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Showing 5 results for Spectators

Hossein Alimohammadi, Fereydoon Tondnevis, Farideh Hadavi,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)

The purpose of this study was comparison of factors that affecting on spectators of football, basketball, and volleyball professional leagues. The statistical sample of this study was 500 spectators from each league that randomly selected from attendant spectators in stadiums. For statistical analysis of data used descriptive and inferential statistics methods includes Pearson correlation coefficient for determining consistency coefficient and criterion validity of questionnaire, Cronbaches'  alpha, explorative and confirmatory factor analysis, Levin, one way Anova, welch, LSD and Tamhane`s tests by SPSS and Amos soft wares. Result showed 8 factors that affecting on spectators attendance and these factors indicated. 75% of variance. These factors were facility, information- attractiveness, performance- antiquity, timing- informing, interaction- escape and excitement. Internal consistency of final edition research questionnaire was .89. Result of hypotheses showed that all of 3 football, basketball and volleyball spectators groups have significant differences in mentioned factors except facility and timing- informing factors. Result of this research displayed that mean of factors affecting football basketball and volleyball spectators` attendance are different among them and also in priority of them. 
Mr Moosa Alizadeh, Dr Mehrdad Moharram Zadeh, Dr Alireza Elahi,
Volume 9, Issue 17 (9-2019)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of perceived value on loyalty and purchase behavior of Spectators. This study was a correlation research and in from field study. The study population consists of all spectators Tractor Club. Data was collected by 3 questionnaires. This questionnaires consist perceived value(sweeny,2008), loyalty(Mahoony,2000) and purchase behavior(2008) that after review of face and content validity by the sport marketing experts, questionnaires was applied in a pilot study and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha test (0.82, 0.88 & 0.74) was approved. In addition, construct validity (factor analysis) of the measurement tool was confirmed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Model (SEM). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (Frequency, Mean and Standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation test, K-S, leven, simple linear regression, structural equation modeling). The results showed that among the perceived value, loyalty and purchase behavior, positive significant relationship exists. Generally about 35% of the variance of Loyalty and about 31% of the variance of the components of the consumption behavior could be determined by Perceived Value. Therefore, the club managers simply due to this factor can cause the greater satisfaction of spectators in the stadium and the resulting profit achieved for the club.
Abdolreza Oboudi, Dr Hossein Akbari Yazdi, Solieman Abdolahi,
Volume 10, Issue 20 (11-2020)

In football industry, the sports managers should include meeting of demands and needs of spectators on their agenda. However, this study aimed to determine the needs of spectators in Iranian Football Premier League. For this purpose, Kansei engineering method, Kano model, and Taguchi method were used to collect data. First, the emotional needs (41 needs) of spectators were identified. Using Kano model, then, these emotional needs were included in a four-level questionnaire which was designed for spectators of Iranian Football Premier League; it was distributed among 400 individuals. In order to achieve optimal situation, 7 basic needs were considered in designing the experiments. These 7 needs were analyzed in a three-tier spectrum. The findings showed that Iran's sports authorities, especially the Football Federation, may improve the satisfaction and attendance of spectators in stadiums if they improve the physical and security conditions of football stadiums and remove the existing obstacles including presence of women and presence with family in stadiums. The football clubs may also help achieve this goal by employing qualified and popular players and coaches. 

Hossein Kurdlo, Dr Alireza Elahi, Dr Abass Khodayari,
Volume 10, Issue 20 (11-2020)

The purpose of this research is to predict the individual's attitude through their beliefs about advertising by using sports. This research is practical and is of the correlation method which was carried out as a field study. The statistical population was the spectators present at Azadi Stadium and according to the content of Cochran sample, 342 of the spectators were randomly chosen and filled in the questionnaire of advertising through sport called pyun (2006). The result of the regression analysis revealed that all the components of belief including the product information, social role and image, pleasure, annoying, good for economy, materialism and falsity had the capability of predicting the individual's attitude toward advertising through sport. The component good for economy had the most effect and materialism had the least effect on the individual's attitude toward advertising through sports. According these results, it is we essential pay attention to the quality and price of the predicts. On the other hand, we should use the advertising which are according to the culture of each in order to be more effective and attract the individual's attitude toward advertising through sports.

Dr Maryam Taherikia, Dr Alireza Elahi, Dr Hossein Akbari Yazdi,
Volume 12, Issue 23 (9-2022)

In recent decades, sports organizations have paid special attention to the importance of considering the purchase behavior of customers. Meanwhile, the variables that can have an impact on customers' purchase behavior have been considered. This study aimed to determine the causal relationship between relationship marketing and purchase behavior of spectators using structural equation modeling. For this purpose, two questionnaires including Kim’s relationship marketing and purchase behavior questionnaires (2008) were used. After confirming their validity and reliability, these questionnaires were distributed among the sample. Sample was consisted of 430 spectators who participated in Foolade_Shahr Stadium to watch the Sepahan’ games using Morgan table. The research method was statistical -correlational and it was based on the structural equation model. The results of path analysis showed that relationship marketing has an impact on purchase behavior of spectators (β= 0.043, p≤0.05). Considering the findings of this study, approaches can be provided to determine the strategy of relationship marketing and evaluate the impact of this strategy on purchase behavior of spectators- as the main customers of football clubs.

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