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Ghavidel Y, Farajzadeh M, Ghahramani B. The application of Extreme value analysis method in heat wave hazard climatology; case study in Mid-Southern Iran. Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards 2019; 6 (2) :1-17
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2609-en.html
1- Tarbiat Modares University , ghavidel@modares.ac.ir
2- Tarbiat Modares University
Abstract:   (4488 Views)

The application of Extreme value analysis method in heat wave hazard climatology; case study in Mid-Southern Iran
Abstract
Greenhouse warming poses the main cause of atmospheric hazards’ exacerbation and emergence in recent years. Earth planet has been witnessing frequent and severe natural hazards from the distant past; however, global warming has strongly influenced the occurrence of some atmospheric hazards, especially the ones induced by temperature and has increased the frequency and severity of those risks. Such extreme risks arising from temperature element and being affected by global warming could be referred to hot days and their frequency more than one day which undergo heat waves. Of the studies conducted worldwide in conjunction with the phenomenon of heat waves, the following can be pointed out; Schär (2015) has focused his studies on the Persian Gulf and the worst heat waves expected in this area. The recent work revealed an upper limit of stability which enables the adaptability of human body with heat stress and humidity. If people are exposed to a combination of temperature and humidity over long periods higher than this level, they will lead to hyperthermia and death, because heat dissipation from the body is physically impossible. Paul and al-Tahrir (2015) using a high-resolution regional climate model demonstrated that such a situation can occur much earlier. In Iran, in relation to heat waves, Ghavidel (2013) analyzed climatic risk of Khuzestan province in 2000 regarding super heat waves using the clustering approach. The obtained results unveiled the establishment of a low pressure at ground level and high pressure dominance at mid-altitudes up to 500 hp as well as the increase in atmosphere thickness having led to the ground overheating. Added to that, the source of heat entering into Khuzestan is advective and hot and dry air transport through Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and Africa. Ghavidel and Rezai (2014) addressed in a study to determine the temperature-related threshold and analyze the synoptic patterns of super heat temperatures in southeast region of Iran; the results of study approved that the only pattern effective on the occurrence of super heat days in Iran’s southeast is the establishment of the Grange’s heat low-pressure at ground level and subtropical Azores high elevation dominance at 500 hPa level. In this study, absolute statistical indicators, also recognized as above-threshold values approach, were used in order to identify, classify and heat waves synoptic analysis in the warm period of the year in the southern half of Iran. To use above-mentioned indicators, firstly daily maximum temperature statistics of studied stations with the highest periods were averaged every day once in June to September and once for the months of July and September. Using statistical indicators of long-term mean and standard deviation or base period, indicators would be defined for the classification of heat waves and days with peak extreme temperatures. In such classifications, usually long-term average or base period is multiplied by 1 to 3 to 4 times standard deviation and each time is account for the factor of each class.
To select the days for synoptic analysis, averaging was performed of all classified waves into four heat wave categories of low, intermediate, strong and super heat; accordingly based on the maximum blocks in each class of heat waves, days that had the highest temperature values were selected as the class representative for mapping and synoptic analysis.
This study dealt with investigating heat waves synoptic during the year’s warm period in the southern half of Iran. Studies showed that a variety of synoptic systems in the year’s warm period affect the study area. As well as, synoptic analyses concluded that in the southern half of Iran over the year’s warm period when occurring heat waves, low-pressure status dominates the ground level (caused by Gang’s low-pressure and local radiant mode); thus high-pressure status with closed curves is prevailing in atmosphere’s upper levels that gives rise to the divergence, air fall and Earth's surface heating. Studying the status of the atmosphere thickness in the days with the heat wave in the study area indicates its high altitude and thickness that this itself implies the existence of very hot air and susceptibility of the conditions for the occurrence of heat waves. In addition, wind maps at atmosphere’s different levels well illustrate the wind of very warm and hot air masses from the surrounding areas to the southern part of Iran; therefore it can be noted that aforementioned hot air masses mainly wind from places like different regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, North Africa and the low latitudes to the study area.
 
Keywords: Synoptic analysis, heat waves, maximum blocks, southern half of Iran.
 
 
 

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/01/24 | Accepted: 2019/03/18 | Published: 2019/09/22

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