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Showing 2 results for Daneshfar

Nastaran Parvizi, Masoomeh Shojaei, Hasan Khalaji, Afkham Daneshfar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)

The purpose of present study was investigation of the effect of attention direction variation by instructional self-talk on performance and learning of Basketball free throw. Therefore, 33 novice female students (mean of the age=22 yr.) who had intermediate trait anxiety were selected randomly. The participants were assigned to 3 matched groups according to pretest. The self-talk with internal and external focus groups repeated the words “wrist” and “center of ring”, respectively, before each free throw during 6 sessions (2 blocks of 10 trials in each session). Control group performed the free throws without self-talk. Retention test was performed 48 hours after the acquisition phase and transfer test was done after that with spectators. In each test, throw accuracy was measured by a 5-point scale. Results of mix 2-factor and one-way ANOVA did not indicate significant differences between acquisition, retention, and transfer groups (p>.05), but the within subjects effect of external focus of attention on transfer was significant (p<.05). Therefore, it seems use of self-talk and its attentional focus variation is not necessary for novice Basketball players.
Alihossein Naseri, Abbas Bahram, Hamid Salehi, Afkham Daneshfar,
Volume 100, Issue 100 (10-2020)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of errorless and error full training on aiming task learning of normal teens and intellectual disability ones. 20 intellectual disability teenagers were selected from an exceptional school and 20 normal children from the Normal school in Ardebil in the range of 11 to 13 years old (M = 12, SD = 0.8). Normal and intellectual disability individuals were randomly assigned to two errorless and error full training groups according to Wechsler's intelligence test and Alloway's working memory test. The task was to throw basketball balls in the form of a chest pass to the targets with concentric circles. These goals were set at the height of the people's chest in the wall. The subjects performed 200 exercise attempts at the acquisition stage in five training blocks. Single and dual task transfer tests were carried out immediately, 24-hour latency and one week's delay. The data were analyzed using two way repeated measures analysis of variance analysis (ANOVA). The findings showed that the group had the least memory involvement and the least error in both subjects type, in the single task test [P<0.05  and in the dual task test were better [P<0.05 . The normal errorless group was not better than the intellectual disability errorless group, but the normal error full group was better than the intellectual disability error full group. The findings of this study are consistent with the Adam's closed loop theory, the reinvestment theory, and somewhat consistent with the estimates of the challenge point framework regarding the error in the acquisition stage, but these findings are somewhat contradictory with the estimates of the schema theory.


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