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Showing 120 results for Sport

Mehraban Parsamehr, Somayyeh Jesmani,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2011)
Abstract

The
purpose of this study was to consider the impact of social capital among youth
sport consumption (spectating). This study used survey & cross-sectional
method. The data gathered from 385 youths whom selected via stratified sampling
and then random sampling from 20 to 30 years old youth in 3 zone of Yazd city.
The collection instrument of data was social capital questionnaire designed.
Cronbach Alpha test r=0.77 questionnaire has been calculated. The correlation
result showed significant relation between social capital and sport consumption
(r=0.229 p<0.01). Also significant difference between response with
different level social capital and sport consumption way various media radio
(p<0.05) and newspaper and magazine (p<0.05). The hierarchical multiple
regression analysis results showed two studied variables, sex and income, in
the first place and social participation and social interaction in the second
place explained 11.9 and 6.6 percent of variable variance of youth sport
consumption.

Hossein Poursoltani Zarandi, Raheleh Vaghefi, Hossein Zareiyan, Seyyedeh Tahereh Moosavi Raad,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2011)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate Creative Leadership Styles Chiefs Sport Committees in Qom Province with Caution to their Leadership styles (Transformational, Transactional and People oriented). Between 35 sport committees, 33 assistant managers and committee managers sport committees (n=63) completed the two questionnaire of individual characteristics and Creative leadership questionnaire (CLQ). CLQ is included of 20 questions which 3 leadership style, including transformational, transactional and People oriented. Internal validity of questionnaire was determined by using Alpha Cronbach's test of =&alpha) 0/97). In order to analyze the data the following statistical methods in a significant level of (P&le0.05) were used: Kolmogorov- Smirnoff, mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis.
The result of this study indicated that: there is a significant difference between creative leadership styles of transformational, transactional and people oriented with gender of Chiefs Sport Committees (Z=-0.51, p&le0/05). Also there is a significant difference between creative leadership styles of transformational with gender (Z= -0.48, P&le0.05), creative leadership styles of transactional with gender (Z= -0.64, P&le0.05) and creative leadership styles of people oriented with gender (Z = -0.41, P&le0.05), separately. An otherwise the result also indicated that there is a significant difference between the creative leadership styles with post of Chiefs Sport Committees (Z=-0.60, p&le0/05). Also there is a significant difference between creative leadership styles of transformational with post (Z = -0.44, P&le0.05), creative leadership styles of people oriented with post (Z= -0.60, P&le0.05), separately. But there isn’t significant difference between creative leadership styles of transactional with post (Z= -0.78, P&ge0.05). Another wise significant difference between the creative leadership styles with position staffing (X2=9.41, p&le0/05) and significant difference between the creative leadership styles with activity presidency (X2=13.25, p&le0/01). 
Reza Mohammad Kazemi, Yavar Omidi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2011)
Abstract

Innovation, creativity and change are the key elements and unavoidable factors in sport. The importance of this issue encourages us to study sport from the point of view of entrepreneurship. During the recent years, spreading the sport management and development of entrepreneurship have created a new frame work in sport in a way that a new approach has been appeared regarding sport management and entrepreneurship. For this reason this article aims to study the relationship between entrepreneurship and sport in order to spread and develop the theory of entrepreneurship in sport management.
Through studying the information gained in economics and sports marketing, we have been given the opportunity to identify the Innovations, proactiveness and risk taking in sport from which the dimensions of entrepreneurship has been out broke in this domain. Moreover, the current article implicitly points out the study related gap between entrepreneurship and sport management by introducing the different kinds of entrepreneurship existing in sport and sport management domains. Finally, suggestions are discussed for future studies.
Sardar Mohammadi, Batool Moshref Jevadi, Seyyed Amir Ahmad Mozaffari,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (8-2012)
Abstract

In this study the Relationship between attitude, organizational structure and organizational climate and information technology diffusion among selected sport organizations in IRAN wasinvestigated. Total 176 administrators and 194 experts using random sampling were selected. Questionnaires as the measuring attitude, researcher-designed organizational structure, organizational climate, information technology diffusion instrument were used. To determine the face and content validity (panel of experts), construct validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and reliability (alpha Cranach) were used. Descriptive and statically statistics (correlation test and multiple regressions organizational climate) were used. Results showed significant positive relationship between attitude, organizational structure, organizational climate and components from the viewpoints of managers and experts in Physical Education, Sports Federations and Physical Education of ministry of education information technology. We can say that in current circumstances, having logical approach to issues, problems, defects and barriers in information technology to achieve the release of information is advisable.
Malek Ahmadi, Mehdi Namazi Zadeh, Pooneh Mokhtari,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (8-2012)
Abstract

This study examines the relationship pattern of the motivational climate,satisfaction of the psychological needs and self-determined motivation in youth male athletes based on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000). A sample of 255 athletes ranging from 12-14 years of age from varity of team sports completed the Motivational climate in youth sport, behavioral regulations toward sport, and the basic needs in sport scale. Pearson correlation, Confirmed factor analysis, Structural Equation Modeling analyses were used to examine the research hypotheses. The results revealed mastery oriented climate have a direct, positive influence on relatedness, competence, and autonomy.Competence and relatedness influenced self-determination, positively. Relatedness, competence, and autonomy had mediatory role in affecting mastery climate on self-determination. The results indicated that mastery motivational climate is an important motivational variable in youth male athletes which can influence self-determination by affectingpsychological needs.
Zeynab Mondalizadeh, Habib Honari, Javad Shahlaee,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (8-2012)
Abstract

The purpose of this study is survey of existing and desirable status in Iran’s entrepreneurial in sport from the view point of sport experts. This study is descriptive­_ analytic one and was conducted as a survey and statistical sample consisted of 64 subjects including: physical education organization top managers and sport management professors. Data collected by interviews and research designed questionnaire. Its reliability (&alpha=.96) is obtained after its validity confirmation (by professors).  Information was collected by Kolmogorov- smirnov, Chi square, Friedman and dependent T tests. Research findings showed that there is a significant difference between existing and desirable statues entrepreneurship strengths in sport (t=11.469, p&le.001), weaknesses (t=-11.554, p&le.001), opportunities (t=-14.073, p&le.001) and threats (t=-11.231, p&le.001).SWOT analysis showed that entrepreneurial place in sport of Iran was placed in peaceful position. In conclusion, it can be said that WT strategies should be applied with attention to the existing status of entrepreneurship in the field of entrepreneurship in sport.
Shirin Zardoshtian, Behesht Ahmadi, Azadeh Azadi,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (8-2012)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine therelationship perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches onself-determined motivation and sport commitment of elitefemale players inHandball league. The research desing was a descriptive-correlational.For this pourpose statistical society of this research incloud 237 female players were selected equal to sample society. Perceived autonomy- supportive behaviors of coaches, self-determined motivation and sport commitment were assessed using the perceived autonomy support scale for exercise settings(PASSES), Sport Motivation Scale (SMS( and Sport Commitment Model Scale) scms) respectively. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires was measured and modified.Data were analyzed using multiple regression and Structural Equation Models (SEM) in significance level of P<0/05. The finding showed autonomy-supportive behaviors had significant positive correlation with intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation and indentified regulation. However, autonomy-supportive negative correlation amotivation.In addition, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation and indentified regulation had significant positive correlation with sport commitment players.Multiple regression showed autonomy-supportive coaches was predictor factor for the intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and sport commitment players.path analysis results offered support for the proposed model. Total mediation was supported in the case of intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation and indentified regulation in the relationship between autonomy-supportive coaches and sport commitment players. The findings underline the importance of perceived autonomy-supportive coaches in motivation and sport commitment players. The results provide support Self-determination Theory in elite players
Mehraban Parsamehr,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

Purpose:The purpose of this study was to examine the motives of sport commitment model of continuous participation in the martial art of taekwondo.Method: This study used survey & cross-sectional method. The data is gathered from 135 participants at taekwondo sport city of Yazd.The collection instrument of data was sporting commitment measure revised. Results: Results from the empirical test of the model conducted with taekwondo athletes participating in a sport program showed that the questionnaire items formed reliable scales upper than 0.75. Pearson correlation test demonstrated that predictor variables sport enjoyment, personal investments, social consteriants and involvement opportunities were related to sport commitment of taekwondo as hypothesized. The stepwise regression analysis findings revealed that sport enjoyment in the first place and personal investments in the second place were the dominant predictors of commitment for this sample. Together, these two model components accounted for 56/8 of the sport commitment variance. Conclusion: The results obtained the recognition of sport's commitment scale performance incentives associated with participation in regular exercise has been shown taekwondo.
Ali Heidary, Naser Dolatshah,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to briefly discuss origins of the Iranian sport clubs and ancient sports. Apparently, ancient sports, from the very beginning, have been dramatically under the influence of social, religious, and ethical factors. For instance, such sports are influenced by the principles of Mithraism and Zoroastrianism be for the emergence of Islam. There are also some manifestation of Islamic social  behaviors such as Sufism, theologism , Islamic genensity , and Shiite principles in ancients sports. Such manifestation are physically evident in the sportment’s dressing  styles the place of exercise, and speech. They are also evident in their daily performances such as getting up early and keeping chastity.
Alireza Omidi, Fereydoon Tondnevis, Seyyed Amir Ahmad Mozafari,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to survey the relationship between organizational culture with knowledge management effectiveness and organizational effectiveness among selected sport organizations of Iran. For this purpose, 169 administrators and 209 experts have been selected using random sampling. The study scales consisted of Denison’s Organizational Culture Questionnaire (2007), Gold’s Knowledge Management Effectiveness Questionnaire (2001) and Chin’s Organizational Effectiveness Questionnaire (2004). To determine the face and content validity were used from panel of experts, construct validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and reliability (alpha cronbach. Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine causal relationships and present of model. Results showed that organizational culture has a significant positive direct effective on KM effectiveness (P= 0/66). KM effectiveness has a significant positive direct effective on organizational effectiveness (P= 0/41) and organizational culture has a significant positive direct effective on organizational effectiveness (P=0/55) and finally organizational culture has a significant indirect effect on organizational effectiveness (P=0/31).
Hossein Eydi, Rahim Ramzaninezhad, Bahram Yousefi, Seyyed Nasrollah Sajjadi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

It is widely recognized that the performance measurement of organizations should help them in their strategic decisions and in their capacity to evaluate their successes. This study uses the Competing Value Framework )CVF) for measurement the organizational effectiveness of four federations of basketball, handball, taekwondow and Weight lifting. Those federations were selected according to a goal oriented and non casual method that all of sport federation stakeholders (professional employee, president, and vice-president, secretary, coaches, national athletes and referees) selected as a sample (N=236) and 167 people participated in research (70 0/0). Self-management OE questionnaire in sport conducted according to survey of literature and using exploratory factor analysis in study showed the 62 questions that evaluate four quadrant and eight sub factors of human relations model (Flexibility, Resources) Internal process model (organizational interaction, Stability) open systems model(worked force cohesion, worked force expert) and rational-goal model (Planning, Productivity), according the CVF.  Result showed that between four quadrants of effectiveness in sport federations, rational goal model (Planning, Productivity) has a most important quadrant. Descriptive result of eight factor of effectiveness in CVF showed that factors of flexibility, planning, organizational interaction and human resource cohesion basketball, in factor of resource, productivity and human resource expert the tekvandow and in a stability factor Weight lifting has a good state in comparison of other federations.
Alireza Elahi, Seyyed Mehdi Rasooli, Vahid Saatchian,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

Nowadays the subject of competitive balance in sport events is getting huge attention in world economic science. CB in sport means what team will win in a competition. In this research the status of CB in Iran’s football pro league is studied. It’s obvious that if Football league in terms of economic is supposed to be dynamic and alive in economic area, they must follow a suitable of CB. Data gathering from Iran’s football league organization for 1380-1388 and using economic indices include, (C5ICB) and (HICB), CB was estimated. Results showed that CB has been passing through an improvement road. Indices decline shows unpredictability of matches results. Also Iran’s football league had the worst CB in 1383 and the best one in 1386. According to results it’s recommended that there should be suitable alternatives for retaining CB status in football league like setting special regulation for player's transportation so football industry could take advantage from revenue making and attracting sponsors.
Najaf Aghaei, Nafiseh Fatahian,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was the comparative study of barriers of sport participation among athletes and non-athletes’ female teachers in Hamadan, using Crawford hierarchical barriers. This was a cross-sectional study design including all female teachers in Hamadan (N =923). The sample was determined using Morgan’s Table (n=230) people were selected using stratified sampling (108 athletes and 122 non-athletes) .Data collection measure was a 40 – item questionnaire with five response options (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability= 0.86). The barriers to sport participation were measured in the three following areas: constraints model (intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural) and six subscales:  1) socio-cultural, 2) financial economics,3) human resources specialist, 4) attitudes of family, 5) equipment and facilities, and 6) advertising and the media were investigated. Dependent variable was the lack of participation in sport activities. Each of the six factors was considered as independent variables. SPSS software was used to run the analysis. To analyze the data one –sample T-test andFriedman test were used.  Results indicated that lack of athletic participation of female teachers was related to economic, social and cultural factors as well as to the attitude of the family. Barriers of sport participation in three domains among athletes and non athletes female teachers were same and respectively 1-structural 2-inter personal 3-intra personal. It seems that it is not possible to extend the Crawford pyramid model to all those people and different conditions in which they live. This prioritization will be different due to the social, economic and cultural societies. Consider to the results of this study, we indicated that in Iran the structural and infrastructural barriers in sport community is necessary and removing the structural barriers in the promotion of sport culture and public health can be a useful step in participation in leisure and recreational activities. 
Hamid Reza Maghsoudi Eiman, Farideh Hadavi,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was comparing the current status of intramural program Iranian universities with ten years ago. In this study, the status of Intramural Program of Iranian Universities in three fields (educational, recreational, championship sport) regarding the number of implemented programs and participants in intramural program and active sports were compared. For investigation of status of intramural program in Iranian universities a researche-made questionnaire with acceptable face validity and (0.81 Cronbach alpha coefficients) reliability, was used. The statistical population included all Iranian universities and the statistical sample included 49 of total 60 universities covered by Ministry of Science, Research and Technology which was randomly selected. The research design was comparative. The result of present study comparison with those in ten years ago (Tondnevis, 1998). Inference statistical methods (Wilcoxon test for variable middle comparison) in level of (p&le 0/05) was used as statistical method. The Findings indicated that there was not significant difference (p>0/05) between number of educational programs and recreational program in the last ten years, while significant difference (p&le0/05) was found in the number of teams participating in championship sport, Also there was not significant difference (p>0/05) between number of participants in educational programs, but the difference between number of participants in recreational programs was significant(p&le0/05). The result revealed significant difference between numbers of active sports in universities intramural.  In conclusion the status of intramural sport program  in Iranian universities has been improved regarding ten year ago.
Homayoon Abbasi, Seyed Nasrollah Sajjadi, Anooshiravan Kazemnejad,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)
Abstract

Today, the organizational culture variable is the main focus of analysis in many organizational studies. In the last years, this construct, has found special status in the field of sport management researches. This study aims to validate and investigate the psychometric properties of organizational culture assessment instrument (OCAI) based on the competing values framework model (CVF) in Iranian sport organizations (federations). The methodology of the present research is based on a correlation study (A factor analysis type of covariant matrix or correlation through principle components analysis method). The statistical population includes 52 sport federations (703 sport experts). In confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) method, the number of samples was determined according to the number of variables and 253 subjects (83.77%) were selected in a stratified random sampling method as final samples. The data were collected through OCAI and the construct validity, also, analyzed using LISREL 8.70 software and a CFA method.  The results obtained showed that OCAI questionnaire was a multi-dimensional construct and the four OCAI factors were confirmed to be as cultural profiles: Clan (6 items), Adhocracy (6 items), Market (6 items) and Hierarchy (6 items). The other result, confirmed the OCAI reliability suitability by computing internal consistency through cronbach &alpha test (r=0/86). Considering the confirmation of psychometric properties of OCAI and cultural profiles in factor analysis, organizational culture assessment instrument (OCAI) based on the competing values framework model (CVF) seems to be an appropriate instrument and theoretical framework for assessing the organizational culture in Iranian sports organizations (federations). Therefore, it is suggested that sport management researchers attempt to assess the organizational culture by using OCAI questionnaire in Iranian sport organizations.
Hossein Alimohammadi, Fereydoon Tondnevis, Farideh Hadavi,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was comparison of factors that affecting on spectators of football, basketball, and volleyball professional leagues. The statistical sample of this study was 500 spectators from each league that randomly selected from attendant spectators in stadiums. For statistical analysis of data used descriptive and inferential statistics methods includes Pearson correlation coefficient for determining consistency coefficient and criterion validity of questionnaire, Cronbaches'  alpha, explorative and confirmatory factor analysis, Levin, one way Anova, welch, LSD and Tamhane`s tests by SPSS and Amos soft wares. Result showed 8 factors that affecting on spectators attendance and these factors indicated. 75% of variance. These factors were facility, information- attractiveness, performance- antiquity, timing- informing, interaction- escape and excitement. Internal consistency of final edition research questionnaire was .89. Result of hypotheses showed that all of 3 football, basketball and volleyball spectators groups have significant differences in mentioned factors except facility and timing- informing factors. Result of this research displayed that mean of factors affecting football basketball and volleyball spectators` attendance are different among them and also in priority of them. 
Bahram Javanmardi, Hadi Bagheri,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)
Abstract

The aim of this study was a comparison between indoor sport facilities and equipments general administration of physical education and education ministry of Hamedan province with standards in term of safety and hygiene. Statistical population of this study includes the indoor sport facilities of hamedan province’s general administration of physical education (N=130) and education ministry (N=51) except pools. The sample was equal with the population. Data collection is done with the field method and it is used of safety and hygiene evaluation checklists that were made by Farzam (1388). For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, including single sample t-test and independent t-test, were used. The results showed that indoor sport facilities and equipments of both Hamedan’s general administration of physical education and education ministry, in comparison with the standards, were in a low level that this difference was significance (&alpha=0/05). Also, in comparison of indoor sport facilities and buildings' safety and hygiene condition between two studying organizations, there was significant differentiation in terms of fences, building, light and sound, air conditioner, toilet seats, and dressing rooms and showers condition, also, general administration of physical education was better than education ministry. In comparison of safety and hygiene of equipments and activity zones of sport indoor facilities (football, handball, basketball and badminton), there was significant difference between two organizations so that education ministry was better than general administration of physical education (&alpha=0/05).
Vahid Saatchian, Hamid Reza Safari, Seyed Mehdi Rasooli, Eisa Eskandari, Alireza Elahi,
Volume 3, Issue 5 (4-2013)
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of service quality, customer satisfaction and attitudinal loyalty on future intention of participations in fitness and aerobic centers of Rasht Township. The design of this study was correlational. The population of study includes all costumers of aerobic and fitness centers in Rasht that have one year attendance in this clubs. So, According to Morgan sampling tables and populations of the customers in this clubs that were 150 people, 108 samples elected randomly. To gather data, standard questionnaire of service quality (QSS) Alexandris (1999), customer loyalty (AIS) Alen (1990), customer satisfaction (OCS) Victor (2002) and behavioral future intention (BFIS) Bery (1996) was used(8). Results indicated that there was a positive and significant relation between service qualities with loyalty (r=0/395), satisfaction and behavioral future intention(r=0/486, P&le0/.5). Also there was positive and significant relation between loyalty with satisfaction(r=0/286) and behavioral future intention(r=0/524) and finally customer satisfaction had positive and significant relation with behavioral future intention(r=0/505, P&le0/.5). Regression test showed that only customer satisfaction (t=4/745) and loyalty (t=3/185) can predict behavioral future intention and service quality was mediator variable (P&le0/.5). According to the results, it should be considered that fitness and aerobic club managers should play an important role in customer satisfaction by providing more tangible services to attracting loyal customers.
Karim Beglar, Mohammad Hossein Alizadeh, Mohammad Khabiri, Farshid Tahmasebi, Benyamin Ghelichpoor Dashliboroon,
Volume 3, Issue 6 (12-2013)
Abstract

Introduction: Injury is common incident in most of the sports and games. There are many reasons for the factors incident of injuries, the psychological aspect can be considered as one of them. Method: The aim of present study was to examine the relationship between psychological skills and severity of injuries in football players of Tehran premier league. 108 players of Iran premier league participated in the study. Research data was collected by injury report form and Ottawa mental skills assessment tool-3. Pearson correlation test at significant level of 95% were used for analyzing the data. Results: 90.7 % of them resulted in 1-3 days missing of match or training and there is inverse and significant relationship between psychological skills and its subdivisions (P=0/0001) and severity of sport injuries in football players. Conclusion: The findings of present study show that having high levels of psychological skills helps premier league players to handle stressful situations in sports through enhancing self-confidence and other psychological factors confronting harmful psychological factors such as stress and anxiety and lead to decrease in injury severity. 
Shahzad Tahmasebi Boroujeni, Mehdi Shahbazi, Keivan Salehi,
Volume 3, Issue 6 (12-2013)
Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire (PMCSQ-2) for Newton and colleagues [2000[. For this purpose, random participants from 553 athletes 13 to 23 years were selected to complete the questionnaire. After applying the translate-retranslate technique, content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) confirmed by 10 Panels (CVR=0.66, CVI=0.97.For determining the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on structural equations was used, internal consistency of questionnaire was achieved by Cranach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient under test-retest method to study reliability of questionnaire. Results showed that the first model of PMCSQ-2(33 question (, wasn’t able to support the favorable fit and thus eliminated 6 problematic questions. Thereby the final model with 27 questions was included task-oriented climate (TOC) (effort/improvement, important role and cooperative learning) and ego-oriented climate (EOC) (unequal recognition and punishment of mistakes). Hereby, the Persian PMCSQ-2 (PPMCSQ-2) had acceptable fit index (RMSEA= 0.054, CFI= 0.9). Also, Internal consistency was acceptable (TOC=0.827, EOC=0.726 and PPMCSQ-2=0.618) and reliability of PPMCSQ-2(r=0.73) was affirmed. Therefore, PPMCSQ-2 can be used as a valid and reliable instrument to assess motivational climate in the Iranian athletes with the age range of 13 to 23 years.

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