationship between elite and sub-elite athletes' attribution and motivation styles (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, it can be concluded that there were significant differences between elite and sub-elite athletes' attribution styles and motivation levels, (except amotivation) and not significant relationship between attribution styles and motivation levels in this two women group participating in individual sport.
Mr Behzad Behzadnia, Dr Malek Ahmadi, Mr Javad Amani,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2017)

The aim of this study was to examine of the factorial structure of the Self- Regulation Questionnaire in college physical education class (SRQ-PE). 277 students were selected by cluster random sampling in Urmia universities. The results of confirmatory factor analysis determined 5-factor model for the structure of the SRQ-PE with 71.03% of total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable goodness of fit indices for the data among students. Also, the significant positive relationship of intrinsic and identified regulation with PE-enjoyment and intention to continue of physical activity, confirmed the concurrent validity. The items for all sub-scales have a high internal consistency above of 0.75 of Cronbach's alpha. The findings suggest that SRQ-PE is a valid and reliable measurement for assessing the motivational self-regulation in college PE class. As a conclusion, the results demonstrate the importance of developing self-determination in PE, as it is associated with desirable behavioural outcomes.
Mr Seyed Abbas Afsaneh Poorak, Dr Seyed Mohamad Kazem Vaez Moosavi,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2017)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of motivational covert and overt self-talk on basketball free throw skill learning in adults. 60 students of Gorgan Islamic Azad University based on pretest scores randomly assigned in three equal groups (n1=n2=n3=20). Participants in motivational covert and overt self-talk conducted basketball shooting skill acquisition in 12 sessions (each session 30 throws) with repeating “I Can” slow and loud respectively before of each throw. The transfer and retention tests were held respectively 24 and 48 hours after the last session of acquisition. Repeated measures and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data and LSD post hoc test was used to compare groups. Significance level for all statistical tests was set at p<0.05. Results revealed that the effect of practice sessions (p≤0.05), group (p≤0.05) and practice sessions × group (F(10.12,57)=5.84,p≤0.05) was significant (p<0.05). Results showed that motivational covert and overt self-talk in acquisition, transfer and retention tests was better than control group. But comparison between covert and overt self-talk was not significant (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that motivational overt and covert self-talk is useful for learning relatively complex tasks.
Dr Mahdi Shahbazi, Mrs Fariba Hasan Barani,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2017)

Tools and methods that could lead to the recognition and motion analysis variables are helpful in understanding the movements and movement Sciences and It will be a vital part of movement and sport sciences laboratories. "Human motion analysis instrument based on joints angles in sagittal plane" was designed to provide information about the motion analysis that offers to researchers, educators and therapists. Once the instrument has been built according to the design of specialized electronic and mechanical engineers, tested until the fourth final design was made and it was registered on 21.05.1393 with number 83557. To check the validity, with using of motion analysis system with optoelectronic cameras and the instrument, 20 participants (10 males and 10 females) were asked to perform a throwing task. The root mean square error (RMSE) and Pearson correlation in the statistical 0.01 were used to assess the reliability and validity. The results indicate that the instrument is made applicable and appropriate validity and reliability so that the validity: 0.98 and reliability: 0.95 was reported.
Mr Shahram Nazar Poori, Dr Abbas Bahram, Dr Farhad Ghadiri,
Volume 7, Issue 13 (4-2017)

The purpose of this study was to determine Psychometric aspects of the Persian version of Infant Movement Motivation Questionnaire (IMMQ) for infants of 3 to 11 months. In this regard, 528 parents and their infants (239 girls and 289 boys) in Tehran were selected as samples through the method of random cluster sampling. For this purpose, first by using a translation - re translation method, IMMQ was translated into Persian by 3 motor behavior experts and 2 English teaching specialists. Confirmatory and Exploratory factor analysis was used for the validation of questionnaire structure; Cronbach alpha coefficient was computed for internal consistency of questionnaire. Also, intra-class correlation coefficient under test-retest method was used to evaluate the temporal reliability of items. The results of Confirmatory and Exploratory factor analysis showed that IMMQ is multifactorial; so that, in total, four factors consisting activity, exploration, motivation and adaptability can explain % 53/32 of the total variance. Moreover, the fit indexes of the extracted model (PGFI = 0.71, NFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.078) were favorable and acceptable. Also, Cronbach alpha coefficient (α = 0/93) and intra-class correlation coefficient (r = 0.88) of the Persian version of IMMQ with 27 questions the like of original version, had acceptable internal consistency and temporal reliability. So the results showed that the Persian version of IMMQ can be used for clinical or research purposes as well as an educational tool for parents.
Mr Salman Jafari, Dr Majid Kashef, Dr Javad Azmoon,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (12-2017)

the purpose of this study was the comparison effect implementation methods physical activity outside of class on the physical fitness of 15 y. boy students. method of study was quasi experimental and statitical population of that includes all of the 15 y. boy students of  maraghe city(n=2865). sample of study was 80 pepole who were selected of sample available and then randomly in four groups of 20 people called as experimental group 1, the method on based students self-supervision, experimental group 2, the method on based parentals supervision, experimental group 3, the method on based physical education teachers supervision and controll group that were homogenous. at first a pretest was done from the four groups by pull up test, sit and rich test, sit up test, 540 meter running test. implementation methods physical activity outside of class were done on groups for 8 weeks and then a post test was done from four groups. for statistical analysis of multivariate analysis of variance was used for comparison mean between groups.The results showed that the method of enforcement activity outside of class fitness factors of boy students, there are significant differences ( p≤0/05).however, The results showed that the method on based physical education teachers supervision had a  more impact on physical  fitness  related to health.
Dr Hamid Salehi, Mrs Maryam Mohseni,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (12-2017)

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the level of anxiety experienced by Iranian football referees, and to predict the level of referees’ competitive anxiety according to their self-consciousness and coping styles. One hundred thirteen male football referees voluntarily completed a demographic questionnaire, Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS; Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), and referring-modified versions of the Sports Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990) and the Coping Style Inventory for Athletes (CSIA; Anshel & Kaissidis, 1997). Results indicated that the referees tolerated low levels of anxiety in a contest (14.19 ± 3.54). It has revealed that in the face of a stressful event, strategies of avoidance rather than approach are usually used by the referees. The results showed that avoidance coping style and private, public, and social self-consciousness are significantly correlated with the referees’ competitive anxiety. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best predictors of referees’ anxiety were private self-consciousness and avoidance coping style that together accounted for 25% of the explained variance. Results indicate that the competitive anxiety of referees may affect by their self-conscious and coping styles in competitive settings.
Mrs Marzieh Jafari, Dr Rokhsareh Badami,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (12-2017)

The current research aims to compare the effect of basic gymnastic exercises in environments with different colors, on static and dynamic balance. Participants were 40 female students ranging in age from 8 to 10 years, who were classified into three groups: "exercise in the environment with warm colors", "exercise in the environment with cool colors" and "exercise in the environment with compound colors". A pre-test of balance was given to each group in its colored environment. Static and dynamic balance were assessed using the balance subscale of bruininks-oseretsky test of motor proficiency. Then the groups have performed gymnastic exercises in colored environments for 24 sessions, and after 8 weeks, they took the post-test in the same environment. The transfer test was performed in the environment with a neutral color, 48 hours after the post-test. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The findings showed that the color of the environment had had no effects on the learning and retention of static and dynamic seems that, the color of learning environment related to type of motor skill.
Mr Behzad Mohammadi Orangi, Dr Neda Shahrzad, Dr Rasoul Yaali,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (12-2017)

Individual constraints are of the factors that can effect on motor development. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor proficiency with body mass index and nutritional status in healthy boys 10-14 years old in Tehran. Statistical sample was of 120 children for BMI and 90 children for nutritional status. body mass index groups, lean, normal, overweight and obese groups nutritional status to malnutrition, average feeding and Appropriate division Who were chosen by cluster purposeful and motor proficiency was assessed using the by BOT-2 test. The results showed that the between conditions BMI, lean and normal, normal and obese, overweight and obese, there is a significant difference in motor proficiency but in other cases, the difference was not significant. As well as between conditions of malnutrition and normal nutrition, normal nutrition and proper nutrition, proper nutrition and malnutrition, there is a significant difference in motor proficiency. According to this result, body mass index and nutritional status of children in this age affects motor proficiency, which may be different BMI groups in motor proficiency in geometry and mass of body parts, mechanical factors attributed and differences in nutritional status groups to the role of food items brain growth and physical development, he said.
Dr Maryam Nezakat Alhoseini, Mr Esmaeil Soleimani, Dr Abbas Bahram,
Volume 8, Issue 15 (8-2018)

Taking individuals' cognitive abilities into consideration can play an important role in the initial stages of learning motor skills. So, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of cognitive functions on feedback request strategy and learning of a perceptual motor task. A number of 60 university male students with a mean age of 22/4 years (SD = 1/99) were selected through convenience sampling and were assigned to 6 groups according to their intelligence quotient, memory quotient and attention scores. All participants performed 100 badminton long services during the practice phase, and 20 services, during the retention and transfer phases. Wechsler Revised Intelligence Test, Wechsler memory scale, Toulouse and Pieron Test, and Scott and Fax Badminton Long Service were used to collect the data on intelligence quotient, memory quotient, attention, and badminton long service performance, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Independent t-test (α=0/05) were used to analyze the collected data. The analyses demonstrated that intelligence quotient, memory quotient, and attention had a significant effect on decreasing feedback request frequency during the acquisition phase, and increasing badminton long service scores during the acquisition, retention and transfer phases. Therefore, it can be concluded that bearing individuals' cognitive abilities in mind during motor skills training can be beneficial.

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