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Iraj Ghasemi, Sheida Ebrahimi Salimi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (2-2021)

The development of the tourism industry, in addition to paying attention to the infrastructure of this industry, requires comprehensive planning of persuasive factors, as well as reducing the environmental and natural risks of tourism destinations. According to research, tourists are affected by four types of risks, including health, cultural, political and economic, but among the natural hazards that endanger the health of tourists is of particular importance.
 Among the tourist destinations, ecotourism has a significant success, which causes many hazards in these areas. Maranjab desert for the relative temperament of temperature, tourist attractions, diversity of animal species and vegetation, and the existence of typical and prominent forms of desert is one of the most visited areas of desert ecotourism. Therefore, many problems and dangers are threatening. In this research, an attempt has been made to identify and analyze the main natural and environmental hazards of the Maranjab desert with a descriptive-analytical method based on library and field studies.
The general approach of mixed-method with the priority of quantitative method is based on qualitative studies. For this purpose, after identifying the risks, a questionnaire for prioritization was collected through interviews with experts and then evaluated and analyzed through the FMEA technique. The method of FMEA is one of the tools for continuous improvement of product and service quality. The purpose of the FMEA is to identify the risks and risks of the product and process that may be latent or obvious. Once identified, the next step is to make decisions that can be addressed. This method is used in medicine, manufacturing and services industries. In recent years, the use of this model for risk assessment in the humanities and tourism has also become popular. This method is based on three key components of probability of occurrence, severity of occurrence and probability of discovery.
 After returning the questionnaires and evaluating the quality of response, a random sample of 100 questionnaires was selected and analyzed based on the method of analysis of failure factors and its effects. According to the purpose of the study, half of the audience had an individual trip and half of them traveled to the area with the group. Audiences were asked to assign a score between 1 and 10 for each component of the method. Accordingly, each factor will have a score in each case, which is obtained from the average score of the audience and has been between 1 and 10. After identifying and evaluating the risk perceived by the audience, in an interview with professors and

Dr Leila Ebrahimi, Dr Maryam Ilanloo, Ms Sakineh Fajr,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (12-2021)

Evaluation of land use changes in coastal cities of Khuzestan province using GIS and RS

Today, the expansion of human societies and greater environmental dominance have led to faster and wider environmental change than ever before. The speed and variety of this change in urban environments is greater than in other areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of four coastal cities of Khuzestan province (Bandar Imam Khomeini, Bandar Mahshahr, Abadan and Khorramshahr) using land use measures over a period of 20 years 1997-2009 to accurately determine spatial-temporal pattern of changes. is. The method of the present research is quantitative and its dominance is dichotomous. To extract the land cover map data through Landsat satellite imagery from 1977 and 1998 taken by OLI and MSS5 sensors, the images were divided into four main classes (residential), vegetated areas, wetlands (rivers). And Bayer were categorized. After preparing land cover maps from TerrSat software was used to analyze land use changes and finally using the Markov chain to predict urban development trend in the study areas. The results show that Abadan and Khorramshahr have the most changes in vegetation use, while in the two cities of Imam Khomeini (Rah) and Mahshahr the most changes were related to the use of Bayer. Added to the timeline.
Keywords: Spatio-temporal changes, Land use, TerrSat software, Coastal citie
Sorayya Ebrahimi, Abdolreza Rahmanye Fazli, Farhad Azizpour,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (12-2022)

Factors affecting the adaptation of rural settlements to the water crisis of Lake Urmia Case study: Miandoab County

Problem statement
In recent years, Lake Urmia, the largest lake in Iran, has faced severe water shortages, which has raised concerns in terms of economic, social and environmental consequences in the surrounding communities, especially in rural areas. Livelihood dependence of rural community stakeholders, to the natural resources and agricultural products have caused the harmful effects of drying Urmia Lake to be more visible. The drying up of Lake Urmia is not limited to this lake, but human communities have also suffered a lot from their sphere of influence. Due to the human effects of the drying of Lake Urmia,  it is necessary to analyze the effects of this phenomenon from a human perspective in research. Identifying the adaptive capacity of rural community stakeholders makes it possible to adopt appropriate management strategies to reduce the damage caused by lake drying. Therefore, despite the importance of the subject of this research, it seeks to study the factors and forces affecting the adaptation capacity of rural settlements in the face of the drying crisis of Lake Urmia in the city of Miandoab and so on.

Research Methodology
In terms of methodology, strategy and design, the present study is a combination of (mixed), sequential and explanatory exploratory, respectively. In this study, for a detailed study of community mentalities, a discourse on effective factors to increase the adaptive capacity of rural settlements in the face of drying or water retreat of Lake Urmia, the combined method of (Q) was selected. The research discourse community included local managers (governorate experts, heads and employees of government departments, districts, rural districts and Islamic councils) as well as local experts in the sample villages of Miandoab city. Targeted sampling method (snowball) was used to select the statistical sample. Q statements were also compiled using first-hand sources (expert opinions, local managers, field observations, etc.) and codified sources (books, articles, publications, etc.) using the library and field methods. The Q questionnaire was also used to assess the attitude of experts. In order to analyze the data of the Q (Q) method matrices, heuristic factor analysis based on the individual method (Stanfson method) was used.

Description and interpretation of results
 In reviewing the findings of the exploratory factor analysis model with KMO criterion, Bartlett test confirmed the sufficient number of samples and its appropriateness for the research. To investigate the most important influencing factors, the specific value and percentage of variance were calculated and the number of factors was determined by pebble diagram and Kaiser Guttman criterion. The results showed that the most important factors and forces affecting the increase of adaptation capacity to the drying of Lake Urmia in the sample villages of Miandoab are: 1) Increasing economic capital and the use of natural resources, 2) Increasing social capital and investment, 3) Developing infrastructure facilities and improving the skills of villagers, 4) Economic diversification and improving rural management .. Among these factors, the first factor with a specific value of 5.40 and a percentage of variance of 24.55 was recognized as the most important factor and effective force in increasing the adaptation capacity of the studied villages against the drying of Lake Urmia. Thus, economic and natural factors, as the most important assets of the villagers, are endangered at any time by the drying up and retreat of the water of Lake Urmia and have a direct impact on the livelihood of the villagers.

Keywords: Adaptation capacity, Lake Harumiyeh, Miandoab County.


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