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Mr Abolghasem Firoozi, Dr Akram Bemani, Dr Malihe Erfani,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (5-2023)

The growth rate of urbanization during the recent decades of metropolises has had many destructive effects on the urban environment, among which we can mention the change of temperature of surfaces and local climates. The increase in the urban population, the rapid growth of industrialization and the increase in the concentration of pollutants in the lowest level of the atmosphere have affected the severity of the city's heat islands. Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable to control the relationship between radiant, latent and sensible heat flux. Analyzing and understanding the dynamics of LST and identifying the relationship between it and changes of human origin is necessary for modeling and predicting environmental changes. The heat of urban surfaces is affected by various characteristics of urban surfaces such as color, surface roughness, humidity level, possibility of chemical compounds, etc. In addition, the changes between LST in a city and its surrounding area are due to surface changes, heat capacity and topography. Since the surface temperature regulates the temperature of the lower layers of the atmosphere, it can be considered as a weather indicator and an important factor in the urban environment. Changes in land use by changing the features of the surface cover such as the shape of the constructed areas, the amount of heat absorption, building materials, surface albedo and the amount of vegetation lead to changes in the temperature of the earth's surface. Barren lands with soil cover, on the contrary, increase the surface temperature of the earth. Climatic characteristics at the time of satellite image imaging also play a role in the extent and intensity of urban cold islands, so that satellite imaging in the middle of hot summer days shows urban cold islands better. The innovation of the research is in the large area of the investigated area, which includes eight urban areas, in order to examine the pattern of temperature changes on a wider level.

Materials and methods
Considering the rapid development of urban and industrial areas in the Ardakan-Yazd plain in recent decades, this study aims to investigate changes in the surface temperature pattern using Landsat 7 and 8 satellite images for both winter and summer seasons. It was done in 2002 and 2019. In addition, the relationship between land use/land cover and surface temperature was also investigated. Geometrical correction of satellite images was done using topographic map 1/25000 of Mapping Organization and atmospheric correction using FLAASH method in ENVI software. Algorithms used to obtain land surface temperature for Landsat 7 images were single-window method and for Landsat 8 images, the Landsat Science Office model was used. Land use/land cover layers related to the years 2002 and 2019 were used, and central statistical profiles and LST distribution were extracted for pasture, agricultural land, blown sands, industrial areas, rock outcrops and cities. In addition to examining temperature changes in different uses, it is also possible to compare over time.

Results and discussion
The results of this study showed that the area of cold islands and thermal islands in winter and summer of 2002 is not much different, so that in winter 10.8 percent and in summer 10.4 percent of the area were cold islands and thermal islands in winter 9.02. It was 8.5% of the region in summer, while this difference is huge in 2019. Thus, 9.4% of the area in winter and 12.1% in summer are covered by cold islands, and thermal islands are 8.3% in winter and 1.6% in summer. Changing land use and increasing the size of urban and industrial areas and reducing agricultural land is one of the main reasons for the increase in cold islands. The survey of land use/land cover changes between these years showed that the extent of urban areas increased from 22,045 to 23,714 hectares, and industrial areas also grew by about two times, from 4,615 in 2002 to 8,187 hectares in 2019. However, during this period, the area of agricultural land has decreased from 1161 hectares in 2002 to 793 hectares in 2019. Also, the results show that the percentage of heat islands is higher in winter than in summer. The main reason for this can be the much less vegetation covers in the winter than in the summer, because the vegetation cover acts as a moderator of the earth's surface temperature. Cold islands are formed in the built-up areas in the winter and summer. From 2002 to 2019, the extent of cold islands decreased in winter and increased in summer, while the extent of thermal islands decreased in winter and summer. Also, the results of the validation section of the single-window method and the model of the Landsat Science Office in calculating LST showed that for both summer and winter seasons, Landsat 8 has a higher accuracy than Landsat 7, and the LST estimation model is based on the exclusive method of this The Landsat series of satellites (Landsat Office of Science model) has a higher efficiency than the single-window method.

The results showed that cities play an important role in changes in the temperature pattern of the earth's surface, and the phenomenon of urban cold islands is not exclusive to big cities in hot, dry and semi-arid regions, but also occurs in medium-sized cities. The temperature variability of eight cities located in the Ardakan-Yazd plain with the land use/cover of the suburbs also showed that the cities are colder than the suburbs in both winter and summer seasons. This study showed the role of vegetation in hot and dry areas in reducing LST and also provided evidence for the change in the degraded state of pastures in this area.

Keywords: Urban climate, Land use, Land surface temperature, surface urban cool island (SUCI), surface urban heat islands (SUHI)


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