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Ghanavati E, Saffari A, Haghshenas A. Morphometric indices of Asalouyeh, Varavi and Kangan anticlines in the Fars Zagros and their relationship with tectonic activity. Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards 2021; 8 (3) :73-92
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3057-en.html
1- , haghshenasali@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (5043 Views)

 Investigation of morphometric indices of Assaluyeh, Varavi and Kangan anticlines in Fars Zagros and their relationship with tectonic activity
 
Extended Abstract
Introduction
Anticlines are the most prominent surface landforms whose geometry and morphology reflect mechanism of their formation and are keys to assessing the existence of deep faults that are effective in their formation and are among the most important seismic sources.
Detachment folds are formed by buckling of the rock units in response to shortening and are typically symmetric folds. Alternatively, asymmetric folds at the surface may be forced by the propagation of thrust faults at depth (fault propagation folds) or result from thrust movements along footwall ramps in the sedimentary pile (fault-ramp folds).The Zagros folds have often been interpreted as completely detached along the Hormuz salt.
Structurally, the study area is a part of the folded and coastal Zagros whose geological structure is simple and gentle and comprises a series of near-compact anticlines with a near-vertical axial surface and a northwest-southeast trend.
Outcrops of lithological formations in the study area include Surmeh, Fahliyan, Gadvan, Dariyan, Kazhdumi, Sarvak, Ilam, Gurpi, Pabdeh, Gachsaran, Mishan, Aghajari and Bakhtiari. In the northwestern part of the Kangan anticline, uplift of salt diapir along the Darang Fault has led to the exposure of limestone, shale, dolomite and anhydrite units of the Khami Group.
Assaluyeh is one of the most important economic bases in Iran and also one of the largest energy production areas in the world. With the rapid development of Assaluyeh region and increase of residential, urban and industrial constructions and refinery facilities, without attention to environmental hazards and especially earthquakes, it seems necessary to conduct this research.
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphometric characteristics of the Assaluyeh, Veravi and Kangan anticlines and its relationship with active tectonics in the region.
Methodology
At first, topographic, drainage network, slope, slope direction and tectonic maps of the anticlines were prepared using digital elevation model data, Landsat imagery and field surveys. Then, the geomorphic quantitative indices of the fold front sinuosity, aspect ratio, fold symmetry index, fold surface symmetry index, anticline crestline index, fold elevation index and spacing ratio were calculated. Qualitative studies were carried out on drainage pattern indices, triangular facets, wineglass valleys, linear valleys, fault scarps, springs, alluvial fans, etc. Finally, the relationship between all geomorphic and tectonic parameters was analyzed.
Results and discussion
Fold symmetry index is one of the most important parameters that show the degree of inequality of the two limbs of the anticline and thus the intensity of tectonic activity. In a completely symmetric anticline, the value of this index is 1, while in an asymmetric anticline the value of this index is less than 1. The index values for all three anticlines are less than one, but the Asalouyeh anticline shows more asymmetry, indicating a high tectonic activity on the anticline.
The fold front sinuosity index indicates the degree of tectonic activity or age of the folding system. The values obtained for this index in the three anticlines indicate that the anticlines are young and the tectonic forces are dominating the erosion.
The high value of the aspect ratios indicates the elliptical shape of the anticline, which is caused by the high stress perpendicular to the axis of the anticline. The index for Varai, Kangan, and Asalouyeh Anticlines are 0.7, 0.5 and 0.5, respectively, which again indicates nearly high tectonic activity in all three anticlines.
The spacing ratio index at the northern flank of Varavi and Assalouyeh anticlines and the southern flank of  Kagan anticline indicate a high value. Quantitative index of surface symmetry of folds also shows that all three anticlines are asymmetric and the asymmetry of Asalouyeh anticline is greater than Kangan and Varavi anticlines.
The drainage pattern is another indicator that, in the absence of tectonic evidence, can be a key to identifying tectonic activity.
The existence of asymmetric fork drainage networks is evidence of active tectonic evidence indicating lateral growth of anticlines. According to this criterion, Varavi anticline has grown to the northwest.
Comparison of the valleys shows that most of the valleys in Kagan anticline are of wineglass type whereas in Asalouyeh and Kangan anticlines linear valleys are more abundant. Some of these valleys are formed along transverse faults. The presence of numerous alluvial fans in the slopes of the Varavi anticline, indicates rapid erosion of the valley bed due to the rapid uplift and increasing valley slope. The presence of elongated and narrow V-shaped valleys is another evidence of the high tectonic activity of this anticline.
Conclusion
In seismicity studies and identification of hidden or blind fault studies, geophysical and geotechnical methods are expensive, time-consuming and require special equipment and are performed on a small scale. With the availability of landforms and features, risk assessment will be done at a lower cost, faster, and on a larger scale, if a relationship between landscapes and earthquakes can be established.
The geometry of the folds reflects the mechanism of their formation. Asymmetrical folds are associated with deep faulting and a detachment horizon, where the movement of sedimentary layers on the detachment horizon or at the tip of the hidden faults can cause an earthquake. The three anticlines of Assaluyeh, Varavi and Kangan are also part of the folded Zagros and have the characteristics of the folded Zagros.
In this study we defined a new index related to fold morphology, called fold surface symmetry index. Also we used fold morphology to detect the presence of detachment horizons and faults in the core of anticlines and their relationship to seismic hazard risk.
The results of this study show the transverse profile asymmetry of all three anticlines due to the association of these anticlines with the longitudinal faults in the anticline core and along their axes. The results of measurements of aspect ratios, fold front sinusitis, anticline ridge, and study of drainage patterns and tectonic landforms such as fault scarps, triangular facets, linear valleys also confirm the high tectonic activity of all three anticlines and the potential for earthquake hazard due to the movement of deep faults or any segments of them.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2019/09/3 | Accepted: 2020/08/20 | Published: 2022/01/8

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