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Amir Hossien Halabian, Fereshteh Hossienalipour Jazi,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (1-2016)

We can identify the flood not only considering circulation pattern in occurring day but also by studying circulation pattern a few days before fresh event. This subject has mutual approach. In one hand, it indicates  that circulation patterns which were before flood event have important role in determining the conditions and moisture content of studied area and playing the fundamental role in few coefficient of region because it determines the previous moisture. On the other hand, it indicates that we should tracking the rain-genesis synoptic systems from source to end place of their activity for studying floods and their meteorology factors which have created them. By this way, we can acquire more comprehensive recognition about the relationship between circulation pattern and floods. In the other words, the identification of synoptic patterns that have created the flood reveals not only the mechanism of their emergence but also is useful for prognosis and encountering with them. The extensive researches have been accomplished about Inundation in the world and Iran, but Iran haven’t much antiquity about synoptic researches. For foreign researches, we can name researchers such as Hireschboeck (1987), Kutiel et al(1996), Komusce and et al (1998), Krichak  and et al (2000), Rohli and et al (2001), Kahana (2002), Teruyuki Kato(2004), Ziv and et al (2005), Carlalima and et al (2009). The numerous researchers have studied the Inundation climatology in internal of country such as Bagheri (1373), Ghayour (1373), Kaviani and Hojatizadeh (1380), Moradi (1380), moradi (1383), Mofidy (1383), Masoodian (1384), Masoodian (1384), Hejazizadeh et al(1386), Parandeh Khozani and Lashkari (1389). In this research, we considered the heavy precipitation of Azar 1391 in southwestern of Iran that resulted in flood phenomenon in the cause and effect manner so that can do necessary prevention actions before occurring the flood for preventing the probable damages and optimal use of precipitations by forecasting the patterns that have created the flood.

In this synoptic study, we need to two database: one group is variables and atmospheric data consisting of geopotential height of 500 hpa level (in meter geopotential), zonal wind and meridional wind (in m/s) and special humidity (in gr/kg) during this times 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 Greenwich in 0-80° northern and 0-120° eastern with local resolution of 2.5*2.5 Arc that have been borrowed from database of (NCEP/NCAR) dependent to National Atmosphere and Oceanography Institute of USA, and other group is daily precipitation data of region rain gauge stations during 4-8th Azar of 1391 (24th November – 28th November 2012). In continuation. By applying the environment- circulation approach, we took action to drawing circulation pattern maps of 500 hpa level, thickness of atmosphere patterns of 500-1000 hpa and moisture flux convergence function from 4-8th Azar of 1391 (that for calendar, conform with 48 hours before beginning the showery precipitation until ending the storm activity) by using data which obtained from database of NCEP/NCAR and the synoptic conditions of above flood have been studied and interpreted in the region.

Flood is one of the most destructive natural hazards that have imposed and impose many damages to people during the history. Hence, the final aim of this research is to explain the key interactions between atmosphere and surface environment and in other words exploration of the relationship between circulation patterns leading to the flood generating precipitation in the southwestern of Iran for forecasting the time and intensity of showers occurrence that lead to flood. For this purpose, by applying environmental-circulation approach, the circulation patterns identified and studied which resulted in flood generating precipitation. The result of this research indicated that torrential precipitations in the region have formed the deep trough in days 4-8 of Azar on the east of Mediterranean and the studied region placed in the east half of this trough that is the location of atmosphere instability. At same time, thickness patterns, indicate the flux of cold air from northern Europe to lower latitudes and spreading the warm air of north of Africa to latitude 50° northern. As a result we expected the frontal discontinuity in the encountering place of these two air mass. Analysis of the moisture flux convergence patterns also indicated that torrential precipitations were the result of moisture flux from Mediterranean and Persian Gulf; and Red Sea and Arab Sea taken into account as reinforced sources.

Amir Hossien Halabian, Mahmod Soltanian,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (1-2017)

One of the most important calamities that affect the arid and semi- arid regions and is taken into account as threatening factors for human- life and destroying the natural resources is desertification, so recognizing and forecasting this phenomenon is very important. Desertification is a complex phenomenon, which as environmental, socio-economical, and cultural impacts on natural resources. In recent years, the issues of desertification and desert growth have been stated as important debate on global, regional and national levels and extensive activities have been carried out to control and reduce the its consequences. Desertification is considered as the third important global challenge in the 21th century after two challenges of climate change and scarcity of fresh water. At present, desertification as a problem, involves many countries, especially developing countries and includes some processes that caused by natural factors as well as human incorrect activities. In the other word, Desertification is the ecological and biological reduction of land that maybe occur naturally or unnaturally. The desertification process influences the arid and semiarid regions essentially and decrease the lands efficiency with increment speeds. The study area is located in the east and south of Isfahan. This region has been faced to increasing rate of desertification, because of drought, vegetation removal, change of rangelands to dry farming lands, water and wind erosion and lack of proper land management over previous years. Hence, aim of this research is monitor and forecasting of desertification changes in the east and south of Isfahan during the period of (1986-2016). In this research, the Landsat satellite images used as studies base for studying region desertification. Therefore, at first, satellite images of the study area were extracted from United States geological survey(USGS)website during the period of (1986-2016) and data and satellite images of TM5, ETM+ 7 and LDCM8 sensors of Landsat satellite were used which include thermal and spectral bands. In this relation, for studying the desertification condition in the south and east region of Isfahan, the Landsat satellite images of 4, 7 and 8 during 5 periods of 1986, 1994, 2000, 2008 and 2016 have been utilized. After completing the information data base, first, the soil salinity(S1, S2 and S3) and vegetation NDVI indices exerted on the satellite images. According to Fuzzy ARTMAP method, the land use changes during the period of (1986-2016) recognized in the studied region. In the other word, the vegetation NDVI and soil salinity (S1, S2 and S3) indices have been utilized for identifying vegetation and the desert and salty regions. For preparing the region land use map, the Fuzzy ARTMAP supervised classification method have been utilized and 5 land uses(desert and salty lands, vegetation, city, arid and Gavkhouni) in the region were identified by TerrSet software. The changes calculation in region uses during 5 periods accomplished by LCM model. Also, the Markov chain and Cellular automata synthetic model have been utilized for changes forecasting. This research results indicated that the greatest changes during studied period belonged to vegetation. This volume of change had been during 1986- 1994 that indicate 1062 km2 desertification. In the other hand, the greatest intensity of increasing the salty and desert regions have been occurred during 1994-2000 which indicate 495 km2 increasing. The CA- Markov synthetic method have been utilized for forecasting the land uses changes trend, too. In this relation, for assessing the forecast accuracy, the Kappa coefficient have been utilized which indicate 78%. Finally, it has been specified that the greatest changes during 2016-2024 will be in vegetation which about 60% of region vegetation will disappear and arid lands will be replace them. The salty and desert lands will disappear about 1% of vegetation, 3.3% of arid land and less than 0.01% of city and Gavkhouni. During 2016-2024 about 32% of Gavkhouni lagoon area will disappear and arid lands will be replace them.

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