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Showing 7 results for Focus of Attention

Nastaran Parvizi, Masoomeh Shojaei, Hasan Khalaji, Afkham Daneshfar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)

The purpose of present study was investigation of the effect of attention direction variation by instructional self-talk on performance and learning of Basketball free throw. Therefore, 33 novice female students (mean of the age=22 yr.) who had intermediate trait anxiety were selected randomly. The participants were assigned to 3 matched groups according to pretest. The self-talk with internal and external focus groups repeated the words “wrist” and “center of ring”, respectively, before each free throw during 6 sessions (2 blocks of 10 trials in each session). Control group performed the free throws without self-talk. Retention test was performed 48 hours after the acquisition phase and transfer test was done after that with spectators. In each test, throw accuracy was measured by a 5-point scale. Results of mix 2-factor and one-way ANOVA did not indicate significant differences between acquisition, retention, and transfer groups (p>.05), but the within subjects effect of external focus of attention on transfer was significant (p<.05). Therefore, it seems use of self-talk and its attentional focus variation is not necessary for novice Basketball players.
Samaneh Damanpak, Mohsen Shafizadeh, Abbas Bahram, Elham Fazel,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2011)

The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of attentional focus instructions on motor skills that requiring near to maximum force production, such as shot put skill. In this experiment, twenty eight right- handed girl students with little shot put experience were selected voluntarily. They divided to two groups (internal and external focus) based on their shot put scores in pre- test (consists of 3 trial). They were asked to shot put using O׳brien technique. Experiment performed in three sessions and each session consists of three trials. Instructions referred specifically either to body movement (internal focus) or to shot (external focus). In this study, mixed ANOVA 2(group) ´ 3(session) with repeated measures on last factor is used for analyzing data. The results of this experiment showed that distance of shot put was greater in external focus group rather than internal focus group. Also interaction between attentional focus and practice session was significant (P< 0/001). In conclusion, external focus resulted in producing greater force relative to internal focus. These findings indicate that previously shown benefits of an external attentional focus generalize to motor skills requiring maximal force production.

Volume 5, Issue 9 (4-2015)

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of attentional focus on accuracy,
effectiveness, and perception of the performance in volleyball jump serve of
professional players. 12 professional volleyball players completed a 4 blocks of 8
trail (4 for accuracy, and 4 for effectiveness) of jump serve in four experimental
conditions (Non-Instruction, Internal focus on hand movement, Near external
focus on ball, and Far external focus on target zone or player). The data of
accuracy, effectiveness, and self-perception of the performance was acquired by
pointed target areas, analyzing volleyball serve effectiveness method, and selfrated
manipulative check, respectively. Results of ANOVA with repeated
measures showed that accuracy scores, effectiveness, and self-perception of the
performance in far external condition was better than near external and internal
conditions. In addition, the significant differences between non-instructional and
far external conditions were observed only in self-perception of the performance.
On the whole, these results confirmed recent findings regarding the detrimental
effects of internal focus of attention and the facilitative effects of external focus of
attention on skilled performance, especially far external focus.

Dr Rasoul Yaali, Sara Oftadeh, Mrs Asma Mahmoodi,
Volume 10, Issue 20 (11-2020)

Focus of attention instruction has a great influence on performance and learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the predicted constrained action hypothesis in badminton backhand serv. 30 women student participants from physical education classes of University of Kharazmi are selected as sample. Participants are tested in probe task at different stage of serve after identifying base of reaction time, and level of attention demanding of different parts was measured. Then participants divided into two groups (internal and external focus of attention) and they are tested with their specific instruction again. The results revealed that first stage of serve has the most attention need (p<0/001), but there is not any difference between two groups and different serve stage in the effect of focus of attention type. Accordance with these results the constrained action hypothesis at discrete skills is not confirmed.

Dr Ayoub Asadi, Dr Mahmood Sheikh, Dr Davood Hoomanian, Dr Saleh Rafiei,
Volume 10, Issue 20 (11-2020)

Focus of Attention and Quiet Eye (QE) of the affecting variables on aiming task performance in recent decades have always been interesting for psychologist and sport science researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of attention instructions on gaze behavior and accuracy of dart throwing of novice in low and high task load. In a semi-experimental design with repeated measurements, participant performed dart throwing under three attentional condition (internal, external and control) in two different task load (low and high). Result showed the external focus in high load task improved accuracy of dart throwing than internal focus; in the event that, for low load task there was no significant difference between the attentional conditions. Also, for QE none of attention, load task and their interaction effects was not significant. Results of research for performance supported the constrained action hypothesis; and in contrast to the conscious processing hypothesis. Also the result of gaze behavior suggests several interesting areas for future research.

Dr Ayoub Asadi, Dr Mahmood Sheikh, Dr Davood Hoomanian, Dr Saleh Rafiee,
Volume 12, Issue 24 (12-2022)

It has been shown in various researches that the focus of attention and quiet eye duration (QED) are effective variables on the performance of targeting tasks. However, the impact of these variables on motor skills in children needs more research; Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different attentional focus instruction on QED and accuracy of children's darts throwing. Participants such as twelve right handed children (age: M=8.83, SD=0.79) without dart throwing experience participated in the study; while their eyes movements were recorded by an eye tracker system, participants performed 18 dart throws (6 blocks of 3 trials) under three different attentional conditions: 1) an external focus, 2) an internal focus, and 3) control conditions. The result showed that effect of focus of attention was significant neither for accuracy nor for QED. Therefore, in order to be aware of the optimal focus of children, more research is needed in various motor tasks.

Farhad Ghadiri, Moslem Bahmani, Abbas Bahram,
Volume 100, Issue 100 (10-2020)

One of the recent research challenges in the field of attentional focus instructions, are the study of its effects on the performance of elite athletes in continuous tasks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different attentional focus instructions on performance of agility in elite futsal players. Participants included 12 elite futsal players (mean age 23.91±1.56) that were selected from the first league of Division Qom via convenience sampling method. Participants were asked to perform the agility L run test under three attentional focus  instructions (the internal, external and control) in three trials. Rrepeated measure Analysis of Variance and paired t test were used for analysis of data. The results showed a significant effects of the type of attentional focus  instructions on  test execution time. Analyses showed that performance in the external focus of attention was higher than the internal focus conditions. Also, the result demonstrated that there is no significant difference between internal focus of attention and control conditions, and also between external focus of attention and control condition. The results of this study provide evidence that in skilled athletes, executing the continuous tasks improve through verbal instructions that conduct focus of attention externally.

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