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Showing 3 results for Hamzeh

Nasim Hossien Hamzeh, Ebrahim Fattahi, Mjtaba Zoljodi, Parvin Ghaforian, Abbas Ranjbar,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (4-2016)

Dust particles consist of important aerosols and resulting in blowing strong winds on the surface of desert areas. These particles enter the atmosphere under the influence of different factors including: weather condition (wind, precipitation and temperature), land surface (topography, humidity level, roughness and vegetation), soil features (texture, density, composition and land use (agriculture).

Today powerful dust storm destroys people lives and causes severe damages to their life and also causes financial problems in most regions of the world especially in west and southwest of Asia. Dust storm is one of the most important natural phenomena and also a kind of severe natural disaster that influence Iran and its west and southwest part. The location of Iran on the desert belt is accompanied by frequent increasing of sand and dust storm. Integral prediction of dust storm phenomena can be useful in decreasing damages caused by these storms. So synoptic-dynamic analysis of dust storms and their simulation play an important role in achieving to this goal.

In this research, we investigate severe dust storm in August 2005 that affected a large area of our country. Select of dusty days were based on minimum visibility and maximum durability of that dust storm. At first, we show the minimum of daily visibility table. These data has been provided by Meteorological Organization in 5 western cities. The synoptic maps were related to these phenomena derived from NOAA website and synoptic and dynamic interpretation has been done. We have got the data with resolution of 2.5 degree from NOAA website.

Then 700 hpa relative vorticity maps were drawn. We investigate MODIS images instrument on Aqua satellite and evaluate the amount of mass concentration of dust particles. Then the Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model has been used to determine the backward trajectory of dust particles. We run HYSPLIT model by GDAS data with a resolution of 0.5 degrees. At last we investigate the output of the WRE-CHEM model. This model was run to simulate dust storms in 7-10 August and FNL data with a resolution 1 degree use for initial and boundary conditions. WRF-CHEM is used to simulate dust condition and transmission. As a part of WRF model, its main application is the study of atmosphere chemistry.

At 500 hpa a very strong ridge entered Iran from the southwest. It covered all areas of our country which prevents the transference of dust to high levels of atmosphere. In 700 hpa relative vorticity maps show one day before dust storm reach to Iran a Positive voriticity is located in Iraq and Syria. So dust comes up to higher levels of the atmosphere and in dusty days in our country. There is a negative voriticity located in our country and because of downside movement of the air, dust storm happen in Iran.

Dust loading and friction velocity of outputs of the model has been drawn in dusty days. The time series of dust concentration of output models for Tabriz are compared with the concentration data of Environmental Organization of visibility data. Result show that a low pressure system is located over the Oman sea that its blaze has been extended to the northwest of Iran. On the other hand a high pressure center is located in the Europe that extended to the east of Mediterranean. So strong pressure gradient were in Iraq and Syria and they caused the creation of strong winds in their deserts which caused dust emission.

Friction velocity related to the model outputs show that the velocity of wind is high in dusty days in Iraq and Syria. So conditions are suitable for dust raining. Satellite images showed that WRF/CHEM model is simulated very well in emission, source, diffusion and the extent of the areas covered with dust. Comparing MP10 concentration of the model output with and Environment Organization data of Tabriz city show that WRF/CHEM model forecast daily changes well. But model underestimate significantly in quantity of concentration. This error may be due to a model considering only dust quantity but other pollutants affected on visibility. In general it can be said that in this event, dust concentration has been underestimated by WRF/CHEM model especially in maximum amount of PM10 concentration.

Saeid Hamzeh, Zahra Farahani, Shahriar Mahdavi, Omid Chatrobgoun, Mehdi Gholamnia,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2017)

As a result of climate change and reduction in rainfall during the last decade, drought has become big problem in the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Therefore drought monitoring and management is great of important. In contrast with the traditional methods which are based on the ground stations measurements and meteorological drought monitoring, using the remote sensing techniques and satellite imagery have become a useful tool for spatio-temporal monitoring of agricultural drought. But using of this technique and its results still need to be evaluated and calibrated for different areas.
The aim of this survey is to study the spatial and temporal patterns of drought using remote sensing and the regional meteorological data in the Markazi province. For this purpose, the MODIS satellite data between the years of 2000-2013 have been used to monitor and derived vegetation indices. Drought indices based on satellite data including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), and Soil Water Index (SWI) were obtained from the MODIS satellite data for the period of study for different temporal scales (seasonal, biannual and annul).Then, correlation between obtained results from satellite data and standardized precipitation index (SPI) have been analyzed in all time periods.
Results show that study area has a low to medium vegetation cover. According to the results, the climate situation of the study area is more compatible with the seasonal results of the VCI, and VCI was selected as the best indicator for agricultural drought monitoring in the study are. The obtained results from the applying of VCI over the area show the drought condition in 2000 and 2008 and the wetness in 2009 and 2010 during the study period.

Hamzeh Ahmadi, Gholamabass Fallah Ghalhari, Mohammad Baaghideh, Mohammaf Esmail Amiri,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Climate change stand as the most important challenge in the future. Horticulture is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable sectors to the climate change. Climate change and global warming will endanger the production of agricultural products and food security. Because of required longer time to fruit production, fruit trees are heavily susceptible to damage from climate change. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of climate change on thermal accumulation pattern in Apple tree cultivation regions of Iran based on the outputs of new CMIP5 models and radiative forcing (RCP) scenarios.
The present study was carried out using a statistical-analytical method. In this study, two types of data was used; baseline data for past period and model output simulation data for the future period. Observation data for baseline period for 53 weather station was extracted from the Iran meteorological organization (IMO). Afterwards, the data for the upcoming period up to the 2090 horizon were processed using the HadGEM2-ES model from the series of CMIP5 models of the MarksimGCM database based on the radiative forcing scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5. The future period will be refined in the mid-term (2020-2055) and the far future (2056-2090). Afterwards, based on the thermal thresholds, thermal accumulation in Apple tree cultivation areas in Iran processed.
The results showed that based on statistical indices on the output of CMIP5 models, the output of the HadGEM2.ES general circulation model is accompanied by fewer simulation errors in illustrating the climate change of the future period than the observation or baseline period. In fact, based on the evaluation criteria or error measures, this model shows a higher compliance with observational data. In general, the model has a lower accuracy than precipitation in the simulation of rainfall, which is due to the complexity of the precipitation process as well as the structure of the climatic models. One of the fundamental issues that have emerged in recent decades is the change in the potential status or heat accumulation of different regions due to the increase in air temperature. The results showed that due to temperature increase, in the mid and far future heat accumulation will increase compared to the baseline period in Apple tree cultivation areas. Increasing of heat accumulation will reduce the length of the Apple tree growth period, and in fact the Apple tree will complete its vegetative and reproductive cycles sooner. This condition will have negative effects on the quality, taste and color of the Apple varieties. For example, according to the RCP8.5 scenario in the physiological threshold of the apple tree 4.5 C° , in the mid term (2020-2055) and far future (2056-2090) will be 1132 and 2171 active degree days respectively compared baseline period. These conditions equivalent to the  51% and 42% respectively. Based on the RCP4.5 scenario, these conditions will be 390 and 680 active degree day, equivalent to 9.3% and 15.1%, respectively, compared to the baseline period.
The results showed that the heat accumulation in Apple tree cultivation areas in the future period will increase compared to the baseline period. One of the most important effects of climate change on the Apple tree  cultivation will be due to increased heat accumulation in the upcoming period. Increasing the heat accumulation will reduce the length of fruit tree growth period, and in fact the fruit tree will complete its vegetative and reproductive cycles earlier. According to these conditions, the areas of Apple tree cultivation in the future will be extended to higher regions. These conditions are important for cold regios fruit tree such as Apple tree, in facr increase in heat accumulation will reduce the length of the growing season and, as a result, reduce the quality and yield of the fruit. Based on the spatial distribution, the least heat accumulation in the highlands, especially Northwest and central Alborz, will occured. In natural landscapes of low elevations, valleys and plains in the Northeast, central Southern part of the Zagros and around Lake Urmia, higher heat accumulation will occured in the future. Therefore, one of the effects of climate change on fruit trees will be due to increased heat accumulation in the upcoming period. Increasing the potential or heat accumulation will reduce the growth period of the fruit trees, in fact, the fruit trees will complete their vegetative and reproductive cycles sooner.

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