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Mohammad Ali Besharat, Mohammad Hossein Ghahramani, Nasoor Ahmadi,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)

The aim ofthisstudy was to investigatedifferentaspects ofimpulsivityin the athletes of contact and non-contactsports. volunteer participants were 60 athletes of contact (age: 25.9±4.6 years) and non-contact (age: 27.6±4.9 years) sports. Participants were asked to complete the Barratt’s Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and participate in continuous performance test(CPT). Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated that there was significant difference between athletes participating in contact and non-contact sports in the continuous performance test items(F2,117= 3.27, p=0.001, partial &eta2=0.89) and impulsivity scale factors(F3,116=47.66, p=0.001, partial &eta2=0.55).So that, in the attentional, motor, and non-planning impulsiveness and at the number of correct recognition in continuous performance test, the athletes of contact sports get more points than the athletes of non-contact sports. In contrast, the athletes of non-contact sports get more points in the average of incorrect time and the number of incorrect recognition than the athletes of contact sports. Therefore Thisfeature is effective in motor and non-motor behaviors of athletes in some special conditions that will appear as immediate and sustained function.
Rahim Ramezaninejad, Samaneh Nazari, Maryam Besharatimoghadam, Mohammad Javad Ziya,
Volume 12, Issue 23 (9-2022)

The purpose of this research is the pathology of Covid-19 consequences on PE in schools with representing the challenges based on other countries` educational programs and experience. Using the library study method, 100 articles were analyzed and the research data was classified into two forms of challenges and strategies. Findings showed that challenges have appeared including online education challenge (students, parents, and teachers), psychological and social challenge, formation of a new generation of PE students, change of the nature of PE class, challenge of the students with special needs, economic challenge, and school closure. In the second part, effective strategies such as providing counseling programs to solve online education problems, specific educational strategies, professional development for PE teachers, the role of family, parents, principals and school staff, psychological solutions, reducing incompatibility and instability of interpersonal relationships, maintaining the empirical nature and dynamism of PE class, and physical activity strategy after the reopening of schools have been introduced. Finally, the government and educational institutions alongside families can take effective steps, according to the contingent educational conditions, to improve and innovate PE programs in the country's schools, especially during Corona, while reducing the negative effects of Corona outbreak and using existing capacities.

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