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Mehdi Ramezanzadeh Lasboei, Ali Asgari, Seyed Ali Badri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (4-2014)

Natural disasters are investigated of various dimensions and consequences of natural hazards. As well, they can become as a repeatable phenomenon in the absence of mitigation systems, and could be caused devastating consequences. Resiliency approach as a basis for reducing the negative effects is taken into account to reduce the impact of natural disasters. Today, the two tourist areas of Cheshmekile (Tonkabon County) and Sardabrud (Kelardasht County) as typical feature of regional tourism planning have important potentials for development of tourism. But in recent years they have repeatedly been invaded by floods so that in some cases the impact of economic, environmental, socio-cultural and physical environment is followed. In economic dimension, flash flood destroyed agricultural fields and rural houses and in socio-cultural dimension it has increased insecurity. And finally, in terms of the physical and environmental aspect, it has created the most damage such as adverse changes in the appearance of the landscape, loss of trees, and destruction of public infrastructure (roads and bridges network). It is an approved hypothesis that rural settlements cannot be moved to the riverbank, but have created a situation that endangered abiding rural settlement. Various aspects such as socio-cultural, economic and administrative highly effect on resiliency. Among them, the role of infrastructures such networks, the location of health care facilities, police stations, fire stations and disaster management offices, communication networks (telephone, Internet) are more important to improve resiliency. This paper seeks to answer the key question that is the infrastructure in promoting resiliency after flooding in the two areas satisfactory?  The methodology of the study is objective and analytical analysis is based on the nature and method. The main variables are infrastructures and resiliency. Resiliency as the dependent variable consists of two main components of individual and community resiliency. Required information on the objectives, data integrity and availability has been developed in both library and field methods. In previous studies, library and documentation center is studied. Questions are sorted in the distance range, rated and ranked based on the needs and nature of the research and the knowledge and the education level of the local community. Questions are tested initially and after a measurement of the level of reliability (0.812), which is obtained using Cronbach's alpha. First, to determine the total sample size of villages located in flood risk areas in the two basins 9 villages (50%) were selected. Cochran formula is used to determine sample size. According to Cochran formula for the total population 296 households that included 129 head of households for Sardabrud basin and 167 head of households for Cheshmekileh basin. After the initial survey the collected information is encoded using a statistical software SPSS and then has been processed according to the assumptions formulated. Based on the results of the questionnaire analysis, some indicators, same as access to aid agencies (Crescent) and disaster management center, there were no significant differences between rural settlements such as the two basins distance to the city center is short. The nearest major communication route roads - Branch is located at a distance of 5 km from the city of Kelardasht, but in Cheshmekileh basin there are less than 5 kilometers distance to the main road of the Caspian Sea. That is why the average satisfaction of the local authorities in these areas is much higher than Sardabrood basin. Check out the highlights of each area residents is showed more satisfaction on facilities and services infrastructure in Cheshmekile. Result. To understand the relationship between resiliency and infrastructure used is the correlation coefficient between these two measures 003/0 there is level. This relationship of mutual relations, the improvement of infrastructure in the area with 99% probability of increasing population resiliency against natural disasters (floods) within it. The average calculated for the physical aspects - infrastructure represents the position of the component. Ring roads in northern cities, near airports such as Ramsar Branch, and there are several large medical centers, access to police stations in both basins are made ​​from the perspective of the respondents favored the status of this criterion is to be evaluated. However, among the subset of infrastructure, the roads are better than others. The reason can be attributed to the investment and construction of new networks of communication. In the case of energy network, although the topography of the area is caused that part of the basin, some of villages such as Gavpol, Letak, Drazlat in Cheshmekile basin and Lush, Krdychal and Roudbarak in Sardabrood basin was still stay deprived of the gas network but have favorable drink water and electricity network. However, keeping the population in the rural area is largely dependent on the infrastructure. Resiliency in relation to rural and infrastructural facilities, access to places of temporary accommodation is very important but in this particular field in any of the villages still planning has been done.

Shamsallah Asgari, Ezatollah Ghanavati, Samad Shadfar,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (6-2018)

 Quantitative assessment of landslide sedimentation in the ILAM dam Basin

Information on the accurate volume of landslides and sedimentation in landslides is a research necessity, with the assumption that the bulk of sediment accumulated in the ILAM Dam (located between , E and , N) is related to the surface landslides of the basin. Although the role of landslides in erosion, sediment transport and sedimentation of slippery basins is confirmed and different experts understand and determine the relationship between the fluctuation of slopes and the fluctuation system in many respects more important than other areas. Because according to the results they can assess the widespread environmental changes, but comprehensive research on the scale of catchment basins has done very little (Harvey 2002). So far, the study of wet landscapes in Iran has been more sensitive to the factors, their sensitivity and their hazards, and there has been no study on the sedimentation of landslides.

Data and Method
First, using a geomorphologic system methodology with topographic maps of 1: 50000, geological map of 1: 100000, aerial photography1: 20000, Landsat TM1988 ETM2002,2013 satellite imagery, and Google Earth in the GIS environment in the following sub-basins and landslide events at the following levels The basin was drawn. The discharge data of the water and sediment flow of three hydrometric stations GOLGOL,CHAVIZ and MALEKSHAHI Station were provided from the waters of the ILAM province. Two models of estimated MPSIAC and EPM models have been used to estimate soil erosion and subsoil sedimentation. The Moran spatial correlation model was used to introduce the spatial pattern of landslides, and the fuzzy logic model was used to determine the relationship between the dependent landslide to the independent variables and the potential risk of landslide hazard in the basin. In order to elucidate the quantitative results of landslide sedimentation, empirical models of estimation of sediment erosion, hydrological model of discharge curve and sediment, observational statistics of sediment during statistical period, landfall time occurrence in compliance with the hydrometric station sediment peak during the statistical period of computation Estimated a small amount of sedimentation of the landslides of the ILAM dam basin.
Result and Discussion
The spatial correlation model of Moran showed that the data have spatial correlation and cluster pattern. The average total sediment production in the MPSIAC model in the GOLGOL basin was estimated to be 13.3 tons per hectare per year under the CHAVIZ basin of 10.3 tons per hectare for one year and 4.00 tons per hectare in the sub-basin MALEKSHAHI. Using hydrological model of discharge-sediment curve, the mean sediment was calculated during the statistical period at the hydrometric station of the sub-basin of GOLGOL 18.8 ton per hectare, the station CHAVIZ 10.4 tons and the station MALEKSHAHI 0.9 tons of sediment per hectare per year was calculated. According to the results of the research methodology, the observation of the sediment in the two stations of GOLGOL and CHAVIZ compared to estimated sediment is related to the events occurring in these two sub-basins.
The data of 16 active landslides were recorded. Under the GOLGOL basin, 9 landslide events occurred, and in the CHAVIZ basin, 7 landslide events, the time of landfall occurrence recorded with sedimentary peaks, the length of the statistical period, the precipitate in the sub-basins was almost synchronized. Average relationship between suspended period of the statistical period - average of the peak delayed flight time of the statistical period coinciding with the occurrence of landslide = the amount of suspended load of landfall occurrence in the basin.
The amount of suspended land slip under the GOLGOL 75088.19 - 315.85=74772.34
Landing slope under the Chavez Basin 19907.30 - 20.24=19887
The area of the sub-basin is about 29,000 hectares and the active landslide area is about 100 hectares. According to the calculations, 77772.34 tons of suspended sediment is a sedimentary passage passing at the GOLGOL hydrometric station, which shows with a coefficient of 1.4 times the suspended sediment load of approximately 104681 tons of landslide sedimentation in this sub-basin, which shows the amount of sediment yield 100 hectares of landslide, so each landslide hectare had an average of 1046. 81 tons of sediment deposited at the GOLGOL hydrometric station. The area under the Chavez Basin is about 14000 hectares and the active landslide area of this sub-basin is about 65 hectares. According to the data of the discharge data, the sedimentation of the Chavez hydrometric station is 19887 tons of suspended sediment load, which shows a 1.4 equivalent of 27842 tons of landslide sedimentation in this sub-basin, equivalent to a slope of 428.33 tons per hectare.
According to the calculations, it is concluded that in the sub-basin of flowering GOLGOL, 37.35% is equivalent to 4.9 tons per hectare per year, the increase of sediment is related to landslide events. As a result, 28.2 tons of sediment per hectare were introduced in one year Dam reaches ILAM. The results showed that in the CHAVIZ sub basin, 38.2 percent is equivalent to 4.6 tons per hectare per year for the increase of sediment related to landslide events. As a result, an amount of 14.5 tons of sediment per hectare has entered ILAM dam in one year. In the sub-basin MALEKSHAHI, there was no increase in sediment during the period without active landslide occurrence. A total of 1237314 tons of landslide deposition have entered the ILAM Dam. To control this threat, the appropriate action by the executive office for sustainable development should be applied.

Mohammadreza Jafari, Shamsullah Asgari,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

One of the causes of environmental hazards is the change in the pattern of surface water flow in floodplains following the construction of flood Spreading networks. The purpose of this study is to prepare a zoning map of vulnerable areas of the flood Spreading station of Musian plain  in Ilam province after the implementation of the aquifer project in this plain. To prepare this map, five factors influencing the change in flow pattern including elevation, slope, flow direction, geological formations, and landuse change were examined. Then, in the GIS environment, each class of the mentioned factors was given a score of zero to 10 based on the range and the corresponding weight layers were created. Then, by combining the created weight layers, the vulnerability zoning map of the area was created based on 5 classes: very low, low, medium, high and very high. The results showed that the most important threat and danger factor is the concentration of waterways behind erosion-sensitive embankments. Also, the study area in terms of vulnerability includes three classes with medium risk, high and very high and covers 16, 62 and 22% of the area, respectively. Flood and upland Spreading areas, risk areas and lowland lands are the most vulnerable parts of the basin in terms of floods and sedimentary deposits.
- Ahmad Hosseini, - Mostafa Khoshnevis, - Shamsollah Asgari,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2022)

Old trees are important and key elements of forest sites and are of great value in terms of forest management, reforestation, silviculture and ecology. Although old trees constitute a small percentage of forest trees, they account for a large share of forest carbon reserve and play a vital role in carbon storage. Understanding the how geographical and site distribution of these trees across the forest is essential to obtain information for forest restoration management. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the geographical and site characteristics of old trees of Wing nut, Ash, Hackberry, Sycamore, Elm, Olive, Cypress and Fig in Ilam province.
Materials and methods
After querying the villagers and local people and conducting numerous forest surveys, the old trees were identified and selected on the basis of the diameter of the breast. Then their geographical characteristics including city, district, village, geographical coordinates and site conditions including slope, aspect, altitude, soil depth, climate and proximity to water source were measured or recorded.

Results and discussion
The results showed that in terms of geographically distribution, the identified old trees have located in Ilam, Mehran, Malekshahi, Badreh and Dehloran cities. Topographically, the old trees of Wing nut, Elm, Ash and Fig were located in the 0-10% slope class, Hackberry and sycamore in the 0-10% and 10-30% slope classes, olive in the 10-30% slope class and Cypress in the 40-70% slope class. The old trees of Wing nut, elm, Ash and Hackberry were located in the north aspect, fig, sycamore and Cypress in the south aspect and olive in the west and south aspects. The old trees of Wing nut, elm, Ash, Hackberry, Sycamore and Cypress were dispersed at altitude class of 1100–1250 m and olive and fig old trees were at altitude class of 1250–1400 m above sea level. Climatically, the old trees of Wing nut, elm, Ash and Hackberry were located in the very cold Mediterranean climate, Cypress trees and some sycamore trees in the cold Mediterranean climate, and fig, olive and some plantain trees were in the semiarid cold climate. In terms of access to water resources, old trees of Wing nut, elm, Ash, Sycamore, Hackberry and Fig were located on the bed or margin of river, old Cypress trees had no access to water resources and some olive trees were close to water resources. In terms of soil subsidence, old trees of Wing nut, elm, Hackberry, olive, and fig were mostly in soils with medium depths. Old ash and sycamore trees were present in shallow to medium depths and old cypress trees were present in shallower soils. Although the identified old trees were present in limited sites, their long-term and sustained presence in these sites indicates that sites conditions are favorable for their survival.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the presence of low slopes, suitable soil bed and access to water resources were desirable characteristics for stability and survival of the studied old trees in these sites. Due to the above-mentioned characteristics, ecologically similar sites can be found in the forests of the province and can be restored by seed of old and resistant trees.
Keywords: Site, Topography, Climate, Geography, Old trees, Ilam

Shamsollah Asgari, Tayeb Raziei, Mohamadreza Jafari, Ahmad Hosini,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (5-2022)

Introducing the appropriate model of oak forest and drought relations

in Ilam province

The forest ecosystems of the Zagros vegetation region have a very long history of exploitation in various
forms. The material of the Zagros vegetation region is Iranian oak. In recent years, a significant
proportion of oak forests have dried up or have experienced drought. Although the main cause of drought
in these forests has not been determined yet, in the preliminary studies, factors such as climate change,
increasing dust, increasing drought periods, pest infestation and disease, high user changes have been
cited as reasons for drought in the Zagros forests. (Hosseinzadeh and Pourhashemi, 1396). Iran's location
in the arid and semi-arid zone of the world (sub-tropical region) has often been associated with
fluctuations in climatic and atmospheric elements and under the influence of atmospheric currents,
synoptic patterns, irregularities in precipitation and temperature patterns (Rahmati, 2016; 1383).
Comparison of the effect of climatic variables on healthy masses and affected by the decline of oak in
Khorramabad city based on rainfall and temperature data using Pearson correlation coefficient, on annual
growth rings of oak trees Effectiveness of drought of oak trees from both series In general, healthy trees
have been more affected by monthly and seasonal temperatures and have shown the highest coefficient of
correlation with the temperature of the region (Naseri Karimvand et al., 2016). , And the Standardized
Rainfall Index (SPI) and the correlation between these two indicators in assessing and monitoring drought
in different areas of Isfahan province, the results showed that NDVI plant index can be a good alternative
to climatic indicators in drought assessment and monitoring) with the conclusion and colleagues, 2011:
Data and Method
So from SPI and NDVI indicators and Moran index and statistical regression statistics and satellite
images of Modis and Landsat have used to analyze the relationship between dieback of Ilam forests and
happened drought in the region. The precipitation data of 93 rain gauge stations were analyzed during the
statistical period and according to the dry coefficients of SPI index, drought zoning layers of Ilam
province were prepared for two time series of 2000 to 2009 and 2010 to 2019. Greenery's raster layers
were prepared from Modis satellite imagery for the mentioned time series. The results of analysis of
Moran's statistical showed a significant correlation between the SPI index and the NDVI index in spatial
dimensions. By a simple random method, 143 points of oak dieback with dimension of 30 m 2 , which each
point was equivalent to a pixel-size, were recorded with a GPS device, and by simulating in satellite
imagery, the droplet layer of oak dieback was extracted.
Result and Discussion
What is debatable about the results of the implementation of methods for obtaining drought ranges and its
relationship with oak drought points or masses is that the results of the models show a statistically close
and direct relationship between drought and oak drought. . The general trend of oak drought and drought
in these two decades has been from the southeast to the northwest of Ilam province, with increasing
temperature and decrease in rainfall in the southern and eastern regions of the province and increasing
rainfall and decrease in temperature in the central and northwestern regions of Ilam province. The data of
the synoptic stations are consistent. Analysis of satellite imagery and declining greenery in the models
although the study was aimed at meteorological drought and precipitation fluctuations, but spatial
changes of arid points and masses in the province were adapted to field visits and human intervention,
especially in the southeast with agriculture. Under the rubble and the remnants of the dried trees, the ax
has been placed on the roots of these trees, and this trend is spreading in almost other parts of the arid
areas of the province. Therefore, due to the irregularity in the pattern of precipitation and temperature of
the research country (Rahmati, 2016; Zandi Army, 2004) and the effect of monthly and seasonal

نشریه تحلیل فضایی مخاطرات محیطی، سال نهم، شماره 1، بهار 1401 2
temperature on the growth and decline of oak trees in the study (Naseri Karimvand et al., 2016) and other
related research and The flooding situation in the basins of Ilam province, the rainfall, the impermeability
of the soil and their erosion, and finally the lack of moisture in the months before the oak trees grow in
the soil and the increase in temperature in the dry season, which leads to reduced humidity and eventually
greenery. Variables affecting oak drying in linear regression are not responsive, but more accurate results
will be obtained in multivariate regression, although regression analyzes are spatially empty, and X and Y
represent a one-way, quantitative analysis based on the number of dried trees with pixel counts. Drought
range is measured which this defect in SPI method despite its spatial and statistical analysis using Moran
statistical index due to non-compliance in the coefficients of this index with the range of changes in
Moran statistical analysis in statistical analysis is a more appropriate explanatory coefficient than The
regression models showed but at a lower level than the NDVI method it placed. The advantage of NDVI
method with Moran statistical analysis is the relationship between pixel and pixel, ie in spatial analysis,
all pixels that have green changes have been analyzed in the same domain of spatial changes with oak
trees. High results and higher statistical explanation coefficient were obtained than other models.
Although linear regression between extracted oak dieback points with SPI and Moran statistical indicators
was significant, but the relationship between NDVI index and Moran statistic has the effect of
independent variable of drought trend in spatial and temporal dimensions on the dependent variable
process of oak drought with spatial analysis. And nonlinear regression has a more appropriate and
accurate statistical significance and explanation. So this method as desirable method has been introduced
for analyzing of drought and oak dieback.
Keywords: Ilam province, oak forest drought, drought, Moran index
Eng. Ebrahim Asgari, Eng. Mahboobeh Noori, Dr Mohammadreza Rezaei, Dr Raoof Mostafazadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (9-2022)

 Determining Strategies for Improving Environmental Resilience in Gharehshiran Watershed in Ardabil using SOAR Analysis Technique
Ebrahim Asgari - PhD Student of Watershed Science & Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
Mahboobeh Noori - PhD Student of Geography & Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
MohammadReza Rezaei - Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. Email:
Raoof Mostafazadeh - Associate Professor Department of Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. Email: (Corresponding author)

Extended Abstract
Introduction: New approaches of crisis management have changed from the concepts of vulnerability to resilience and emphasize on strengthening the system's ability to deal with the risks of natural disasters. Therfore, the aim of this study was identifying the watershed capabilities of Qarahshiran and crisis management planning with emphasis on environmental resilience.
Methodology: The SOAR analytical technique and expert opinions of 52 experts were used to formulate the strategy, determine the strengths, opportunities, ideals and measurable results. The results of SOAR technique and crisis management prevention and preparedness strategies were compared with the environmental resilience of the field.
Results: Based on the results, reducing direct and indirect flood damage with 51.9% and low amount of soil erosion and water loss with 42.3%, were the most important results of the SOAR model. Out of 15 components of environmental resilience, the performance of 5 components was accepted as significant (α<0.05 confidence level). The evaluation of environmental resilience using one-sample t-test showed that the environmental dimension of resilience (2.67) with a significant level (α=0.003) has a significant that indicates high vulnerability and low resilience.
Conclusion: Considering site selection of watershed management structures, creating more opportunities and using the private sector potentials, and local NGOs will be useful in crisis management. Analysis of watershed resilience components in achieving integrated watershed management, proper knowledge of watershed function, possibility of self-regulation and recovery of balance and acceptance of adaptation to natural hazards, co-design of watershed residents, preparedness and coping with crisis can be more effective over the study area.
Key words: SOAR Model, Strategic Planning, Prevention and Preparedness, Resilience, Gharehshiran Watershed


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