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Showing 12 results for Salehi

Hamid Salehi, Adnan Ghazanfari, Ahmad Reza Movahedi, Maryam Nezakat Alhosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2011)

In the present investigation we determined the time course of attention demands during the jumping service in volleyball by the dual-task paradigm. Fourteen voluntary junior elite volleyball players performed 60 jumping serve. Jumping-serve performance (JSP) as primary task and verbal reaction time (RT) to an auditory stimulus that was administered in four probe positions (PP), as secondary task was measured. Repeated measures analyze of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant effect of the PP on JPS, indicates allocating the most attentional weight to the JSP. In second analyze, effect of PP on RT was significant, so that all probes RT were significantly higher than the base line RT, indicates attention demanding of the JSP. Results also showed that pre-shot in run-up (PP1) and after the ball strike (PP4) had the greatest attentional demands respectively while per-jump stepping ahead (PP2) and just pre-striking the ball (PP3) had respectively the lowest needs of attention. The results indicate that attention follows a non-linear pattern, in the JSP.
Shahzad Tahmasebi Boroujeni, Mehdi Shahbazi, Keivan Salehi,
Volume 3, Issue 6 (12-2013)

The aim of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire (PMCSQ-2) for Newton and colleagues [2000[. For this purpose, random participants from 553 athletes 13 to 23 years were selected to complete the questionnaire. After applying the translate-retranslate technique, content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) confirmed by 10 Panels (CVR=0.66, CVI=0.97.For determining the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on structural equations was used, internal consistency of questionnaire was achieved by Cranach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient under test-retest method to study reliability of questionnaire. Results showed that the first model of PMCSQ-2(33 question (, wasn’t able to support the favorable fit and thus eliminated 6 problematic questions. Thereby the final model with 27 questions was included task-oriented climate (TOC) (effort/improvement, important role and cooperative learning) and ego-oriented climate (EOC) (unequal recognition and punishment of mistakes). Hereby, the Persian PMCSQ-2 (PPMCSQ-2) had acceptable fit index (RMSEA= 0.054, CFI= 0.9). Also, Internal consistency was acceptable (TOC=0.827, EOC=0.726 and PPMCSQ-2=0.618) and reliability of PPMCSQ-2(r=0.73) was affirmed. Therefore, PPMCSQ-2 can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to assess motivational climate in the Iranian athletes with the age range of 13 to 23 years.
Hajar Salehi, Amir Ghamarani, Hamid Reza Arab, Tahereh Golkari,
Volume 3, Issue 6 (12-2013)

The primary aim of the present article is to analyze the efficiency of religious orientation in predicting flow experience of physical education students based on demographic variables. Also, the role of demographic variables was taken into account as the secondary aim of the study. 200 physical education students of the University of Isfahan were chosen randomly. They answered Religious Orientation Scale (Alport & Ross, 1987) as well as Flow Experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1982). Multiple Regression Analysis was used to analyze the data and the structural analysis software was used to check the efficiency of the model. The results indicated that the intrinsic religious orientation model was positive predictor of the flow experience while the extrinsic religious orientation model was negative predictor of the flow experience. Also, the role of demographic variables indicated that the relationship between age and education with flow experience is positive and significant. In addition, it was revealed that the religious orientation model with the presence of demographic variables has the necessary efficiency in order to predict flow experience. All in all, the results of the present study confirmed that the intrinsic religious orientation is efficient in predicting flow experience. 
Mr Farhang Yazdan Parast, Dr Hamid Salehi,
Volume 5, Issue 10 (12-2015)

In this investigation the authors presented an attentional demand explanation for the choking under pressure occurred in sport skills. For this porpouse, attentional demands in tennis serve performance was compared under low and high pressure conditions by using dual task paradigm. Twenty tennis players served as participants and performed sixty serves as primary task in low and high (competition) conditions. Secondary task was to respond an auditory stimuli that presented during tennis serve in four probe positions. The results showed that on one hand, the pressure condition deteriorated tennis serves performance and on the other hand, it caused an increment in level of attentional resources and changeed pattern of attentinal demands. The results indicated that skillful athletes allocated more attention to their performance and more focusing to some positions of the skill under pressure condition compared to normal condition. It suggested that such attention demands changes can cause choking in sport. The results provide objective and stronge support for the predictions of self-focus theories proposed for choking in sports.

Dr Hamid Salehi, Mrs Nasrin Zandi Mashhadi, Dr Vahid Zolaktaf, Dr Vazgen Minasian,
Volume 6, Issue 12 (11-2016)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the factor analysis and internal consistency of
a Persian version of the Athletes’ Retirement Decision Inventory (P-ARDI).
Fernandez et al. (2006) developed this instrument based on the push, pull, antipush,
and anti-pull point of view. We required 243 Iranian elite competitive athletes
(mean age = 25.19 years; 81% male) to complete the questionnaire. The factor
structure of the P-ARDI was evaluated by explanatory and confirmatory factor
analysis. The internal consistency was determined by Cronbach’s alpha. According
to the results, four-factor solution principal component analysis accounted for
65.02% of the variance of the final 36-item version of the P-ARDI. The Cronbach’s
alpha coefficient for the aforementioned factors was found to be greater than 0.7.
In sum, the results suggest that the retirement decision process was found to be
much more complex and multidimensional.

Dr Hamid Salehi, Mrs Maryam Mohseni,
Volume 7, Issue 14 (12-2017)

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the level of anxiety experienced by Iranian football referees, and to predict the level of referees’ competitive anxiety according to their self-consciousness and coping styles. One hundred thirteen male football referees voluntarily completed a demographic questionnaire, Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS; Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), and referring-modified versions of the Sports Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990) and the Coping Style Inventory for Athletes (CSIA; Anshel & Kaissidis, 1997). Results indicated that the referees tolerated low levels of anxiety in a contest (14.19 ± 3.54). It has revealed that in the face of a stressful event, strategies of avoidance rather than approach are usually used by the referees. The results showed that avoidance coping style and private, public, and social self-consciousness are significantly correlated with the referees’ competitive anxiety. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best predictors of referees’ anxiety were private self-consciousness and avoidance coping style that together accounted for 25% of the explained variance. Results indicate that the competitive anxiety of referees may affect by their self-conscious and coping styles in competitive settings.
Dr Hamid Salehi, Mr Ali Bahrami Nia,
Volume 8, Issue 16 (12-2018)

The purpose of the present investigation was to develop and initial validation of a measure for assessing the athletes perceptions of coaches’ behaviors that promote fairplay behaviors. A three-step procedure was undertaken to develop the questionnaire. In the initial step, the literature review provided theoretical and empirical perspectives on how youth sport coaches can influence athletes’ fairplay behaviors. In step 2, a pool of 191 items worded and content validity was assessed. In the final step, 252 teenage male athletes (age range 14-19; mean age =15.88±1.34 years) who were participating in a variety of team sports (i.e., volleyball, basketball, soccer, futsal) completed a revised 164-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 30 and suggested a four-factor structure (i.e., modeling, instruction, pressure, and dialogue dimensions). The results revealed that the final 30-item version of the Coaching Fairplay Behaviors Inventory possesses a good psychometric basis with adequate internal consistency and which explain 57.80% of the total variance. Collectively, this study provides a new valid and reliable instrument for assessing the specific mechanisms by which coaches promote fairplay behaviors among teenagers, although more investigations are needed to validate this tool.
Narges Rashidi, Hamid Salehi, Shila Safavi Homami,
Volume 9, Issue 18 (12-2019)

The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the interrelations among handwriting legibility and speed, and underlying perceptual-motor skills in Persian language students. Seventy students (26 male, 44 female; 10.21 ± 1.02 yr; 30 poor and 40 good control hand writers) were assessed during a copying task. The children completed the visual-motor control (VMC), upper-limb speed and dexterity (ULSD), ‎ and upper-limb coordination (ULC) ‎ subtests of the Bruininks–Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT). The poor group scored significantly lower on handwriting legibility and speed in comparison with classroom controls in the copying task. Correlation coefficients between perceptual-motor function scores with handwriting legibility, and with handwriting speed varied from -0.11 to 0.40, and 0.17 to 0.39 respectively. Results showed that both legibility and speed predicted differences between students classified as “poor” and “good” hand writers. Results also showed that in the poor hand writers group, age, gender, BOT-ULC, and BOT-VMC were found to be significant predictors of legibility of handwriting, whereas gender and BOT-ULC were shown to be significant predictors of handwriting speed. The findings suggest that distinct perceptual-motor components may underlie writing during copying. Poor quality of handwriting of children seems to be particularly related to some sort of deficiency and dysfunction in perceptual-motor skills. Future studies should determine the possible benefit of interventions including stimulant in perceptual-motor functioning and handwriting performance, to enhance performance in these areas.

Mr Ghasem Babaei Zarch, Dr Hamid Salehi,
Volume 10, Issue 20 (11-2020)

Identifying motivational barriers to sport participation in children and adolescents is important for engaging them in sport activities. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions of children and adolescents, parents, and sport coaches about barriers of youth sport participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 children and adolescents, 8 parents, and 5 coaches. Content analysis was employed to analysis the transcripts. The results of the data analysis yielded some themes as the motivational barriers to participation in sport by children and adolescents that were grouped into two domains: the personal and the environment barriers. Constituent themes in the personal barrier’s domain included: the lack of having sport talent and lack of progression in sport, not pleasuring from participation in sport, and sport related injuries. Constituent themes related to the environmental barrier’s domain included: lake of sports culture, lake of facilities, economic problems, not being supported, and not having future. This qualitative study provided a deeper understanding about motivational barriers for habituation to sport in children and adolescents. The themes would lead youth sports organizers, parents, and coaches to motivate youth to participate and endure in sport activities by changing the personal and environmental factors. 
Fatima Rabiei, Dr. Hamdi Salehi,
Volume 12, Issue 24 (12-2022)

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences between novice and skilled baseball players to anticipate the type of ball being pitched and to specify the players’ dependence on distributed or local kinematic spatial cues. Male baseball players (N= 15; Mage: 27.73 ± 6.28 years; baseball experience: 7.90 ± 5.69 years) and novices (N= 15; Mage: 23.10 ± 5.68 years; no playing experience in baseball) were asked to anticipate the type of pitch (i.e., fastball vs. curveball) using a spatial occlusion paradigm. Both groups viewed recorded video simulations of spatially manipulated pitches in which nine specific parts of the pitcher’s body or the ball were either omitted or showed separately. The data was analyzed by a 2 (Skill level) × 9 (Display Condition) mixed-design analysis of variance. The results revealed that skilled baseball players outperformed novices in the occlusion conditions. Furthermore, the results revealed that skilled baseball players used throwing arm and ball as well as upper body kinematic cues for their correct anticipations. The results are in line with previous findings on perceptual-cognitive expertise and decision-making in interactive sports and indicate skilled baseball players are able to obtain information distributed globally within the pitcher's body, rather than reliance on specific isolated or local kinematic cues.

Hamdi Salehi, Samira Panahi,
Volume 13, Issue 26 (12-2023)

This investigation aimed to determine the role of using specific gestures in simple arithmetic. Forty-seven university students (25 females; Mage = 23.45 ± 3.51 years) voluntarily participated in this study. The participants completed two tasks. In the item-counting task, the participants were shown sets of identical colored squares and asked to count a specific color by either finger-pointing, nodding, or without any gestures while counting. After completing the counting task and for measurement of the working memory performance, the participants were asked to recall lists of alphabets that were previously to them. The results revealed that when using finger-pointing or nodding while counting, the participants counted faster and more accurately than when gestures were not allowed. The results of the memory task showed that the participants retrieved significantly more alphabets and more quickly when using finger-pointing or nodding while counting than when not gesturing. Thus, the gestures helped to free up cognitive resources. The findings support the hypothesis that gestures may facilitate cognitive functions by reducing cognitive load. This present investigation, consistent with previous research, suggests that we can benefit from using our hand and head movements to facilitate some simple arithmetic tasks.

Alihossein Naseri, Abbas Bahram, Hamid Salehi, Afkham Daneshfar,
Volume 100, Issue 100 (10-2020)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of errorless and error full training on aiming task learning of normal teens and intellectual disability ones. 20 intellectual disability teenagers were selected from an exceptional school and 20 normal children from the Normal school in Ardebil in the range of 11 to 13 years old (M = 12, SD = 0.8). Normal and intellectual disability individuals were randomly assigned to two errorless and error full training groups according to Wechsler's intelligence test and Alloway's working memory test. The task was to throw basketball balls in the form of a chest pass to the targets with concentric circles. These goals were set at the height of the people's chest in the wall. The subjects performed 200 exercise attempts at the acquisition stage in five training blocks. Single and dual task transfer tests were carried out immediately, 24-hour latency and one week's delay. The data were analyzed using two way repeated measures analysis of variance analysis (ANOVA). The findings showed that the group had the least memory involvement and the least error in both subjects type, in the single task test [P<0.05  and in the dual task test were better [P<0.05 . The normal errorless group was not better than the intellectual disability errorless group, but the normal error full group was better than the intellectual disability error full group. The findings of this study are consistent with the Adam's closed loop theory, the reinvestment theory, and somewhat consistent with the estimates of the challenge point framework regarding the error in the acquisition stage, but these findings are somewhat contradictory with the estimates of the schema theory.


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