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Showing 32 results for Type of Study: Applicable

Aliakbar Anabestani, Mahdi Javanshiri, Hamideh Mahmoudi, Mohammad-Reza Darban Astaneh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

Spatial Analysis of Villagers’ Resilience Against Environmental Hazards
(A Case Study of Central District of Faruj County)
Statement of the problem
The concept of resilience is the outcome of changes in risk managing in current decade. Today, the views and theories of disaster management and sustainable development seek to create societies resilient against natural disasters. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, droughts, floods, etc. are inevitable phenomenon which always pose a serious threat to development, especially in rural areas. This reflects the need to pay more attention to resilience in local level (rural areas). Resilience is the ability of a social or ecological system to absorb and deal with disorder or disturbance, so that the basic functional structure, can maintain the capacity of reorganization and adapting to changes and tensions. Carpenter defines resilience as the capacity of an environmental and social system to absorb a disruption, reorganize and thereby maintain essential functions. Thus, in order to reduce damage caused by natural disasters, the capacity of rural areas to deal with these events should be increased. Increased level of resilience against natural hazards is possible through accurately identifying the factors affecting resilience. Therefore, the aim of this study is the spatial analysis of factors affecting the promotion of rural environmental resilience in the face of natural hazards in rural areas of Faruj County.
In fact, the present study seeks to answer the following questions: what are the factors which may increase the level of resilience in the sample communities exposed to natural hazards, and how resilient are the sample villages of the study?
Research Methodology
This study is an applied research conducted in a descriptive-analytical method based on questionnaires. Data were collected through library research and field works which required completing questionnaires and conducting interviews with villagers living in the Central District of Faruj County.
Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed based on experts' views and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach alpha for different dimensions. The population consisted of 4591 households from the villages suitable for temporary accommodation. Based on the Cochran formula, 252 were obtained from these samples. They were selected by stratified random sampling.
Using statistical analysis methods in SPSS software, we analyzed the data to measure resilience in sample villages of the study area. We also used Excel and GIS in various parts of the study. To determine the best option, we used the VIKOR models, Gray relational analysis and Additive Ratio Assessment (ARAS).
Results and discussion
The results showed that infrastructure dimension with a mean of 2.92 and the economic dimension with a mean of 2.58 respectively had the highest and least impact on increased resilience which suggest that these villages compared to sample villages have relatively good infrastructure facilities. However, due
to the lack of proper institutional framework and poor performance of crisis management institutions, villagers are less satisfied with these organizations. Accordingly, based on t-test, the actual mean of the total respondents’ views was less than 3 and at the moderate level, and the economic index with the t statistics of -10.38 had the most negative impact on the resilience of the villagers.
It should be noted that according to the results of the resilience correlation with the individual characteristics of the respondents, it became clear that the gender and marital status has a direct and weak relationship with each dimension of resilience, which means men and the married people compared to the women and the singles believe their villages are more resilient. Besides, there is a weak and reverse relationship between the education of the individuals and their resilience, meaning that people with lower education compared to educated people, believe their villages are more resilient. There was no relationship between age and the dimensions of resilience.
In order to assess the impact of each index of the study on the level of resilience in the villages of the study, the confirmatory factor analysis test was used which revealed that among the indices of the study, "the villagers’ satisfaction with the performance of the Rural Council and administers (Dehyars)", "the role of institutions in educating people about various incidents" and "the use of new and durable materials to prevent the damaging effects of the incidents" had the greatest effect on the resilience of the samples villages.
Eventually, to determine the best village in terms of resilience for establishing a temporary settlement site in crisis management, we use three techniques: additive ratio assessment (ARSA),- VIKOR and Gray relational analysis. We prioritized the villages based on the mean rank method. -Considering the indices of resilience in the rural areas of the study, the villages of Mefrangah, Ostad and Pirali have the highest ranks, and the villages of Rizeh and Roshavanlou have the lowest ranks.
Key words: resilience, environmental hazards, organizational-institutional dimension, additive ratio assessment (ARSA), Faruj Central District
Dr Manouchehr Farajzadeh, Miss Zahra Kazemnezhad, Dr Reza Borna,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (3-2019)


Climate change in one area has severe impacts on water resources and, consequently, agriculture in that area. Therefore, studying the extent of the vulnerability of regions to adopting policies to reduce or adapt to new conditions is of particular importance. One of the methods for assessing the extent of damage to agricultural activities is the calculation of the vulnerability index. In this study, with the aim of assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change, The CVI index was calculated for 16 cities in Guilan province.

The results showed that the cities of Rasht (61.58) and Talesh (55.21) had the highest vulnerability and, accordingly, had the least adaptive power to climate change compared to other cities. And Langrood County (29.51) has the lowest number of vulnerabilities. The average value of the calculated index is 40.42 in Guilan province. In component R, the most vulnerable were Talesh (99.66) and lowest for Lahijan (2.27), In component M, the highest vulnerability was for Rudbar (97.21) and the lowest for Talesh (24.30), In component A, the most vulnerable were Rasht (89.99) and the lowest for Anzali (2.21), In component C, the most vulnerable were Shaft (66.66) and lowest for Anzali (1.89), In component U, the most vulnerable were Rasht (67.55) and the lowest for Astara (28.92), In component E, the highest vulnerability was for Talesh (76.49) and lowest for Lahijan (22.69), In component G, the most vulnerable was reported to Rasht (53.05) and the lowest vulnerability was reported for Sunnelk (23.24).

Mohammad Hajipour, Vahid Riahi, Golsar Hajipour,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)


 There are two questions with all programs and efforts to industry development in Iran: I) How much is rate of environmental hazard of industries in each Iran regions? II) How much is rate of capital production of industrial sector to environmental damages in regions of Iran? 


Explanation and Interpretation of the Results

In recent years (2009-13), despite a reduction in the number of industrial workshops in the country as a whole, pollution and ecological damage to industries had more than doubled in the past; On the other hand, industries has been more conflict with the environment increasingly in Iran and has led to the growth of human environment hazards with increase of damage to natural environment. Also, from a regional point of view, wherever more industry is not more damage to environment by industry necessarily. Factors such as “obsolete instruments in industry”, “low level of technology”, “insufficient skills and expertise of the activists in industry” and “Inattention of managers and industrialists to environmental health” has been causes damage growing to environment. Space pattern suggests industrial sector risks accumulated within South West of Iran. As well as according to spatial changes trend, the risks are drawn towards central regions of the country. Among the provinces, Markazi province has been damage most to environment than any one million riyals added value of industry sector activities. As well as provinces such as Mazandaran, Bushehr, Fars, Isfahan, Ardebil and West Azarbaijan has been next ranks. Finally, it can be concluded that the environment health is not important for capital production from industrial sector of in the regions.

Mr Seyed Ali Badri, Mr Hossain Karimzadeh, Mis. Sima Saadi, Mis Nasrin Kazemi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Analysis of Rural Settlements Resilience against Earthquake
Case Study: Marivan County
Iran is a seismic prone country located over the Himalayan-Alpine seismic belt. Striking earthquakes during the past years and decades are strong proofs for vulnerability of rural areas in this country; loss of lives, damage to buildings, even demolishing villages have been experienced in Iran rural areas. All these fatal effects are evidences to make villages more resilience and strengthen their structures because in the case of vulnerable structures, earthquake can be tremendously destructive. Therefore, losses of live and property can be avoided through making resilience rural social, economic and physical structure like construction of buildings that sway rather than break under the stress of an earthquake. Making villages resilience are directly related to saving rural residents lives and their property. Briefly, reaching or maintaining rural areas capacities to an acceptable level are the main purpose of this study by analyzing mentioned structures. This study conducted in Marivan rural settlements which exposed to earthquake.
According to Morgan Table, 310 samples responded to the questionnaires. The samples of this study were selected by chance from 6 districts and 18 villages. The main methods for analysis of collected data were Dimatel, ANP and Statictical analysis by SPSS. The results of ANP and Dimatel analyses led to the determination of relation among the factors. It should be noted we used Delfi method for this part. Moreover, for the final part ANOVA analysis is used by the authors. 
All around the world, countries have different approaches to deal with hazards in order to mitigate fatal affects. In fact, the goal of all management practices is to reduce hazard impacts. Iran faces a variety of hazards because of placing in a special geographical position; in this regard earthquake is the most important one. Resiliency approach can improve the flexibility of rural settlements through strengthen the capabilities of them and reduce their vulnerability. In the present study, analysis of rural settlements resilience against earthquake has been investigated. The results show that the resiliency is lower than the average in the studied villages. Also, there was a significant difference among the studied villages in terms of the resiliency against earthquake. The findings are consistent with the results of Nouri and Sepahvand in 2016 and Rezaei et al., in 2014.
Considering the analysis of data and ANP analysis of the internal and external factors in a general and separate way, the studied villages of Marivan city can be considered as non-resilience structures; in this regard, the most important reason is the inappropriate condition in the internal factors of rural settlements. The poor quality of construction and the inadequate structure of buildings must be considered, as well. Another obvious reason is the existence of eroded texture in this area. According to external factors, relief does not cover rural areas and led to reduce the resilience of rural settlements. Investigating the resilience of rural settlements based on external factors not only indicates the inappropriate situation of rural structure in this analysis, but also it proves a more favorable situation than internal factors. The findings show that structure and the amount of structure confinement in decrease the tissue texture of rural settlements play a profound role; changing these factors requires a long time and long-term planning. Regarding the post hoc test, variance analysis suggests the highest resiliency in Zarivar with an average of 2.99 and the lowest survival rate in KhavumirAbad rural district with an average of 1.87. Moreover, according to the one-sample T-Test, the socio-cultural dimension with a mean of 3.05 has the best situation in terms of resiliency against earthquake in the studied villages. For improving resiliency in the studied villages, authors’ suggests are including: managing and organizing preparation measures and response along with effective actions to reduce the risks of earthquake and providing a crisis management department; strengthen scientific and research studies to identify and reduce the risks; applying the rules to retrofit the buildings and increasing the safety factors in new construction; mapping the vulnerabilities in rural areas; increasing people participation and preparing them to deal with an emergency situation caused by an earthquake.
Keywords: Resiliency, Rural Settlements, Earthquake, Marivan County
Hossein Hosseinekhah, Asghar Zarrabi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2019)

Role mode combination decision Waspas in Identify zoning Seismic
 (Case study: Population center, township Bahmaei in Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province)
Hossein,Hosseinekhah[1], Asghar Zarrabi [2], Hamid Reza Varsi[3]
According placement Country of iran On the belt earthquake Alpine - Himalayas and Placement Partial of Iran Plateau Between two pages of Saudi Arabia (south) And Eurasia (north) And consequently the existence of active faults And the existence of seismic point And most importantly, record high intensity earthquakes, Etc in the township of Bahmei, in The present study will try, with Using the WASPA model, Identified and reviewed The Seismic zones. The main purpose of this study is Identify and zoning Earthquake risk in township Bahmaei and Secondary objectives research:
- Review and Assessment City Likak against earthquake risk.
- Identify and zoning district township Bahmaei against the danger of earthquakes.
- provide strategies to Reduce Damage and and physical and financial vulnerabilities of citizens.
According the nature of the subject and research objectives, Research Methodology Based on descriptive – analytical and functional. Collect dates provided in two part, weights and layers of information, based on Documentary method and using satellite images, Mapping organization, USGS organization. The statistical population of the research, the entire limits township Bahmaei based on dividing the national. Indicators used in the study, 10 key indicators, including Active faults, seismic areas, rivers, urban and rural settlements, the elevation, slope and more. To collect data Of the America Geological organization, National mapping organization, Satellite imagery and as well as to review and analyze data used is of ARC GIS software and Wapas model.
Results of the research show that from area 1245 square kilometers of Bahmei Township, there are 252.228 square kilometers, equivalent to 20 percent of the Township in an unsafe zone. 149 square kilometers equivalent to 12 percent is in the high risk zone and 167 square kilometers, equivalent to 13 percent in area with the high-risk. Also, of the area of 1245 square kilometers in the Township of Bahmei 386 square kilometers, equivalent to 31 percent is in the zone with low risk of the earthquake. The final weights achieved by each Propeller (weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats) in a separate and individual weighting with one another, have dominance of the dominating role of the matrix threat.
Results Research shows, 252 square kilometers, equivalent to 40 perecnt of Bahmaei township in zone safe, 386 square kilometers in the zone with low-risk, 289 square kilometers of the township In the zone with middle danger, 149 square kilometers of the township Equivalent with 12 percent of the township In zone with high risk and 167 square kilometers, equivalent to 13 percent is in the zone whit high-risk of ​​the earthquake
The city Likak as Bahmaei township center is in zone with low very risk Compared to the risk of earthquakes. Also The results showed The 160 sq. Km  of The central part of township Equivalent to 18 percent in zone with low-risk And 137 square kilometers, equivalent to %15 in zone whit high risk and 15 percent of central city The zone have very high hazard. Also the results showed of area 506 square kilometers Section Garmsar, 30 percent in the zone safe, %44 in the zone with low risk and 6 percent is in zone with the very high risk. The also results showed that 15 villages and villages (6%) are very vulnerable, 20 villages (8.43%) are in high danger zones and 112 villages are in zone with low risk.
Keywords: Waspas model, earthquake, Likak city, township Bahmae.


Mrs Elham Fahiminezhad, Dr M Ohammag Baaghide, Dr Iman Babaeian, Dr Alireza Entezari,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Changes in the mean and the extreme values of hydroclimatic variables are two
prominent features of the future climate. Therefore, simulating the climatic
behavior of Shandiz catchment area, an important tourist area in the northeast of
the country, will play an important role in identifying the climate condition and
potential vulnerability of these areas in the coming decades of climate change.
In this study, we will
evaluate the effects of climate change on extreme values of the basin micro scaling
precipitation and temperature in CanESM2 model using SDSM model and
simulating runoff with SWAT model in future decades.
To achieve this goal, the daily temperature and precipitation statistics of the 30
statistical years (1961-1990) of Mashhad synoptic station have been
used. The data of the CanESM2 general circulation model under RCP2.6, RCP4.5
and RCP8.5 scenarios are also used to predict precipitation, the minimum and
maximum temperature for 2041 to 2100.
According to the results, the annual precipitation rises 37 to 54 percent from 2041
to2070 compared to the observation period, and the increase in rainfall of the
2071-2100 rises 52 to 66 percent. Precipitation extreme values, the mean of
maximum and minimum temperatures in future periods in all seasons of Mashhad
station will increase compared to the observation period (1961-1990).In future decades, the average maximum temperature in Mashhad will increase from 4.6 to 0.65 degrees Celsius
and the average minimum temperature will increase 53/1 to 22/4.
By introducing micro scaled time series of the maximum temperature, temperature,
and micro scaled precipitation by SDSM model to SWAT model, the monthly time
series of Shandiz watershed runoff at Sarasiab Station was simulated for the two
periods of 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 under three distribution scenarios of RCP2.6,
RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. For this purpose, first, the model was calibrated and validated
using Shandiz hydrometric station runoff for 2003-2012, and the values of R2 were
65 and 52, respectively. Subsequently, with the introduction of micro scaled time
series of maximum and minimum temperatures, and micro scaled precipitation by
SDSM model to SWAT model, the average annual trend shows that runoff
increases in the coming decades. The lowest average annual increase for runoff is
in 2041-2070 and RCP4.5 scenario, with an increase of 56.1% over the observation
period. The highest increase of average annual monthly runoff is from 2071 to2100
under RCP 2.6 scenario with 53% to 104% runoff compared to the observation period.

Tayebeh Kiani, Nadim Hydrad, Ghaforpur Anbaran Parastoo,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-2020)

Active tectonics of the Roudbar region:
with special reference to the landslides of the area
Tayebeh Kiani, Assistant Prof. in geomorphology, Kharazmi University
Hyrdad Nadim, MSc in environmental geology, geological hazards trends, Geological Survey & Mineral Exporation of Iran
Parastoo Ghaforpur Anbaran, PH.D Student in Geomorphology, Kharazmi University
Extended abstract:
Introduction: Due to its specific morphology and extensive tectonic activities, Roudbar rigion has always been affected by various geological hazards such as earthquakes, floods, biological pollution and landslides, which landslide is one of the most active phenomena in the region of this vast And mountainous area. Within the Roudbar geological sheet, 11 large and small landslides have been recorded with different yields and properties, some of which have catastrophic consequences, including the Roudbar and Fatalak landslides, which occurred as a result of the earthquake of June 31, 1990 Has caused devastating events in the Roudbar area and resulted in casualties and financial losses. Extreme performance of tectonic phases, which enact a major role in landslides, construction factors, road and rail, Steep slopes of topography, Sloping Loose Materials, are a various factors in the occurrence of such landslides. Due to the fact that landslide is predictive, preventive and sustainable, it is important to identify and zoning in the country and province and Perform basic geological studies in prone araes to landslides with a large scale. Due to the high potential of the region for the subsequent landslides and the properties of the intact areas with the old landslide areas, In present research, it is necessary to determine the most important factor in landslide occurrence in Roudbar area through field investigations and based on that, plan management will happen for controlling landslide phenomenon. Eventually, using geomorphic indices, the tectonic activity status of the Roudbar region is determined, and with the adaptation of the location of landslides and faults with the tectonic activity zones map, relationship between tectonic and landslide are investigated. Also, the risk zone, where there is a probability of landslide instability, is determined.
Method: The study area is located at 45 ° 36 'to 30 '45 ° 36' north latitude and 30 '22 ° 49' to 49 ° 49 'east longitude. Roudbar is one of the southern cities of Gilan province, which has a reputation for having olive gardens, and is named after its seasonal and permanent rivers. Roudbar city leads to from north to Rasht, south to Roudbar Alamut (from Qazvin province), from east to Lahijan and from west to Fomen city.
 In the first phase, based on ground surveys and laboratory studies, the geological map in the scale of 1: 25,000 and other required data, limited area and Condition landslides are identified on aerial photos and satellite imagery. In the second phase of this research, geomorphic indicators the mountain front sinuosity index (Smf), the ratio of width to depth valley floor (Vf), Stream Length Index (SL), Basin Shape (Bs), Asymmetry Factor (AF) are used. Then, the results of the indicators are presented as a tectonic activity index (LAT).
Conclusion: Based on ground surveys and laboratory studies, the geological map in the scale of 1: 25000 and other required data, limited area and Condition landslides are identified on aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Based on this, it was found that Roudbar landslides were more affected by structural factors and weight (slope loading) has taken place. It seems Structural factors hidden in most of the landslides in the region. Based on the results of the tectonic activity relative index (Lat), most sub-basins have high and moderate tectonic activity. In term of width, the intense class includes with 195.55 square kilometers (67.21%) of the total area. The integration of different tectonic zones with the location of the landslide zones of the region, the close relationship between the zones with intense and moderate tectonic activity with the landslide zones designated in the first part of this study shows that the zones with Fatalak, Lavie, Roudbar, Filde landslides are in areas with intense tectonic activity and The landslides of Dashtgan, Talabar, Taklim, Nesfi, Dolatabad, Herzavil are located in the moderate tectonic activity zone. Based on ground surveys, the results of calculations of geomorphic indices indicate the relation between the activity of the land area and the landslide hazard. Considering the inevitability of the faults' activity and the resulting hazards, it is suggested that, in order to improve the country's substructure development, more detailed and larger scales on the landslide mechanism introduced in this research (Including determination of gradient safety factors (FS), calculation of the risk of slipping region and applying slope stability and safety methods, etc.), be done Systematicly and in coordination with organizations and related departments.
Keywords: Active tectonic, Geographic Information System, Geomorphic indices, Landslide, Roudbar.
Hossein Negaresh, Samad Fotoohi, Reza Soraya,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-2020)

Identification of the factors influencing the hazards and the difference in the volume of sediment accumulated in the villages of Nimroz
Seasonal lakes or playas are considered as a major source of wind sediments and dust storms due to locating in post-topographic areas in dry and desert areas with strong winds system and also the presence of fine-grained and separated particles. Sediments and wind deposits in Sistan have caused the lives of thousands of people in these areas and especially the students to be at risk. The volume of wind sediments in this county has been multiplied in the last ten years; therefore the purpose of this research is to identify the effective factors on the volume difference of accumulated wind sediments in the schools of the villages of Nimroz County. The research method in this study is quite field and as direct observation, besides library resources has also been used. After the initial investigations, it was found that the geographical location, type of soil and topography have little effect on the volume difference of accumulated sediments in the studied schools. The findings of the study show that the three factors in Bash Delbar area, Hamoon Lake and lack of agriculture and the lack of vegetation in Deh Isa area are the most important factors in increasing or decreasing the volume of wind sediments.
Keywords: wind deposits, primary schools, Human Beast, the lake plain, the city of Nimroz
Saideh Khaksefidi, Saideh Vasigh, Mohsen Taban,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-2020)

Proper design of the central courtyard in residential areas against Sadobist-roz-e winds in Zabol using CFD analysis
Saeide Khaksefidi - Ma Student of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and urban planning, Jundi-shapur University of technology, Dezful, Iran.
Behzad Vasigh* - Faculty of Architecture and Urban planning, Jundi-shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
Mohsen Taban - Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture and urban planning, Jundi-shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran
Wind erosion occurs in many arid, semiarid and agricultural areas of the world. Sadobist-roz-e winds are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. In recent years, Sadobist-roz-e winds frequencies and intensities have increased significantly in Iran. A research on Sadobist-roz-e winds sources is important for understanding the mechanisms of dust generation and assessing its socio-economic and environmental impacts. Deserts are the main sources of emitted dust, and are highly responsive to wind erosion. Low content of soil moisture and lack of vegetation cover lead to fine particle’s release. The wind in the eastern part of Iran, Sistan, is one of the most important phenomena in the ecological studies. The intensity and velocity of the wind, has caused environmental problems. This population is distributed in more than 1000 cities, villages and nomadic settlements. Sadobist-roz-e winds is the most significant wind in the region which starts every year at the end of the spring and lasts all through the beginning of autumn, with a mean velocity of 100 km/h. Architecture and urbanization of the Sistan region have been built with the focus on reducing the amount of sand. The orientation and placement of buildings can be effective in reducing the damage to these winds. Sadobist-roz-e winds has increased in zabol since 1999. The average annual number of dust Storm events increased from 10 d during 1990–1998 (before the drought) to 54 d during 1999–2004 (after the drought). The frequency of dust storms also increased 5-fold after 1999 in the region. This shift is associated with an increase in wind speed, rainfall reduction, drying of Hamoun Lake and drought occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to determine the type of obstruction, orientation and enclosure level of the central courtyard so that it can be useful in two areas: wind speed reduction and reduction of dust contamination in the building area. Modeling of buildings is done using 3D software; and simulation of airflow using “Flow3D” Fluid Simulation software has been investigated.  Each time the flow of air was tested in different models. First, two main patterns that were expected to be appropriate to the behavior of the wind were selected. Both of them were simulated and it was found that the concave shape has a better performance. Because in addition to reducing the wind speed, it also causes rotational movement. Then, with emphasis on the central courtyard, various shapes of the layout of the builders in the central courtyard were examined. The result showed that due to the high initial wind speed, in addition to the inflow and outflow contours (in the enclosure court), the positioning and orientation of buildings at different angles, it can also be effective in reducing wind speed and decreasing wind movement. By extending this collection to more buildings and creating congestion conditions, the comfort conditions for the pedestrian were examined. In the following, with a constant elevation of 9, and enclosure (H / D ratio) and wind input to a set of 3, this load was simulated with different angles against the wind. Every time the wind speed and the wind velocity decreases. The best location was selected at a 45-degree angle faced to the wind. Further, with regard to the fact that high wind speeds are observed in the best building layout, natural obstacles were used to reduce wind speed. Among the native trees of Sistan, “Gaz” were selected because of their highest adaptability to the region's climate and for research purposes. Physical characteristics were taken and modeling was done. Each simulation was performed; the best model with a natural barrier against the wind region was identified. Although the research on locality could be highly generalized, the best location in the study, which was close to the definitions, was approached. At last, the results show that buildings or obstacles that are concave to the wind direction are more likely to prevent wind entering the shadows area than most other building types. The type of layout and orientation of the buildings against the wind and the amount of enclosure at the two points of “entry and exit of the wind”, along with the use of natural obstacles, can be very effective in reducing the wind speed and reducing the entry of dust to the comfort level.
Keywords: zabol, sadobistroze winds, CFD simulation, Residential complex, central courtyard
Aydin Moradi, Somaye Emadodin, Saleh Arekhi, Khalil Rezaei,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-2020)

Firuz Aghazadeh, Hashem Rostamzadeh, Khalil Valizadeh Kamran,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-2020)

Real-time detection of forest fire using NOAA/AVHRR data
Study area :(Kayamaki Wildlife Refuge)
Extended Abstract
Land and forest fires are one of the most common problems in the world that cause various disturbances in forest and land efficiency. Real-time fire detection is crucial to prevent large-scale casualties. In order to identify early fire in areas where there is a high risk of fire, it is necessary to monitor these areas regularly. Forest monitoring is a technique used to detect fires in the past using traditional techniques such as surveillance, helicopter and aircraft. Today, satellite imagery is one of the most imperative and effective tools for detecting active fires in the world.
Materials and Methods
In this study, NOAA/AVHRR images were used for fire detection and MODIS products were applied for evaluation and validation.
Fire Detection Algorithms
There are several algorithms for detecting fires using satellite imagery. In this study, 3 algorithms of Giglio, extended and IGPP were used. The selection of these algorithms was due to the extensive background research in most of the previous studies that used them and the results of these algorithms, especially the IGPP, were far more than other algorithms.
Giglio Algorithm
Giglio et al., (1999) criticized Arino and Melinott (1993) threshold as too high for certain regions of the world such as tropical rain forests, temperate climates and marshes where the air temperature for small fires (100 m3) is usually between 308 and 314 degrees Kelvin. They believed that the smaller fires were not fully recognized by Arino and Melinott (1993) thresholds. They concluded that in suburban forests 60% of fires had temperatures below 320K of which 70% were in rainforests and 85% happened in the Savanna. Thus, the threshold cannot be applied on a large scale and it is only applicable for a regional scale.
IGBP Algorithm
The IGBP fire detection algorithm is implemented in two steps. The first step is the threshold test in which a pixel in micrometers (11.03 μm) minus the band 4 is greater than 8 degrees Kelvin, the desired pixel being considered as a potential fire pixel. Band 3 (3.9 μm) exceeds 311 K, and band 3 illumination temperature is 3.9.
Developed Algorithm
This algorithm is used to detect small and large fires (both at night and day).
Interpretation of the Results
After selecting fire detection algorithms, pre-processing (geometric, radiometric and atmospheric corrections), processing (applying fire relationships and fire formulas for fire detection) and post-processing (evaluating and validating the results), the fires were identified by the fire algorithms (images). Final results of fires identified for 2016 and 2017 (for 4 days) by fire algorithms indicate that fires identified by Giglio algorithm were 22 cases, those by IGPP algorithm were 27 cases and the ones by the developed algorithm were 15 cases. For this reason, the IGPP algorithm can be taken as the most appropriate algorithm in this study for fire detection using satellite imagery.
Evaluation of fires identified through MODIS products
To evaluate identified fires, after recognizing them with relevant algorithms, we used MODIS products for their evaluation (due to the lack of ground data on the days studied for evaluation). MODIS products were obtained from sites where the location of each fire was reported. For the evaluation of identified fires based on fire detection algorithms with MODIS products, 10 fire occurrences were used. The evaluation results express that out of 10 fires only 7 fires were recognized by the algorithms of MODIS products. 5 fire events were identified by Giglio algorithm (from 7 fires), 6 fires from IGBP (out of 7 fires), and 3 fire events from 7 extended algorithm were selected as fire pixels.
Comparison of the implications of the fire algorithms
The implications of fire occurrence algorithms indicate that the IGBP algorithm with 6 fires (out of 7 tested fires with error rate of 14% and with the number of fires detected (86%)), Giglio algorithm with 5 fires (out of 7 tested fires, with error rate of 28% and with the number of fires (72%)) and the developed algorithm with 3 fires (out of 7 fires tested with an error rate of 57% and with fire rate of 43%) have been identified. Therefore, it is concluded that the IGBP is the most appropriate algorithm for real-time fire detection, followed by Giglio and the developed algorithm in second and third orders, respectively.
Keywords:Real Time Fire Detection, Fire Algorithms, NOAA/AVHRR, Kiamaki Wildlife Refuge.
- Ali Najafinejad, - Hesam Heravi, - Abdolreza Bahremand, - Hossein Zeinivand,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (5-2020)

Simulation of Climate Change on river hydrograph Using WetSpa Model, Case Study: Taleghan Watershed Alborz Province
Introduction: One of the major issues in hydrology engineering is the prediction of the flood routing or rising and falling limb river hydrograph, in which the importance of the climate is very evident due to the high volatility and is therefore one of the most important factors to be carefully studied. Climate has been changing ever since. Changes refer to the variability of the long term trends in the state of the climate or average changes in temperature and rainfall that persist for extended period. Important regional water resource vulnerabilities to changes in both temperature and precipitation patterns are documented. Recent analysis from the inter-governmental panel for climate change indicates that the earth as a whole has warmed by about 0.6°C ± 0.2°C over the past century with locally and seasonally varying amounts. The changes in pattern and intensity of precipitation, melting of ice, increasing atmospheric water vapor and others has a significant natural variability on inter annual to decadal that masking the long term trend. Increased evaporation, combined with changes in precipitation characteristics, has the potential to affect runoff, frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, soil moisture, and water supply. Warming of climate system and change in its state variables are highly related to the atmosphere-land-ocean system. The climate modeling science integrates these complex systems with the Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to simulate future climate changes and forecast it for decades and centuries. Climate change scenarios developed from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are the initial source of information for estimating plausible future climate changes. In regional and local climate studies usually coarse-resolution outputs of global climate models are downscaled to produce necessary fine scale data. Statistical downscaling methods are widely used for prediction of climatic variables e.g. precipitation because of importance of these factors in environmental planning and management. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the past and future potential of climate change and its impacts on the hydrologic response of the basin.
Data and method of work: In this study, the Taleghan Watershed of the Sefidrood basin was selected as a case study due to its socio-economic significance. Elevation range from 1774 to 4362 m and a mean slope is 40.5%. The mean annual precipitation in the catchment is 591 mm. At first using weather data and meteorological data with a daily step in a 21-year period and three base maps information, including precipitation data from eight stations, temperature and evaporation data from two stations were used as input to the model. Three base maps information i.e. DEM, land use and soil types are prepared in GIS and flow hydrograph was simulated using WetSpa model in Taleghan watershed. For runoff verification, the only river station at the outlet of the catchment was used. Then, for the reference period, daily modeled runoff was compared with observed values at available in the region. In the following Future climate change (precipitation, temperature and evaporation) based on CanESM2 model from the fifth report the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on emission scenario RCP8.5 was used for simulating the flow hydrograph during the next period (2016-2029) and its comparison with the base period (1995-2015). In this study, the performance of Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was investigated to predict precipitation, temperature and evaporation. Modeled precipitation was compared with observations of 8 available stations in the region, Observed temperatures from two stations were also used for modeled temperature and evaporation verification.  
Interpretation of results: Regarding to the outputs and spatially distributed hydrological factors in daily time step the model is capable to analyze topography, soil type, and land use effects on the hydrological behavior of the watershed. Model evaluation results showed that The Nash-Sutcliffe criteria, 76% and accuracy of the simulation show the high performance of the model in this watershed. The results of the research showed that the SDSM model is well advanced to simulate Climate variables. Statistical measures of model performance such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean squared error (MSE) and the analysis of output results from SDSM model shown that this model is able to predict precipitation, temperature and evaporation indexes. According to the results of the CanESM2 model, in the considered scenario (RCP8.5), temperature will increase from 0.5 to 0.6 and Average precipitation in the future 8% will increase. Finally the results showed that in the considered scenario, the average runoff watershed will increase Up to 45% by the climate in the future. Also, the average of runoff will increase in all months of the year (except in October) compared to the base period. This increase is more pronounced for April.            
Keywords: Emission Scenario, Flood, Hydrologic Model, River Hydrograph, Simulation

* Corresponding author:

Behzad Raygani, Fargol Goodarzi, Ahmad Talebi, Mohammad Talaeian Araghi, Hadi Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Assessment of the Probable Impacts of Land Use Changes on Water Quality in Shadeghan
Wetland Using Remot Senseing Data
In this research, the evaluation of possible effects of land use change on water quality in Shadegan wetland has been provided with the help of remote sensing data. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and compare user variations in 2000 and 2015 using Landsat satellite imagery (with ETM and OLI sensors) from the study area and processing them in the ERDAS software environment using the unstructured classification method during a period of 15 years old has been investigated. To determine the cause of the changes occurring in the wetland, the water quality of the wetland was evaluated through the help of modeling. Vegetation in the wetland has been rising rapidly, indicating water pollution, an increase in the nutritional status and the early disappearance of this international wetland. With the help of this article, it can be admitted that the development of agricultural lands around the shadegan wetland from 2000 to 2015had caused an increase in pollution in the region, according to available agricultural wastement containing  quantities of herbicides and pesticides which has led to an increase in the growth of algae in the wetland, which has led to an increase in temperature and eventually the death of wetlands and aquatic animals so after selecting images and assign them in 5 classes, the change wetland  maps were obtained during a 15 year various sources were used to determine the best regression model for determining water quality changes in the following, the images were placed in the models and their mean and standard deviation were obtained. The result of the research showed that the Landsat sensor shows the water quality well and can be used to determine the changes. The development of agricultural lands leads to an increase in the eutrophication phenomenon in the wetland and, in the end, reduces the quality of water indicators. In the end, causes quality loss of water.
Key words: Assessment, Land Use Changes, Water Quality, Shadeghan Wetland, Remot Senseing.

Koohzad Raispour, Yones Khosravi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Air pollution is one of the most important problems in many countries in the world, which, besides the environmental damage and human health, imposes many adverse social and economic impacts. Therefore, considering the vital importance of air and the rising course of increasing the contaminating agents in recent decades, it is necessary to study the elements and their pollutant gases in order to be aware of the existing situation and to adopt the necessary solutions. The phenomenon of atmospheric air pollution in Iran, as part of the world's atmosphere, is one of the goals of the industrial revolution, which has been increasing day by day as industrialization; population growth and urbanization have grown dramatically. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), such as when operating a stove or an internal combustion engine in an enclosed space.
Carbon monoxide is one of the most dangerous air pollutants. Due to its importance, many techniques and methods have been used to monitor the Earth's atmosphere in recent years. as well as, the use of satellite data has become widespread because of the availability and availability of features such as spatial, temporal and spatial resolution. In this study, the data from Aqua / AIRS Carbon Monoxide data can be used to study the rate and trend of carbon monoxide gas changes in the atmosphere of the entire world, including Iran.The relevant data in NetCDF format, with one-day and 13.5 x 13.5km spatial resolution of during the 16-year statistical period (2003-2018), was extracted from ttps:// using ArcGIS software And Grads are processed, represented, analyzed.
The results indicate that the amount of carbon monoxide was reduced during the monthly and annual time series. Of course, monthly and seasonal variations have been impressive. Monthly, the highest concentration of carbon monoxide in January, February and March, and the lowest in August, September and October. Among the seasons, the highest and lowest levels of carbon monoxide were observed in the seasons of winter and summer, respectively. In spatially, the highest amount of surface carbon monoxide with an average of 150 ppb above the city of Tehran and the coastal area of the Caspian Sea and its lowest level with an average of 115 ppb on the Zagros heights was observed.
The results clearly show a clear picture of the dispersion of carbon monoxide gas in the horizontal and vertical direction of Iran's atmosphere. Based on the results obtained from the monthly carbon monoxide data collected during the statistical period (2003-2018), conducted in a three dimensional and regional area extending to the geographical area of Iran, The average surface carbon monoxide of more than 150 ppb above the Tehran metropolitan area and northern coast of Iran is less than 115 ppb on Zagros altitudes. Among other results, there are significant differences between the monthly carbon monoxide average in the surface troposphere of Iran, so that in the twelve months, the highest amount of carbon monoxide was observed in cold months and the lowest was observed in the warm months of the year, respectively. Seasonally, the highest level of seasonal carbon monoxide has been observed in winter and its seasonal season has peaked in summer. The results of vertical profiles (vertical aspect) of carbon monoxide changes in Iran's atmosphere in line with latitude and longitude indicate the maximum carbon monoxide concentration at lower levels of barley so that the maximum amount of carbon monoxide in the Iranian atmosphere is concentrated in the lower levels and Rarely exceeds the level of 250 hPa. Also, the results indicate that the rate of carbon monoxide emissions in the atmosphere of Iran has decreased, so that in the last years of the statistical period, about 30% of the amount of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Iran has been reduced, compared to the early years of the statistical period.
Key words: Air Pollution, Carbon Monoxide, AIRS, Remote Sensing, Iran.
Mousa Kamanroudi Kojuri, Amir Saffari, Mohammad Solimani, Maryam Nemati Sani,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Ecologically-based Management Factors and criteria of River-Valleys in Tehran metropolis-Case Study: River-Valleys of Kan
Iran has seasonal rivers because of dry climate, low rainfall and different topography. These river- valleys have main role in forming, genesis, and sustainability of human settlements and provide different ecological services. The main services include beauty, store of green spaces, water supply, reduce and create temperature differences, local air flow and natural ventilation which are part of the functions. Tehran is roughly the same area as 730 square kilometers and its population is 8.7 million people. It is located in51° and 17´ to 51° and 33´ east longitude and 35° and 36´ to 35° and 44´ north latitude. The height of this city is 900 to 1800 meters. The north and north east of this city are located in peculiarity range of the southern part of the middle Alborz. This city includes 7 river valleys to the names Darabad, Golabdareh, Darband, Velenjak, Darakeh, Farahzad and Kan. The ecological role of these river valleys is reduced because of non- ecological axis developmental interventions by urban management and citizens. These interventions have changed river valleys to high risk space of skirt movements and flood. Kan is the most important river valley because of the breadth of the basin and permanent water discharge rate. The part of this river valley has changed to park (Javanmardan) by municipality. The purpose of this research is that to provide factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley.
ANP has been used in this research. To use this method for analyzing   factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize this river valley, firstly, these factors have been identified by library studies and scrolling. These factors include 4 criteria (natural: 15 sub criteria, social: 3, management:  6, economic: 2). the books, journals, reports, maps, aerial photos, satellite images and internet sites have been studied in library studies. In site studies, some information from library studies have been edited. After that, the findings of these two methods in form of questionnaire called factors and criteria of ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley, was in charge academics and professionals. They were elected among pundits of urban management science, urban planning, geography and environment in Tehran. At first the number of them was 30 people came to agreement in two process about 4 factors and 18 criteria and determined importance and priority by Delphy method. Findings in Delphy method were analyzed through ANP and SUPER DECISIONS. In this process, firstly, a conceptual model and relation inter and intra clusters and nodes determined. These relations in this process are very important because paired comparison depends on this process. Assumption of equality of effects and similar relations in these factors is illogical because there are the grading of effects and relations in this research. Second, the factors have been compared to each other to create a super matrix based on paired comparison. Generally, in this process decision makers compare two different factors to each other and paired comparisons have grading of between1to9. In double- sided valuation, each factor is used to show initial inverse comparison. Inconsistent rate in paired comparison must be less than 0.1 like AHP. Third initial super matrix is created. It is the weights created from paired comparison and identified the importance of each factor in each cluster. Forth, the weighted super matrix was created. The weights of clusters was calculated in this process to identify the weight of final super matrix. Fifth, limited super matrix was created. The weighted super matrix reached for infinity band each row convergenced to a number and that number was the weight of factor. By this way limited super matrix was reached.
Based on ANP and table 1, management: 46%, natural – ecological: 26% and economic and social factors: 14% are important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Based on reached results, inconsistent rate is 0.003 and it shows that the weight is valid and review is not necessary. Among sub criteria in management factor, organizational pattern: 32%, method of management: 23% and policies: 21% are the most important respectively in ecosystem based management to organize Kan River valley. Among sub criteria in natural- ecological factor, flood, domain movements and building and texture of soil are the most important respectively 23%, 18% and 11.5% also in social factor, participation, security and public trust have the importance respectively equal to 49% 31% 19%. In economic factor, environmental assets and stakeholder’s economic participation have the same importance.
Based on this research, management factor (organizational pattern and the method of management) is the most important in ecosystem based management. But this approach, the management pattern and intervention to organize this river valley, need comprehensiveness and integrity of the subject (nature, society, management and economic), purpose (protection, resuscitation and use), factors (government, city council, municipality, private sector and people), duties (policy making, planning, designing and perform), method (collaborative), tools (knowledge, skill, rule, program, budget, machinery and materials) and management domain. Use of these factors and criteria need some infrastructure and reforms. The most important reform is reform of management structure, production of subject matter and topical program special to organize river valleys by ecological approach to release Kan of loading and contradictory this management can follow protection, resuscitation, sustainable use and continuity of ecological services.
Key words: ecosystem, ecosystem based management, analytic network process, river valley of Kan

B Sharifinia Zahra,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Evaluation and Evaluation of Resilience to Drought Hazards in Rural Areas Case Study: rural district Ghare Taghgan Neka
Extensive abstract
Concerns over the social, economic, and ecological impacts of climate change on human habitat have increased over the last few decades (McGranahan et al, 2007). According to the UN report, water shortages will occur in the near future in 18 countries, and by 2025 more than two-thirds of the world's population is projected to be in serious water shortages (Pozzi et al, 2013, 191 112; World Bank, 2008, 124). On the other hand, the number of disasters has increased over the past 20 years, reaching 400 from 200 accidents (Pittman et al, 2011, 83,94; Molen et al, 2011, 765-773). In this regard, droughts, the most dangerous natural disasters, affect a wide range of climates and ecosystems, and the geographical areas affected by them have increased rapidly in the last four decades (Kamara et al., 2018, 2318). Drought is a major threat to households and community’s dependent on agriculture for livelihoods (Anthopoulou et al, 2017). Because livelihoods in agricultural-dependent societies are more dependent on climate change (Pittman et al., 2017. (
It is central to the city of Neka; it requires a holistic perspective. The type of applied research and methodology used is descriptive-analytical. Librarian and field method (observation, questionnaire) were used to collect the required data. In order to assess the resilience of rural areas to drought in two economic dimensions (ability to return to employment and income generation and compensation of costs and losses) and in social dimension (awareness, knowledge, skills and preparedness and participation and Collaboration) Designed and developed a Likert-type questionnaire (¬1 very low, 5 = very high). The statistical population of this study is based on census of 6947 households in 24 villages with error of 0.07, ¬191 questionnaire as sample size and based on the relationship of sharing ratio of the number of samples in each village is specified and in villages less than 7 samples, the number has been upgraded to 7. Finally, 233 samples were used as the sample size based on questionnaire completion and analysis and were randomly distributed and distributed among households. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, the experts were first provided with validity and the validity of the research instrument was measured and the final indices and statements were extracted. The questionnaire developed at this stage was pre-tested in the study area and after confirmation of trust or reliability (Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84) the questionnaire was finalized for field research. Descriptive (inferential) and inferential statistical methods (single sample t, Friedman, cluster analysis) and VASP, ARAS and VIKOR models were used to analyze the data. Therefore, in order to evaluate and measure resilience in rural areas, firstly, annual moisture status was investigated based on SPI, SDI and GRI indices. Therefore, the moisture status of the study area during the 13-year statistical period (2006-2007) using the data of 9 Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) rain gauge data, the data of the discharge rate of 6 rivers Surface Flow Index (SDI) and the values Water level level of 9 piezometric wells of GRI index was calculated in DrinC software environment.
 Iran's position on the dry belt and the persistence of droughts over the past two decades have led to the emergence of drought-related crises, especially for villagers who are heavily dependent on water for production, due to climate change. Droughts in the study area were also not exempt from this rule and resulted in adverse effects beyond the normal state and the risk of drought among rural farmers, which could be due to their low level of resilience to this risk. Be it. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the economic and social effects of this phenomenon on the status of rural resilience against drought hazards. The results showed that among the sample villages, in the economic dimension, the highest average belonged to Tavaza Abad village of Bostan Khel with average of 3.11 and the lowest average belonged to Plazhartesh village with average of 1.63. In the social aspect, the highest average belongs to the village of Dukhaelo with a mean of 3.54 and the lowest average belongs to the village of Plazhartesh with an average of 1.55. Also, the average real perception of the respondents is less than three and is moderately low, indicating that rural resilience to drought is low.
Keywords: Rural Areas, Resilience, Drought, Gharaghgan Village
Ghasem Keikhosravi, Shahriar Khaledy, Ameneh Yahyavi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

This study was conducted to investigate the foehn mechanism in the Alborz Mountains.For this purpose, daily temperature, mean and maximum daily temperature, minimum, mean and maximum daily relative humidity, hourly wind direction and velocity data were collected and prepared at 8 selected stations over a 10-year statistical period (2006-2010). To derive the sum of frequency of occurrence of foehn, hot days are extracted using Baldy index and taking into account wind direction relative to station position and temperature rise compared to previous days were identified as days associated with foehn. Then, using NCEP / NCAR database data, different atmospheric alignment maps were obtained for the selected samples and plotted in Grads software environment. Then the position of high pressure cores and adjacent low pressures on the maps were determined. Results showed that Masouleh station with 41 days frequency and Astara and Bandar Anzali station with 18 days had the highest and lowest occurrence of foehn. Investigations on the synoptic maps of 35 foehn events showed that a total of three groups of Anti-cyclone or high-pressure centers were affected by the synoptic pattern of the region in the days involved. The first group is the Siberian High Pressure Tabs, whose cores are located in the confines of Lake Baikal, Balchash and northern Pakistan, depending on the season and synoptic conditions. The low pressure cores are located on the Caspian Sea and the pressure difference between the high pressure tab of the Alborz Outer Slopes and the Caspian Sea causes a compressive stress. In this model, Cyclone currents with increasing moisture of the Caspian Sea on the western slopes of Alborz Heights cause precipitation and warm flow due to warming under windward slopes. The second group is the anticyclone of Saudi Arabia, in which specimens with spin cores are deployed on southwestern Iran. As the north side of the Arabian High Pressure extends northwest of Iran and the presence of low polar pressure in the Caspian region with intensified compressive flow causes currents southwest along the perpendicular heights. Western anticyclone currents in the Arabian Sea circulate the moisture of the southern warm seas to northwestern Iran. The third group is a combination of African anticyclones, immigrants, Siberian highs and its tabs that create a thermal and compressive style over the study area and west of the Alborz Mountains. And provide the basis for the formation of the foehn phenomenon.

Abbas Saidi, Bijan Rahmani, Rasol Ghaffari Rad,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

Spatial planning as an alternative approach to sustainable development in geographical knowledge is based on a proper and appropriate understanding of space as a systematic phenomenon that has a fundamental role in guiding society towards the principles of sustainable development such that social and economic development and Improving the quality of life of each region depends on its spatial planning system.
The construction of dams is considered to be an interventionist measure in the environmental system, which may lead to positive or negative impacts. While these impacts can be recognized directly in all elements and phenomena that are related to the geographical space, they play an important role in the process of spatial development and "production of space". This article questions to what extent the construction of the Alavian dam affects the integrated spatial reorganization of rural settlements.
To investigate this, the Alavian reservoir dam in East Azarbaijan province (Iran) has been selected as a case study. The construction of the dam and the Alavian drainage network in the Maragheh and Bonab areas began in 1990 and ended in 1995 aiming to provide drinking, agricultural and industrial water as well as flood control. We hypothesized that the implementation of this project has caused a wide change in the structural and functional status of the spatial system as well as the changes in the environmental, socio-cultural and economy of the human settlements located at the margin of the reservoir. We studied such structural/functional changes in the spatial system of the Alavian dam and its irrigation network. It is presumed that "the role of the construction and Utilization of the dam and irrigation networks" has a great impact on "developments of the spatial system of rural settlements", mostly in social, economic and environmental.
In summary, we offer the following hypotheses:
  • In terms of segmentation, the top-down approach and structural approach, implementation and exploitation of the dam and Alavian irrigation network have not changed the spatial system of rural settlements within the scope of the project.
  • Spatial performance due to the construction of the dam and the Alavian irrigation network is different in structural and functional changes of the spatial system of rural settlements according to their dispersal and spatial distribution.
In this study, a descriptive-analytical method was used based on a comparative strategy. Within the framework of structural-functional scanning theory, four main criteria with 40 related indicators were selected to study the effects of reservoir dam construction and the irrigation network on all human settlements located in the geographical scope of the design. These criteria are considered to be the most important structural-functional components that are based on sustainable development.
All data (quantitative and qualitative) required for this research were collected using two methods of library studies and field survey and then analyzed. Data collection tools, including village and household questionnaires, interviews, focus group meetings, observation and field surveys, were collected through all data collection tools. The general questionnaire for all villages (27 villages) was completed in full format. The household size of the samples was calculated using a Cochran method with a confidence level of 95 percent for all 370 households. The household questionnaire was randomly filled out. The questionnaire of villages and households was completed according to the impact of the construction of the Alavian reservoir Dam separately and with a proportional distribution in the upstream and downstream villages.
To analyze the data, normality, correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Kendall coefficient were performed using SPSS software.
This study presented an innovative way to evaluate the effects of construction of the dam and irrigation network on the variation of the spatial system of rural settlements in an integrated manner based on spatial paradigm. The findings of this research are the result of collaborative fieldwork to describe the relationship between dam construction and irrigation network and changes in the spatial system of villages. Spatial planning as a new, comprehensive and systematic approach to geographic knowledge can well support the theory of sustainable development. This approach is based on the harmonious and balanced development of the environmental-ecological, socio-cultural, economic and physical conditions of the spatial system.
To sum up, it can be said that observation of the spatial organization of the areas affected by the implementation of the dam and the Alavian irrigation network, as a result of uncompetitive development policies, is indicative of the imbalance and inequality in access to opportunities (such as access to agricultural water, increased agricultural production, increased income, etc.). Accordingly, due to lack of a Integrated and systematic approach based on the principles of spatial planning in the study and implementation of the Alavian Reservoir Dam, is not possible the conditions for positive change in rural settlements. It actually causes disarray, disunity and imbalance of the spatial system of the regions. In other words, is one of the most important reasons for failure of development projects in third world countries, ignoring the dimensions and structural-functional aspects of spatial systems. The project of construction of Alavian reservoir dam and its irrigation network can be a good example of such projects.

Esmaiel Najafi, Dr Sayyad Irani Heris, Farshad Jafari,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)


Since the early 1990s, the idea of ​​sustainable urban development has been a fundamental and very important issue for decision makers and thinkers. Because it encompasses the historical concept of development and at the same time has become very important in determining the current international, national and regional policies (Pugh, 2004). In recent years, governance has become a hot topic in public sector management, and this is due to the important role that governance plays in determining public health. Therefore, according to environmental resources, good governance means the way in which decision makers promote sustainable development, which includes the protection of the living environment (Shuakrizadeh and Ashrafi, 2011). Governance is the institutional capacity of public organizations to provide goods demanded by the public and to help the citizens of the country or their representatives efficiently, transparently, fairly, and with accountability to limited resources. This definition of governance represents an international organization and development institution such as the World Bank that seeks to support reforms through good governance programs aimed at strengthening the strategic capacity of donor governments while intending to engage civil society. Strengthen sovereignty. (Krueger,2007).
Environmental hazards and ecological crises are the result of the interaction of environmental, economic, cultural, health and even political variables. The scope of these variables is local-spherical, so that no place in the earth is far from its consequences, with the difference that the scope and depth of the crisis is severe and weak (Kaviani rad, 2010). Investigating the effects of environmental hazards in relation to sustainable development with a good governance approach is very important and very important in terms of nature, so the present study with descriptive-analytical approach and based on library and field studies to study the effects of environmental hazards on sustainable indicators of Mazandaran province It has dealt with the characteristics of decent humility. Brief descriptions of the concepts of sustainable development and development, environmental hazards and proper governance are also given in the text of the article.
The most important natural and human hazards in Mazandaran province are earthquakes,  mass movements, floods, fires, droughts, frosts, pollution of water resources, soil erosion, pollution of agricultural products, urbanization and urban development, waste, etc. It brings a lot, attention to earth sciences and the environment can, in addition to preventing risks, accelerate the process of sustainable development.
The research method is descriptive-analytical and based on library and field studies. In order to gather information within the framework of theoretical foundations of research, by referring to library resources (Persian and Latin books, publications, dissertations and reputable foreign sites), the required materials have been collected. Statistics and information related to the development indicators of Mazandaran province have been extracted from the statistics of the Statistics Center of Iran and then examined with SPSS software, Table No. (3). The Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size. The statistical population in this study is Mazandaran province and the population of the province in the general census of population and housing in 2016, 3,283,582 people, which by placing the total population of the region in the above formula with a probability level of 95% to calculate the sample size by estimating distributions. There were two sentences (Cochran). A total of 384 questionnaires were distributed among residents and officials in the study province, a simple random method.
Based on the appropriate governance indicators in relation to environmental hazards and sustainable development of Mazandaran province, it was evaluated as lower than average (2.78 with theoretical average 3). Based on the results of factor analysis after Warmax matrix period, the participation index shows the role of urban management in increasing people's participation in improving urban environment and reducing social anomalies in Mazandaran province and reducing environmental degradation (with a coefficient of 0.772). , In the index of accountability, accountability of urban managers to the demands and complaints of people about environmental degradation and employment status (with a coefficient of 0.645), in the index of effectiveness and efficiency, the effect of managers' programs on reducing pollution (air, water, etc.) and Increasing the quality of social and infrastructural indicators of sustainable development (0.772) and the variability of the effectiveness of the implemented projects On the part of environmental managers in the cities of Mazandaran province (with a coefficient of 0.720), in the transparency index, what is your level of knowledge about the approval of plans and programs to deal with the effects of environmental hazards on the development indicators of the province (with a coefficient of 0.660) ) And how much do you know about the budgets spent on environmental protection and development and development programs and job creation in the province (with a coefficient of 0.639), in the indicator of responsibility, willingness to accept responsibility in economic, social and environmental fields? What is the level of the neighborhood itself (with a coefficient of 0.592), in the index of the central law, the amount of legal treatment of officials with factors Local and regional pollutants are environmental degrading factors (with a coefficient of 0.8595), in the Justice and Equality Index, the government's attention to dealing with environmental degrading factors in the city and shortening the hand of land grabbers in Mazandaran province (with a coefficient of 0.739) They had a higher operating load.
In relation to the impact of human and natural hazards on sustainable development indicators, which clearly include environmental, economic and social indicators, justice and equality indicators and participation in Mazandaran province are better than other indicators. It shows that the indicators of transparency, accountability and rule of law are less than average in the eyes of the people and are not in a good position in this regard.

Mohammad Javad Barati, Manuchehr Farajzadeh Asl, Reza Borna,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

Evaluation of SADFAT model performance in daily forecast of Land Surface Temperature in the city of Tehran
The high spatial and temporal limitations of TIR images for use in urban climatology have been identified as a current scientific challenge. Therefore, the use of Data Fusion Algorithms in Remote Sensing has been considered. In the old methods, two bands of one sensor were used for Data Fusion. In these methods, a panchromatic band was used to increase spatial accuracy, so only spatial resolution was increased. To solve this problem, the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) was used to integrate the images of two Landsat and Modis gauges to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of the reflection. but, this algorithm is designed for pixels and unmixing areas that are the same in Modis and Landsat pixels. The use of this model was not suitable for urban areas with a different of landuse. Therefore, the Enhanced STARFM model (ESTARFM) was developed. The ESTARFM model was improved in 2014 to predict thermal radiation and LST, taking into account the annual temperature cycle and the unevenness of the earth's surface, and the SADFAT model was introduced.
In this study, the performance of SADFAT model in the use of OLI spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution in LST forecast in urban areas was examined. The metropolis of Tehran has different surface covers and multiple microclimates. So if the algorithm works successfully, This model can be used in other cities to improve urban heat island studies. The inputs for the algorithm are thermal radiance of Modis and Landsat   images, the red and near infrared band of Landsat for daily production of LST in 2017 in the city of Tehran. The algorithm uses two pairs of Modis and Landsat images at the same time and sets of Modis images at the time of prediction and then calculate the conversion coefficient for relating the thermal radiance change of a mixed pixel at the coarse resolution to that of a fine resolution. In this way, LST is generated in areas with a variety of landuse.
All the estimated pixels were compared to the base image pixels in that range to evaluate the results of the model. The comparison results for the autumn days with the average correlation coefficient of 0.86 and RMSE equal to 0.122, showed that the model has the highest accuracy in this season and in other seasons with the average correlation coefficient of 0.76 and RMSE about 0.4, has provided good accuracy.
Visual interpretation of the results of SADFAT showed that this model is able to accurately predict the LST of the land cover in different surface coatings and even in areas where one or more urban land uses are mixed in one MODIS pixel.
However, the borders are well separated and the features are not combined. Although the boundaries are clearly defined, in some land uses, the predicted LST is somewhat higher than the observational image.
Landsat and Modis satellites pass through an area with a small time difference, so they are suitable for combining with each other. But in predicting reflectance with the SADFAT algorithm, there are systematic and variable errors that we need to be aware of in order to increase the output accuracy. One of the systematic and unavoidable errors is the instability of the Terra and Aqua satellites passing through at any point, ie at each satellite pass, the location of the study area in Swath and the size of the pixel changes. Due to the distance of the study area from the vertical center of measurement on the ground (Nadir), the amount of this error varies on different days and should be checked for each day. The preventable error is the sudden change in one or more images used (16 days of the same pass time interval for Landsat) is high for estimating surface reflectance with spatial and temporal resolution. These changes may be due to human factors such as air pollution or natural factors. Natural factors such as clouds and dust storms are the main sources of error in using the SADFAT model because they are sudden and temporary and cover a wide area. The occurrence of these two factors has a great impact on reflectance. Therefore, a sudden change in these factors, in one or more images, causes a large error in the calculations.
The study also found minor spatial errors in the prediction, so that even on days when the results were better, points were observed where the values ​​in the predicted LST images did not match exactly with the OLI sensor. The reason for this may be due to changes in vegetation. Although there are some systematic and variable errors in the images and the implementation of the algorithm The results of this study showed that the performance of this model is reliable for predicting the daily LST with a spatial resolution of 30 meters in Tehran.
This method is able to support urban planning activities related to climate change in cities, so it is recommended that its performance be examined separately for different land cover in the city and the efficiency of this algorithm be evaluated with other sensors such as Copernicus Sentinels.
Key words: Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion, SADFAT, Heat island, LST, Urban climatology

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