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Mahmud Falsolyman, Mohamad Hajipour,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2015)

The appearance of Hazards in human life is affected by natural and human forces. So far, human beings were the most powerful stimulant to create these hazards and to intensify them. The negative role of human beings in environment is caused by factors like lack of knowledge, weak reaction, technology lack, aggressive ideologies and competition; in social system, however, human behavioral engineering especially in dealing with nature is totally affected by management system.

One of the common human behaviors which place in economic system framework is extraction and exploitation of Mines that has many consequences for ecosystem. In fact, Mines are the result of human beings reactions in dealing with nature which their activity ranges are increasing. According to micro-scale to macro-scale in economics, economic life of a country like Iran is based on its huge natural/mineral recourses.

     On the other hand, environmental consequences of exploiting Mines in this country are numerous and varied. In this study, we tried to present a spatial-temporal analysis and explanation about environmental hazards phenomena in the case of exploiting Mines of the country caused by human beings with the title of "anthropogenic hazards in Mines” that is totally a result of its respective management system.

In terms of its objectives, this study is a practical research and it is a descriptive-analytic one. For data collecting, we reviewed the existing literature and surveyed the data base in Statistical Center of Iran. These data are extracted from 2009 census and 2013 census (because of limited statistical domain) which belong to all the provinces of the country. To perform the analysis, these data are collected based on 5 indices and 16 sub-indices and after completing data base, percentage distribution graphs for Mines  and environmental activities in the provinces (in 5 total framework) has been drawn by using GEO DaTM software. Following that, by using a multi-criteria decision making method (COPPARS) all the regions are ranked according to the level of their environmental hazards in exploiting Mines. Finally, to illustrate the spatial pattern and method of hazards in Mines in the country on the studied period of time, based on COPRAS method, the calculated standard deviation ellipse was drawn in GIS which is according to 2009 and 2013 data.

      Studying the increasing number of Mines  which are exploiting in the provinces of the country during 2009-2013 confirm that most of the provinces had experienced a positive growth during this period of time and among these areas Ardabil, Alborz, Ilam, Bushehr, Tehran, Kurdestan, Qazvin, Fars, Luristan and Hamadan provinces had experienced a negative growth and we can mention to other economic activities reinforcement as the reason of this negative growth such as services in Mines  section rather than activities in this section, spatial location and the influence of border line or ignorance of planning system. On the whole we can conclude that in economic system of the country, there is a constant attention to Mines and expansion of their exploitation in the area.

     According to the findings of this study, we can conclude that in spite of the existence of Mines  which are extracting in all around the country and the expansion of exploitation of these resources in these regions, required attention and consideration is not paid to decrease or modify destructive effects on environment in the case of Mines  which are operating in the country, on the contrary indices such as investment and increasing the value of investment had decreased, and by considering the inflation in country, it can be said that economic attention to Mines  management in the country to reinforce the basis of environmental compatible Mines  is insignificant and declining. So it is not out of question that exploitation of these Mines in this country is an effective and intensifying factor to create and intensify other human-made and natural hazards.

     In regional point of view, management activities which modify negative and destructive effects of exploiting this country's Mines  (maybe in a small scale) are done by ignorance to regions that have predetermined hazards and it seems that other factors are used to conduct and strategize the environmental compatible management engineering in exploiting of the country's Mines  not the systematic management factors; for example, according to Iran's Environmental Protection Organization (EPO) statement, Isfahan, Fars Yazd, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces are dealing with the highest level of environmental hazards (IRNA, 2015), while these provinces have the most hazardous Mines  and they are located in the limited area of anthropogenic hazards of Mines  or they are close to regions that have maximum Mines ' hazards. In industrial provinces as Isfahan which are dealing with water scarcity and environmental pollution too, "anthropogenic hazards of exploiting Mines  which are the result of management" could create hazards like different kinds of water and air pollutions and they also enforce spatial environmental hazards.

    Finally, according to spatial-locational movements or changes of place, related to anthropogenic hazards of exploiting Mines in Iran, it can be said that the dominant approach on economic system of region which is related to Mines is proceeding fast to important population centers of the country and similar problematic ecosystems which may cause the appearance of hazardous crisis in some parts of the country.

Ali Mohammad Khorshiddoust, Mehdi Asadi, Hassan Hajimohammadi ,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Thunderstorms are among the first meteorological phenomena, which have attracted human attention. Thunderstorms with rain showers and storms accompanied by hail and their role in causing sudden floods, both in terms of agriculture and human and financial losses, have been noticed by researchers. Rain hail of bullets or pieces of ice ascends very high in elevation due to the weather conditions along with electrical features occurrence. Hail grains or pieces of ice with diameters of 5 to 50 mm occasionally take longer time to be made up. Strong growth of hail through severe and repeated vertical movements of air in cumulonimbus clouds freezes the absorbed water droplets around hailstones. Few thunderstorm hails arrive on land many of which even contain no hail even in the most suitable parts of the clouds. The creation and hail falling, despite being warm and humid in the lower atmosphere and the ascending of clouds condensed with respect to the altitude and cold weather are coupled with the continuing maximum air instability. Because of the importance of hail event, studies on the formation and growth of hail in different countries are conducted for its prediction. In connection with hail and hail storms extensive research work has been carried out in including: Costa et al. (2001), Simonov and Gergiev (2003), Whiteman (2003) and Sterling (2003).
To investigate the thunderstorm and hails occurred in the region, we examined weather conditions. Initially the values of pressure, temperature and dew point temperature by the radiosonde measurements in different layers of the atmosphere were studied and the plotted graphs were obtained from NOAA. In the next stage for a closer look at weather conditions parameters like air temperature (Air), sea level pressure (SLP), geo-potential height (Hgt), specific humidity (Shum), vertical velocity (Omega) orbital wind component (Uwnd) and meridional wind component (Vwnd) were analyzed. The data records were collected from the website of the National Center for Environmental Prediction and National Climate Science (NCEP/NCAR). Instability investigation in the atmosphere for different levels of instability indices was applied.
Investigation on instability indices showed that on the first day the ascending index values (LI) were at 2-, which are the values added in the next two days. These conditions prove that the atmospheric turbulence is intensified in the days after the first day. By examining the thickness of the atmosphere it is seen on the Azerbaijan area On 16 July that on 5785 geo-potential meters the next day was associated with reduced 51 meter geo-potential added value at the third day. The results also revealed that the atmospheric precipitation of water values is calculated on a three-day index value of 17, 18 and more than 23 mm per day. To check the status of stormy weather index (SWEA) and K we found that the occurrence of thunderstorms in that area started on 16 July, approaching the end of high value added indicators that show strengthening of storms and their destructive mechanism in the day after the end of the other.
Investigation of thermodynamic charts showed that rapid convective ascent of available potential energy depending on the weather in the region has been so high and caused the weather to approach three days in advance to the upper layers of the atmosphere and atmospheric turbulence was created for the region. Examining the rainfall map of geo-potential height and vortices in 500 hPa on the first day exhibited that tthunderstorms were the result of interactions of the atmosphere, so that in middle levels the strong condensation of location with a range of more than 25 degrees of latitude on Caspian Sea was created and polar latitudes spread to nearby areas. On the second day, high-altitude thunderstorm in the core atmospheric cut-off formed on the Caspian Sea on the East of Turkey, northern Iraq and North West of Iran created the geo-potential height of the center of the 5750 geopotential meter. On the third day, atmospheric cut-off core to cut area of low pressure was made on the maximum positive vortices in the climate system. Conditions over the surface in the first day of the storm in the region indicated very strong contour of low pressure formed in the North East to West and North West of Saudi Arabia. In front of the two sides one of on Mediterranean Sea and other northern Russia, the contour of the pressure was imported into the Middle East.

Farzaneh Sasanpour, Navid Ahangari, Sadegh Hajinejad,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2017)

International studies show that the damages caused by natural hazards is essential that special attention to natural hazards in urban societies of the world, especially in urban areas of developing countries. In many of these communities needed new ways to deal with these challenges. This method should provide sufficient knowledge to identify the nature of problems and the identification of individual characteristics, socio-economic, physical, environmental and management, would in effect do the "Back to Balance" against natural hazards. This feature Back to Balance the same resiliency. The term resilience has a very long history and its use goes back at least a century BC. According to the different interpretations of the concept of resilience, this term is rooted in the traditions of various disciplines such as law, engineering, ecological and social sciences. Today, the concept of resilience has entered the field of planning with different orientations (social, economic, physical, and administrative, etc.).Although it still focuses more attention on environmental issues and a large part of its exploration dedicated to managing the environmental hazards such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes and global warming. Tehran, as a result of political and economic influence, special conditions to deal with the crisis in terms of the influence of natural disasters and crisis management in terms of organizational structure and legal. In this respect, residential and urban areas of 12 with characteristic their history can be acute against the imbalances caused by natural hazards and create a crisis in urban life. Therefore, the present study has been prepared for the purpose of stability analysis flexibility in District 12 of Tehran metropolitan city.
This is of cognitive research that has been done for analytical and descriptive. All data is obtained in the manner of library and field. The library of available resources and work conducted the form of a questionnaire survey. Questionnaires have been used of type Likert spectrum (numerous, high, high, somewhat, relatively low, low and very low), and its completion is done by fieldwork. Statistical population has problems of urban planning experts, among them 80 people were interviewed for targeted samples. Resiliency that includes four dimensions (economic, social, ecological, environmental and institutional). Was approved the validity of the index by 7 experts manage urban planning problems. For measuring reliability coefficient is calculated Cronbach's alpha equal to 0/79. For data analysis, the use of statistical analysis such as frequency, maximum and minimum, average and standard deviations, T-Test one sample test and Friedman nonparametric test
The results of the indicators of urban resiliency against natural hazards suggests that economic indicators 73/24 Average been determined and relatively low level, ie below the average level. Results of the test showed one sample T-Test is an indicator of economic status of urban resilience against natural hazards of poor utility. As well as the social, ecological, environmental and institutional (organizational) urban resilience against natural hazards associated with poor utility. Finally the 12 metropolitan Tehran metropolitan areautility resilience against natural hazards with respect to all dimensions were too weak. Friedman test results on the scoreboard indicators showed that the index of environmental sustainability (20/33) related to the ecology and environment in the first rank the importance of urban resilience and adaptability Index System (10/11) related to next institutional (organizational) is set as the least significant indicator. Also, significant chi-square statistic is calculated at a rate of 09/67 in three degrees of freedom at the level of 0.000. So, with a probability of 99% can be said that there is a significant difference between the performance rating of 80 specialist urban resilience dimensions (economic, social, ecological, environmental and organizational) against natural hazards, and not the distribution of the same rank.
This research been prepared with the aim of assessing the scale of urban resilience against natural hazards in District 12 of Tehran Metropolis. Results showed that social, environmental and institutional ecology and urban resilience against natural hazards associated with poor desirability. According to this result, it is concluded that the region as a whole is resilient against natural hazards. In this direction, the resilience approach guidance to managers and practitioners use of flexible decisions and concerted policy for urban management. Build resilience in this area to support programmes should invest in organizing access to both external and existing resources in a fair manner, with a coordinated governance structure, and to facilitate social solidarity and support as part of disaster response. The findings also stress the importance of taking an ecological approach to studying resilience to disasters. Many factors from individual, community, and societal levels seem to be important in shaping resilience perceptions of natural hazards survivors. Understanding this evidence will help to validate and further develop indicators of resilience. Our findings point out that, despite existing pre-disaster vulnerabilities, resilience can be fostered following disasters if community members perceive availability of aid and support and mobilize resources Hence, psychosocial support programmes should invest in organizing access to both external and existing resources in a fair manner, with a coordinated governance structure, and to facilitate social solidarity and support as part of disaster response. The findings also stress the importance of taking an ecological approach to studying resilience to disasters. Many factors from individual, community, and societal levels seem to be important in shaping resilience perceptions of natural hazards survivors. Future research should conduct multiple levels of analysis with an all-hazards perspective to reveal how they can be integrated to increase adaptive capacities. Future research should focus on the process of capacity building through informing action to better prepare for disasters. Finally, this research tells us that due to the resiliency of the city will be able to have knowledge of all relevant indicators in the resiliency and reduce the adverse effects of these risks in urban communities

Mohammad Hajipour, Vahid Riahi, Golsar Hajipour,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (5-2019)


 There are two questions with all programs and efforts to industry development in Iran: I) How much is rate of environmental hazard of industries in each Iran regions? II) How much is rate of capital production of industrial sector to environmental damages in regions of Iran? 


Explanation and Interpretation of the Results

In recent years (2009-13), despite a reduction in the number of industrial workshops in the country as a whole, pollution and ecological damage to industries had more than doubled in the past; On the other hand, industries has been more conflict with the environment increasingly in Iran and has led to the growth of human environment hazards with increase of damage to natural environment. Also, from a regional point of view, wherever more industry is not more damage to environment by industry necessarily. Factors such as “obsolete instruments in industry”, “low level of technology”, “insufficient skills and expertise of the activists in industry” and “Inattention of managers and industrialists to environmental health” has been causes damage growing to environment. Space pattern suggests industrial sector risks accumulated within South West of Iran. As well as according to spatial changes trend, the risks are drawn towards central regions of the country. Among the provinces, Markazi province has been damage most to environment than any one million riyals added value of industry sector activities. As well as provinces such as Mazandaran, Bushehr, Fars, Isfahan, Ardebil and West Azarbaijan has been next ranks. Finally, it can be concluded that the environment health is not important for capital production from industrial sector of in the regions.

Dr Fariba Esfandiary Darabad, Sedigheh Layeghi, Dr Raoof Mostafazadeh, Khadijeh Haji,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (9-2021)

The zoning of flood risk potential in the Ghotorchay watershed with ANP and WLC multi-criteria decision making methods
Extended Abstract
Flood is one of the most complex and natural destructive phenomena that have many damage every year. The northwestern region of the country, due to its semi-arid and mountainous climate and thus of high rainfall variability, is one of the areas exposed to destructive floods. Flood risk zoning is an essential tool for flood risk management. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the flood risk zones in the Ghotorchay watershed by using the analytical network process (ANP).
In this research,, with geographic information system (GIS), satellite images, synoptic station data, analytical network process and the combination of layers, the flood potential of has been modeled in the Ghotorchay watershed. The final map of flood risk based on a combination of factors and climatic and physical elements including land use, geology, vegetation, topography, slope and land capability was prepared. The weight of each criterion was determined by ANP method and used by weighted linear composition (WLC) method for spatial modeling and incorporation of layers.
The results of flood risk zoning showed that the Qal layers from geology, slopes of less than 3 precent, land capacity of units 5, 6 and 7, and as well as poor vegetation cover were identified as flood zones. The results obtained from the analytical network process model indicate the fact that part of the watershed is affected by the risk of flooding with the very high potential, which is mainly located in the downstream of watershed. For this reason, the streams of rank 3 and 4 are considered as flood zones and flood guide areas to the downstream areas. Also, river networks of 5 and higher ranks are in the range of floodplains or river coastal and usually have surface and extensive floods.
The flood prone areas and providing effective solutions for flood management is one of the main steps in reducing flood damage. Therefore more precise management and control of basins with multiple dams, embedding flood alert systems in flood plain areas and performing basic measures is one of the most urgent measures to prevent, improve and control this natural disaster.
Key words: Analytical network process, Biological protection, Floodplain, Flood risk assessment, Ghotorchay
Ms. Tahmineh Chehreara, Miss Somayeh Hajivand Paydari,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Identification of dust centers and, of course, the behavior of this phenomenon in different regions creates one of the problems of the last few decades, which is investigated as a hazard. To this end, statistics from 15 meteorological stations in the northeastern region of Iran, including North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, and South Khorasan provinces, were used over a 17-year period (2016-2000). To clarify the mechanisms governing dusty days, the meridional and zonal wind components and geopotential height were obtained by referring to the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). HYSPLIT model and MODIS AOD values were used to track and identify dust centers. The results showed that during the warm season, due to the establishment of a strong quasi-stationary blocking system in the lower levels of the atmosphere, negative vorticity increased in the maximum air descent area, ultimately leading to the dominance of a northern flow for the region. Anomalies in geopotential height and vorticity were identified, and three dominant abnormal patterns were found in the occurrence of maximum dust storms in the region. An increase in geopotential height of more than 5 to 10 geopotential meters and an increase in negative vorticity are considered major conditions. By examining the tracking model and using satellite data, five main centers that affect over 90% of the region's dust storms were identified, among which Turkmenistan has a significant role with two separate centers and one common center with Uzbekistan in the occurrence of summer dust storms in northeastern Iran.
Dr Raoof Mostafazadeh, Vahid Safariyan-Zengir, Khadijeh Haji,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (3-2022)

Road accidents is the outcome of driver behavior, road condition, vehicle status, and environmental factors. Therefore, identification and assessment of effective parameters on road accidents can be considered as an appropriate way to reduce the accident events, driving violations and increase the road safety. Determining the effects of meteorological factors on the road accident events has gained more attention in recent years.
  The The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the number of road accidents and the meteorological variables in the intercity road of Grmi-Ardabil in the Barzand route.
In this regard, the effects of climatic factors (including rainfall amount, the minimum absolute temperature, and the number of frost days) on the frequency of perilous events were analyzed. The data of accident events (in recent 4 years) were obtained from the trooper department of Ardabil Province along with the meteorological parameters of Germi station through a 11-year period. The statistical tests were performed using R programming software through statistical analysis.
Findings and Discussion:
The results showed that the majority of accidents were occurred in winter season which is in consistent with the frequency of frost days and also corresponded to the absolute minimum temperature. According to the results, the highest significant positive correlation at (R2= 0.43) was observed between the number of injured people and frost days. In addition, the relationship between the absolute minimum temperature and the number of were identified as significant negative correlation.
As a concluding remark, the poor road conditions caused by climate element can be considered increasing the frequency of accident events. Accordingly, the proper strategies related to behavior change could be
considered in setting the rules and regulations to reduce the accidents and the number of injuries.

Keywords: Climatic hazards, Correlation analysis, Frost days, Minimum absolute temperature, Germi-Ardabil road


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