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Najafi E, Irani Heris S, Jafari F. Investigating and analyzing the effects of environmental hazards on the dimensions of sustainable development with a good governance approach (Case study: Mazandaran province). Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards 2021; 7 (4) :147-164
URL: http://jsaeh.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3130-en.html
1- Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
2- Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Young and Elite Researchers Club, Tehran, Iran , Sayad.irani@srbiau.ac.ir
3- Kharazmi University
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Abstract
Since the early 1990s, the idea of ​​sustainable urban development has been a fundamental and very important issue for decision makers and thinkers. Because it encompasses the historical concept of development and at the same time has become very important in determining the current international, national and regional policies (Pugh, 2004). In recent years, governance has become a hot topic in public sector management, and this is due to the important role that governance plays in determining public health. Therefore, according to environmental resources, good governance means the way in which decision makers promote sustainable development, which includes the protection of the living environment (Shuakrizadeh and Ashrafi, 2011). Governance is the institutional capacity of public organizations to provide goods demanded by the public and to help the citizens of the country or their representatives efficiently, transparently, fairly, and with accountability to limited resources. This definition of governance represents an international organization and development institution such as the World Bank that seeks to support reforms through good governance programs aimed at strengthening the strategic capacity of donor governments while intending to engage civil society. Strengthen sovereignty. (Krueger,2007).
Environmental hazards and ecological crises are the result of the interaction of environmental, economic, cultural, health and even political variables. The scope of these variables is local-spherical, so that no place in the earth is far from its consequences, with the difference that the scope and depth of the crisis is severe and weak (Kaviani rad, 2010). Investigating the effects of environmental hazards in relation to sustainable development with a good governance approach is very important and very important in terms of nature, so the present study with descriptive-analytical approach and based on library and field studies to study the effects of environmental hazards on sustainable indicators of Mazandaran province It has dealt with the characteristics of decent humility. Brief descriptions of the concepts of sustainable development and development, environmental hazards and proper governance are also given in the text of the article.
The most important natural and human hazards in Mazandaran province are earthquakes,  mass movements, floods, fires, droughts, frosts, pollution of water resources, soil erosion, pollution of agricultural products, urbanization and urban development, waste, etc. It brings a lot, attention to earth sciences and the environment can, in addition to preventing risks, accelerate the process of sustainable development.
The research method is descriptive-analytical and based on library and field studies. In order to gather information within the framework of theoretical foundations of research, by referring to library resources (Persian and Latin books, publications, dissertations and reputable foreign sites), the required materials have been collected. Statistics and information related to the development indicators of Mazandaran province have been extracted from the statistics of the Statistics Center of Iran and then examined with SPSS software, Table No. (3). The Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size. The statistical population in this study is Mazandaran province and the population of the province in the general census of population and housing in 2016, 3,283,582 people, which by placing the total population of the region in the above formula with a probability level of 95% to calculate the sample size by estimating distributions. There were two sentences (Cochran). A total of 384 questionnaires were distributed among residents and officials in the study province, a simple random method.
Based on the appropriate governance indicators in relation to environmental hazards and sustainable development of Mazandaran province, it was evaluated as lower than average (2.78 with theoretical average 3). Based on the results of factor analysis after Warmax matrix period, the participation index shows the role of urban management in increasing people's participation in improving urban environment and reducing social anomalies in Mazandaran province and reducing environmental degradation (with a coefficient of 0.772). , In the index of accountability, accountability of urban managers to the demands and complaints of people about environmental degradation and employment status (with a coefficient of 0.645), in the index of effectiveness and efficiency, the effect of managers' programs on reducing pollution (air, water, etc.) and Increasing the quality of social and infrastructural indicators of sustainable development (0.772) and the variability of the effectiveness of the implemented projects On the part of environmental managers in the cities of Mazandaran province (with a coefficient of 0.720), in the transparency index, what is your level of knowledge about the approval of plans and programs to deal with the effects of environmental hazards on the development indicators of the province (with a coefficient of 0.660) ) And how much do you know about the budgets spent on environmental protection and development and development programs and job creation in the province (with a coefficient of 0.639), in the indicator of responsibility, willingness to accept responsibility in economic, social and environmental fields? What is the level of the neighborhood itself (with a coefficient of 0.592), in the index of the central law, the amount of legal treatment of officials with factors Local and regional pollutants are environmental degrading factors (with a coefficient of 0.8595), in the Justice and Equality Index, the government's attention to dealing with environmental degrading factors in the city and shortening the hand of land grabbers in Mazandaran province (with a coefficient of 0.739) They had a higher operating load.
In relation to the impact of human and natural hazards on sustainable development indicators, which clearly include environmental, economic and social indicators, justice and equality indicators and participation in Mazandaran province are better than other indicators. It shows that the indicators of transparency, accountability and rule of law are less than average in the eyes of the people and are not in a good position in this regard.
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Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/05/3 | Accepted: 2021/02/21 | Published: 2021/03/13

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