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Hashem Rostamzadeh, Esmaeil Asadi, Jafar Jararzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (4-2015)

Groundwater resources are important sources for the supply of water in agriculture, industry and drinking in Ardabil plain, therefore underground water resources planning and sustainable management of these resources are important. The purpose of this study is grading the villages in the plain of Ardabil in underground water crisis and changes during the years 1360-1391. The information obtained from 39 wells, piezometers in plain of Ardabil. Using simple techniques and fuzzy cumulative weighting and interpolation methods, the piezometers interpolation of shallow water table and how it changes during the period is showd.

     Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water supply for many people around the world, especially in rural areas. Groundwater can be contaminated by natural or human activities are numerous. All activities including residential, municipal, commercial, industrial and agriculture can affect groundwater quality. Groundwater contamination can result, such as the loss of a source of water supply, high cost of clearing the high cost of alternative water supply or cause potential health problems. Given the importance of determining the results of the plains of the country, the aim of this study was to determine changes in aquifer storage of Ardabil using statistics and analysis on multi-criteria decision-making and evaluation of groundwater is a crisis situation.

Data and Methods

     In this study, the data of piezometers wells in of Ardabil plain scattered through the city of Ardabil Regional Water Authority have been prepared. Also, the surface layers and point to the plains of Ardabil, political divisions and the location of wells, piezometers villages for final maps have been used. The data of deep wells, as well as cultivation of four major product with a high water requirement of wheat, barley, potatoes and forage to determine the relationship between ground water and water harvesting has been a drop in water table.

The study area

     Plain study area is located in the north-west of Iran in Ardabil province (Figure 2 and Figure 3).  The average height is about 1360 meters above sea level  It covers an area of approximately 820 square kilometers and is located in the Gharasoo watershed.

  • Inverse Distance Weight;
  • Global Polynomial Interpolation;
  • Local Polynomial Interpolation;
  • Radial Basis Functions;
  • Straight Ranking;
  • Fuzzy Normalized;
  • Fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making;
  • FSAW.

   The first step is to evaluate each process and required hydrological data collection, and the coordinatingits location. The geostatistical methods of IDW, GPI, LPI, and RBF in the ArcGIS software were used for  interpolating all existing data and a drop in water table in the area of standards for grades 10 class (raster) within restricted fields of Ardebil were determined.

    Finally, using simple collective weight, weight-bearing layers and layers of loss data water table for the years 60 and 90 is obtained. To get the final map of water table drops, the two layers are deducted and the final map of Ardabil plain water table drop that phase is obtained.

     Analysis showed the reduction of water table almost 47 percent in 1391 compared to 1360. As can be seen in Figures 12 and 13, maximum of 45 meters water table wells, piezometers in 1360 to more than 70 m in 1390 has come to reveal the deterioration of the aquifer Ardabil.

    Pholadloo_e_Shomali district with the highest concentration of deep wells in the near future to continue the removal of existing deep wells, groundwater resources will go into sharp decline.

    Sharghi Village goes to the crisis and in the meantime, the central Vilkij district includes the eastern part of the plain, the drop in water table aquifer at greatest risk to the two villages in East and Central Vilkij.

• Due to the limitations of traditional agricultural development potential ground water;
• Increase the efficiency of irrigation, changing crop patterns of water needed to fill low-power consumption;
• Efficient use of water resources and prevent unauthorized digging deep wells to exploit the nutritional front, especially in the East and Southeast plains.

Ali Mohammad Khorshiddoust, Mehdi Asadi, Hassan Hajimohammadi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Thunderstorms are among the first meteorological phenomena, which have attracted human attention. Thunderstorms with rain showers and storms accompanied by hail and their role in causing sudden floods, both in terms of agriculture and human and financial losses, have been noticed by researchers. Rain hail of bullets or pieces of ice ascends very high in elevation due to the weather conditions along with electrical features occurrence. Hail grains or pieces of ice with diameters of 5 to 50 mm occasionally take longer time to be made up. Strong growth of hail through severe and repeated vertical movements of air in cumulonimbus clouds freezes the absorbed water droplets around hailstones. Few thunderstorm hails arrive on land many of which even contain no hail even in the most suitable parts of the clouds. The creation and hail falling, despite being warm and humid in the lower atmosphere and the ascending of clouds condensed with respect to the altitude and cold weather are coupled with the continuing maximum air instability. Because of the importance of hail event, studies on the formation and growth of hail in different countries are conducted for its prediction. In connection with hail and hail storms extensive research work has been carried out in including: Costa et al. (2001), Simonov and Gergiev (2003), Whiteman (2003) and Sterling (2003).
To investigate the thunderstorm and hails occurred in the region, we examined weather conditions. Initially the values of pressure, temperature and dew point temperature by the radiosonde measurements in different layers of the atmosphere were studied and the plotted graphs were obtained from NOAA. In the next stage for a closer look at weather conditions parameters like air temperature (Air), sea level pressure (SLP), geo-potential height (Hgt), specific humidity (Shum), vertical velocity (Omega) orbital wind component (Uwnd) and meridional wind component (Vwnd) were analyzed. The data records were collected from the website of the National Center for Environmental Prediction and National Climate Science (NCEP/NCAR). Instability investigation in the atmosphere for different levels of instability indices was applied.
Investigation on instability indices showed that on the first day the ascending index values (LI) were at 2-, which are the values added in the next two days. These conditions prove that the atmospheric turbulence is intensified in the days after the first day. By examining the thickness of the atmosphere it is seen on the Azerbaijan area On 16 July that on 5785 geo-potential meters the next day was associated with reduced 51 meter geo-potential added value at the third day. The results also revealed that the atmospheric precipitation of water values is calculated on a three-day index value of 17, 18 and more than 23 mm per day. To check the status of stormy weather index (SWEA) and K we found that the occurrence of thunderstorms in that area started on 16 July, approaching the end of high value added indicators that show strengthening of storms and their destructive mechanism in the day after the end of the other.
Investigation of thermodynamic charts showed that rapid convective ascent of available potential energy depending on the weather in the region has been so high and caused the weather to approach three days in advance to the upper layers of the atmosphere and atmospheric turbulence was created for the region. Examining the rainfall map of geo-potential height and vortices in 500 hPa on the first day exhibited that tthunderstorms were the result of interactions of the atmosphere, so that in middle levels the strong condensation of location with a range of more than 25 degrees of latitude on Caspian Sea was created and polar latitudes spread to nearby areas. On the second day, high-altitude thunderstorm in the core atmospheric cut-off formed on the Caspian Sea on the East of Turkey, northern Iraq and North West of Iran created the geo-potential height of the center of the 5750 geopotential meter. On the third day, atmospheric cut-off core to cut area of low pressure was made on the maximum positive vortices in the climate system. Conditions over the surface in the first day of the storm in the region indicated very strong contour of low pressure formed in the North East to West and North West of Saudi Arabia. In front of the two sides one of on Mediterranean Sea and other northern Russia, the contour of the pressure was imported into the Middle East.

Mr. Saeed Bazgeer, Ms. Faezeh Abbasi, Mr. Ebrahim Asadi Oskoue, Mr. Masoud Haghighat, Mr. Parviz Rezazadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)

Assessing the Homogeneity of Temperature and Precipitation Data in Iran with Climatic Approach
Extended Abstract:
Qualitative evaluation and validation of atmospheric parameters such as precipitation and temperature are the most important condition for statistical analysis in climatic and hydrological researches. In addition, the meteorological and climatological data have a crucial role in transportation, agriculture, urbanization and health services.  Therefore, it is clear that using wrong data source for atmospheric investigations is the first hazard in natural hazards analysis. This study aimed to investigate the homogenization of minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation data for 36 weather stations over different climatic classes in Iran. The Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT), (Alexanderson and Moberg, 1997), Pettit test (Pettit, 1979), Cumulative Deviation test (Buishand, 1982) and Worsley’s Likelihood Ratio test (Worsley, 1979) were carried out to study homogenization of minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation data (1966-2015). The results revealed that 91.5 % and 88.5 % of minimum and maximum temperatures data, respectively, were in non-homogenized category. Although, Isfahan, Saghez and Gorgan for minimum temperature and Bandar-e Anzali, Sharekord, Kashan and Saghez for maximum temperature showed a homogenized condition with 5 % level of significance. The results showed most of the weather stations (28 out of 36 stations) had homogenized precipitation data. Even though, seven stations including Birjandd, Kerman, Kermanshah, Saghez, Sanandaj and Tabriz had homogenized precipitation data. The Urmia weather station was in doubtful class. That is precipitation data of Urmia weather station were homogenized by two tests results and were non-homogenized with other two tests of homogenization. The spatial distribution of trend variations of minimum temperature average was between -2.8 to 2.8 degree Celsius over the country. Moreover, maximum and minimum variations of minimum temperature occurred in northeast and northwest of the country, respectively. There were a significantly increasing trend (p<0.01) in most of the regions. The results also indicated that the significant variations happened for maximum temperature in most of the weather stations, mainly in northern half of the country. The minimum temperature jump was mostly found in 1985, 1994 and 1998 years during the study period (1966-2015). The maximum variations of minimum temperature were in Mashhad, Shahroud, Ahvaz, Yazd and Semnan weather stations with 2.8, 2.3, 2.2, 2 and 2 degrees Celsius, respectively, jump for above mentioned years during 1966-2015. In addition, the minimum change in minimum temperature was occurred in Birjand, Urmia and Bandar Abbas with a jump of 0.6 degrees Celsius. It should be mentioned that, unlike other stations, the Khorramabad (Lorestan Province) and Fasa (Fars Province) had a decreasing trend for minimum temperature. It changed from 10.3 to 8.3 and from 11.8 to 10.2 degrees Celsius in Khorramabad and Fasa, respectively. The results showed that the commencement of maximum temperature jump for most of the weather stations happened in 1998 with 1.1 degrees’ Celsius change. According to our study, a remarkable decrease in precipitation data was occurred in west and northwest of the country. There was a depletion of 80 to 150 millimeters from 1998 in Tabriz, Sanandaj, Saghez and Kermanshah weather stations during study period (1966-2015). Besides, 25 to 45 millimeters reduction in precipitation was found in south and southeast of the Country which has arid climate including Birjand (South Khorasan Province), Zabol (Sistan and Baluchestan Province) and Kerman. It was revealed that the variations of minimum temperature were larger than maximum temperature which was in agreement with results obtained by Rafati and Karimi, 2018. The results showed that the start of increasing maximum temperature in most of the weather stations was in 1998. It could be due to increasing the global temperature which is in accordance with results found by Steirou and Koutsoyiannis, 2012. The results revealed that about 80 % of precipitation data of weather stations were homogenized. These results were in agreement with results obtained by Hosseinzadeh Talaee et al., 2013. The results indicated that tests of homogenization for minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation data could use in different climate over the country. Therefore, it could not allocate a single test to a particular climate type. In conclusion, it should be noted that before any analysis pertaining to environmental hazards, the calibration and maintenance of the weather instruments should be carried out periodically. In addition, the metadata and station history for relocation of the weather station should be checked. The relocation can create great changes in meteorological parameters due to elevation, latitude, longitude and land use/land cover differences between two sites.
Key Words: Homogeneity tests, Climate Data, Weather Station, Metadata
Reza Reza Borna, Shahla Shahla Ghasemi, Farideh Farideh Asadian,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2019)

Today, the impact of climate is considered on the life, health, comfort, activity and behavior in a form of the branch of science   such as human biology. Due to difference of frequency people with each other, the sensibility of every one from weather can be different from the other one that's why the climate can’t be totally undesirable or the climate can be totally desirable for all the people, so we can say that all of climatic elements are affected on human comfort but the effect of some of them is quite cleared and the effect of the others is mild and sometimes invisible. The greatest effect on comfort and discomfort can be included temperature, humidity and solar radiation. The aim of this research is to investigate and determine    the area risk of climatic comfort. For this purpose, the temperature, precipitation and humidity data have been extracted for Khuzestan province form Esfarazi database. In this approach, first different properties of the temperature, precipitation and humidity for the area with climatic discomfort   have discussed   based on the conditional probability distribution. This study has been identified the areas of climatic comfort in Khuestan province using multivariate analysis (Cluster analysis and Discriminant analysis) and spatial autocorrelation pattern (Hot Spot index and Moran index) with an emphasis on architecture. The results showed that the risk area of climate comfort is included mostly  of  the western parts of  Khuzestan province namely the border areas with Iraq and some parts of  southern  of  province .On the other hand ,trend analysis the  range of this area to climatic discomfort indicated that it has increased significantly  in  recent periods .The results also  showed that  the local distribution of   precipitation  in all periods in the areas of climatic discomfort  has  been   a high  the coefficient of  variations.
Zeinab Mojarad, Javad Jamalabadi, Najmeh Shafiei, Mohammad َali Zanganeh Asadi, Kobra Parak,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

Mass movements are among the morphodynamic phenomena that are affected by various factors at the level of the mountainous slopes. Massive movements and instability of the range are important hazards for human activities. Which often leads to the loss of economic resources and damage to property and facilities. These issues highlight the need for zoning the risk of mass movements as the first step in the proper environmental management of this phenomenon. In this research, we investigate the risk zone of mass movements using information estimation and surface density methods in the Watershed--ghochan-Shirvan Basin. For this purpose, at first, 12 important information layers affecting mass movements such as lithology, slope, elevation, rainfall, tide, erosion, climate, distance from the road, distance from fault, distance from the river, soil and land use, and digital They were. From the combination of operating maps with land surveys, the percentage of landslides in different units of each map was obtained. By calculating surface density, the information value of each factor was determined. Finally, a landslide risk zoning map was prepared by integrating different weight weights into two different information weighing models and a surface density model. The results of this study show that the southwestern part of the basin has the highest amount of landslide. Lithology is the most important element in the occurrence of landslides in the range. The surface density model is worth more than 12%.

Gholamreza Mohamadi, Dr Reza Borna, Dr Farideh Asadian,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (11-2020)

In the present study, the spatial-temporal analysis of the Arctic vortex and its role in the occurrence of heavy precipitation days in the Ghare-Su basin have been investigated. For this purpose, firstly, with the 95% percentile method, heavy precipitation days of the basin were extracted. Then, considering the pervasiveness condition, 79 days of heavy and pervasive precipitation days determined during the1979–2015. In the following considering the contour representative of the polar vortex in the geopotential height of 500 hPa maps, elevation maps of 500 hPa, the vortex position identified on each of the heavy precipitation days based on its maximum extent on the synoptic zone. Synoptic analysis of the temporal and spatial of Arctic vortex during the selection of heavy and pervasive precipitation days shows that the 4 patterns can be identified within 79 days of heavy precipitation days. The position and concentration of the vortex patterns in each season have changed. So that the least penetration of the vortex is seen during the autumn and the most penetration in the winter. In all cases of the days of heavy and pervasive precipitation due to the locating the trough of the arctic vortex over the study region, which coincides with the settlement of the huge Rex and Omega blockings on  Europe. The highest correlation between the latitude of the vortex and the precipitation intensity is seen in the third pattern ( the Red Sea to the west of the Persian Gulf), which has the most vortex penetration in the region. In each of the vortex spatial locations, the location, length, and depth of the trough have also changed in each location. So that the best position and the most impact of vortex occurred in the third and fourth patterns where the troughs from vortex have the most depth and extension on adjacent water resources.

Mohammad Ali Zanganeh Asadi, Mahnaz Naemi Tabar,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (5-2021)

 Relationship between hydrogeomorphic features and suspended sediment load under Kashfarud basins
As a stressful stimulus, river sediment is the most significant threat to aquatic ecosystems. To prevent or minimize the damage, three stages of the erosion process should be investigated (Naseri et al., 2019: 83). Determining the amount of sediment transported by rivers is important from different aspects. Sediment carried by water flows is considered a factor effective in shaping the geometric structure and geomorphic characteristics of rivers (Tashekabood et al., 2019: 282).
Data and methodology
To estimate the amount of annual suspended sediments, the flow and sediment statistics of hydrometric stations (8 stations) and meteorological stations (13 stations) were employed (Figure 2). The research statistical period is 25 years (1993-2017). The altitude, area, and perimeter of the basins were obtained from topographic maps with a scale of 1.25000. To investigate the correlation between independent and dependent variables, the normality tests of Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were performed in SPSS16 software. To extract the geomorphic features of the basins, the digital elevation model was used. Then, ground surface corrections and pretreatments such as removal of hydrological pits were performed and ground drainage pattern was determined.
Stepwise multivariate regression
In the present study, stepwise multivariate regression was used to reduce the number of independent variables and determine the effective factors in the sedimentation of the basin. This method investigates the effect of several independent variables on a dependent variable (Zare Chahuki: 2010). In stepwise multivariate regression, the independent variable that has no more significant effect on the dependent variable is removed from the analysis, hence excluded from the equation. The general form of the stepwise regression equation is:
Equation 1                                                                            Y= a + B1X1 + B2X2 + …… + BnXn + e
Data description and interpretation
The principal component analysis method was used to determine the most effective characteristics of sediments as well as their grouping. In principal component analysis, variables that have a high correlation and are distributed in a multidimensional space are reduced to a set of non-correlated components, each of which is a linear combination of the main variables. The obtained non-correlated components are called principal components (PCs). Prior to component analysis, the KMO coefficient was used to ensure the appropriateness of the data for principal component analysis. This coefficient fluctuates in the range of zero and one and if its value is less than 0.5, the data will not be suitable for principal component analysis and if the values of this coefficient are between 0.5-0.69, The proportionality of the data is moderate and if the value of this coefficient is more than 0.7, the data will be quite suitable for performing principal component analysis.
Regression analysis results
In this study, the sediment weight of the basin was considered as a dependent variable and other parameters as independent variables. The variables of slope, precipitation, basin length, Elongation Ratio (R), circularity coefficient, and unevenness of the basin have a higher correlation with the amount of sediment production in the basin than other variables.
An eigenvalue was used to determine the number of factors. The minimum eigenvalue for the selection of final factors is 1, and factors with an eigenvalue bigger than 1 are considered final factors. The results showed that the three factors of circularity coefficient, compactness coefficient, and basin form coefficient have an eigenvalue bigger than 1.
The results showed that geomorphic parameters have a high correlation with the amount of annual sediment. The results showed that seven factors of slope, precipitation, basin length, elongation ratio, circularity coefficient, unevenness coefficient, and form ratio of the basin were the most important in estimating the amount of suspended sediment based on the principal components analysis method. The average of special sediment varies from 134 tons per year in Dehbar basin to 16 tons per year in Kardeh basin and also the average annual sediment varies from 261.6 tons per year in Golmakan basin to 156.7 tons per year in Shandiz basin. Evaluation of Bartlett's test of sphericity tests and KMO values is 0.9. Therefore, the data is suitable for factor analysis. The percentage of variance explained by each factor indicates that the circularity coefficient with 50.71% of the variance explains all the research variables. In total, three factors of circularity coefficient, compactness coefficient, and form ratio of the basin could explain 82.6% of the variance of all research variables. Therefore, the results are consistent with Lu et al. (1991), Sarangi et al. (2005), Tamene et al. (2006), Zhang et al. (2015), Salim (2014), and Ares et al. (2016).
Khorram Dareh sub-basin with heavy rainfall (504 mm) has the lowest specific sediment, which is due to the geological structure of the region. Based on the calculated indicators, most of the studied sub-basins are elongated. The form ratio of the basin is less indicative of the elongation of the basin. The highest branching ratio of the basins is in the vicinity of faults. Also, high circularity values indicate points prone to sedimentation. River sections up to degree 3 are located in more subdued areas and have a steeper slope. Golmakan, Khorram Darreh, Zashk, and Dehbar sub-basins have a high potential for sedimentation. Regression equations of sediment measurement curves are usually used in sediment load estimates. The most important reason is the ease of application of these equations. According to the research results, it can be concluded that the integrated use of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and multivariate stepwise regression has a suitable and acceptable efficiency in estimating suspended sediments. Testing the regression model concerning different climatic and hydrological regimes of Iran’s watersheds to achieve an efficient pattern of using these equations can be fruitful in estimating sediment load in different regions.
Keywords: Hydrogeomorphic, Sediment erosion, Kashfarud basin, Stepwise multivariate regression
Kaveh Ghahraman, Mohammadali Zanganeh Asadi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2022)

Determination of flood-prone areas using Sentinel-1 Radar images
(Case study: Flood on March 2019, Kashkan River, Lorestan Province)

Although natural hazards occur in all parts of the world, their incidence is higher in Asia than in any other part of the world. Natural phenomena are considered as natural hazards when they cause damage or financial losses to human beings. Iran is also one of the high-risk countries in terms of floods. Until 2002, about 467 floods have been recorded by the country's hydrometric stations. In addition to natural factors such as rainfall, researchers consider human impacts such as destruction of vegetation cover, soil destruction, inefficient management, destruction of pastures and forests, and encroachment on the river are the most important factors for the occurrence and damage of floods in the country. One of the most efficient and emerging tools in flood surveys is the use of radar images. SAR images and flood maps produced by radar images provide researchers valuable and reliable information. Moreover, maps obtained from SAR images help officials to manage the crisis and take preventive measures against floods. The Sentinel-1 satellite is part of the Copernicus program, launched by the European Space Agency, and is widely used in mapping flood-prone areas. The contribution of Sentinel-1 to the application of flood mapping arises from the sensitivity of the backscatter signal to open water. This study aims to determine high-risk and flood-prone areas along the Kashkan River using Sentinel-1 radar images.
Data and Methods
 The study area includes a part of the Kashkan river from Mamolan city to the connection point of this river to Seymareh river, after Pol-dokhtar city. The average annual discharge of the Kashkan river is 33.2 cubic meters per second based on the data of the Pole-Kashkan Station. The length of the river in the study area is about 100 km. To investigate flood-prone areas, we applied pre-processing and image-processing steps to each flood event including SAR images belonging to March 25th, 2019, March 31st 2019, and April 2nd, 2019. SAR images were acquired from ESA Copernicus Open Access Hub. climatic data was downloaded from To create meander cross-sections, the Digital Elevation Model of the studied area was utilized. Cross-sections were created using QGIS software. Pre-processing steps include: applying orbit data, removing SAR thermal noise, calibration of SAR images, de-speckling and topographic correction. In image processing, we applied the Otsu thresholding method to distinguish water pixels from land pixels. In thresholding methods, the histogram of each image is divided into two parts according to the amount of gray composition. The higher the amount of gray (i.e., the pixel tends to be darker), the more pixels represent water, and conversely, the lighter-toned pixels (i.e., pixels that tend to whiten) represent land. The Otsu thresholding method is a commonly used method for water detection in SAR images. It uses an image histogram to determine the correct threshold. The most important feature of the Otsu method is that it is capable of determining the threshold automatically. The Otsu algorithm was applied to all images using MATLAB.
According to the flood maps, on March 25th, 6.51 percent of the study area was flooded, while on March 31th, only 3.96 percent was flooded. This is mainly due to less precipitation on the 31st. On March 25th the average daily precipitation was 47.46 mm while on 31st of March the average daily precipitation was 31.64 mm. On April 2nd, however, there was no rainfall, on the day before more than 63 mm of precipitation has occurred. This massive amount of precipitation on the previous day has led to more than 25km2 being flooded in the studied area.
Results showed that meanders and their surrounding areas are the most dangerous sections in terms of flooding. The meander's dynamic and the river's hydrologic processes are essential factors affecting flooding in those sections. Generally, various factors affect flooding and the damage caused by it. This study aimed to determine flooded and flood-prone areas (according to flooded areas in previous events) using new methods in a short time and with high accuracy to use this tool for more accurate zoning and efficient planning in the future. The results showed that radar images are practical, robust, and reliable tools for determining flooded areas, especially for rapid and near-real-time studies of flood events.
Keywords: Floods, Radar images, Sentinel-1Satelitte, Kashkan river

Fateme Emadoddin, Dr Ali Ahmadabadi, Seyed Morovat Eftekhari, Masumeh Asadi Gandomani,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2023)

Introduction: Land subsidence is one of the environmental hazards that threatens most countries today, including the majority of Iran's plains (Ranjabr and Jafari, 2010). Damages caused by subsidence can be direct or indirect. Infrastructural effects are direct and indirect effects of subsidence, but economic, social and environmental effects are indirect effects of subsidence (Bucx, et al., 2015). The environmental effects of subsidence are related to other effects of subsidence, including the infrastructural, economic and social effects of subsidence. The southwest plain of Tehran is considered one of the most important plains of Iran due to its large areas of residential, agricultural and industrial lands from various aspects, especially economic, political and social. The subsidence of the Tehran plain was first noticed by the measurements of the country's mapping organization in the 1370s. Since 2004, the responsibility of investigating this phenomenon in the plains of Tehran was entrusted to the Organization of Geology and Mineral Explorations of the country. Although several researches have been done in the field of subsidence factors, amount and zoning. In the field of estimation of subsidence and changes in water level, spatial correlation of subsidence with changes in water level and estimation of vulnerability due to subsidence according to the density of population, settlements and facilities in the southwestern plain of Tehran has not been done.
Methodology: In the current research, we will analyze and estimate the spatial regression of the subsidence phenomenon by InSAR technique with water level changes from 2005 to 2017, as well as the environmental effects of subsidence in the southwest plain of Tehran by using Quadratic analysis method (O’Sullivan and Unwin, 2010). The criteria map of the current research is overlapped using the ANP method (Ahmedabadi and Ghasemi, 2015) weighting and finally with the SAW method (Emaduddin et al., 2014) in the Arc GIS 10.8 software, and the vulnerability map due to land subsidence in the study area is prepared.
Results: The average subsidence in 12 years is about 9.9 cm per year. Average subsidence has occurred in four main zones. Maximum and minimum subsidence have been observed in B (near the Sabashahr) and D (in east of plain) zones respectively. The results of the interpolation of the depth of the underground water in the study area indicate that the general trend of increasing the depth from the south (10 meter) to the north (more than 90 meter) of the plain. The results of spatial correlation showed that there is a significant direct relationship between the spatial layer of the average subsidence rate of Tehran Plain and the spatial data of the underground water level, and the R value is equal to 0.61. The distribution map of the underground water depth of the study area in the form of Quadrat analysis shows that in the main part of the plain, the depth of underground water is at an average level. The general trend of changes in the level of underground water is decreasing from northwest to southeast and is in 5 levels. The distribution of the networks shows that the rivers have three linear trends from north and northwest to south; their dispersion is mostly in the center of the study area. The flood rate is higher in the central plain networks. In study area, there are important arterial roads such as Tehran-Qom highway, Tehran-Saveh highway and Tehran Azadegan highway. The southern and northeastern areas of the study area are urban settlements such as Islamshahr, the 18th and 19th districts of Tehran Municipality and other residential areas such as Sabashahr. The major part of the region has fertile soil and the occurrence of subsidence can have negative effects on the fertility and texture of the soil in the study area. The results of vulnerability analysis due to subsidence show that there are 5 vulnerability classes in the study area including very low, low, medium, high and very high.
Conclusions: All in all most of the study areas (central, northern and western networks) are in medium, high and very high vulnerability. About 14,600 hectares of the study area are in medium vulnerability. Which is continuous from the west to the east of the study area. Most of the urban infrastructures are moderately vulnerable to subsidence. About 17,000 hectares of the southwestern plain of Tehran are very vulnerable. That more than half of the area of ​​this area is covered by settlements and urban infrastructures. Therefore, the phenomenon of subsidence causes irreparable damage to the settlements and infrastructures in the southwest plain.


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